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The Practical Welding


Engineer
BY
J. Crawford Lochhead
and
Ken Rodgers

American Welding Society


550 N.W. LeJeune Rd.
Miami, FL 331 26

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Brown and Root McDermott


Fabricators, Ltd.,
Inverness, Scotland.

International Standard Book Number: 0-87171-620-8


American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126
O 2000 by American Welding Society.
All rights reserved.
Text edited by Tim Heston.
Printed in the United States of America

The American Welding Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed herein. Data
and informationdeveloped by the authors are for informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.
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Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 1: Contracts and Role of the Welding Engineer ................. .i


Commercial Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dealing with Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
7

Chapter 2: Selection of Welding Processes, Equipment. and Consumables 13


Welding Process Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and Consumable Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 3: Weld Procedure Qualification

........................

Assessing Weld ProcedureRequirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Routine Mechanical Tesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SimpleChecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fracture Mechanics Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 4: Production Welding Control

...............................

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Defect Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Welder Training and Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Useful Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumable Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Production Weld Test Pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43
43
47

50
51
58
60
67
67
72

.................................

83
83
84
89
90
92
94
99

....................

101
102
106
114
120
122

.................................................
.................................................

Chapter 6:Practical Problem Solving

25
25
30
36
37
39

....................

Chapter 5: Estimating and Reducing Welding Costs


Estimating Welding Costs
Reducing Welding Costs

13
18

WhatisaProblern? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chevron Cracking in Submerged Arc Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low Toughness in Selt-Shielded Flux Cored Arc Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cast-to-CastVariability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MagneticArcBlow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elimination of Postweld Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fitness for Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 7: Common Defects and Remedial Actions

Cracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Profile Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incomplete Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some Additional Informationon SolidificationCracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 8: Oxyfuel Cutting, Arc Air, and Electrode Gouging .............125


OxyiuelCuiiing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
125

Air Arc GouginglCuting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Electrode GougingKutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129
130

Appendix I: Recommended Reading ................................. 133


Appendix II: Useful Tables, Formulas, and Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Index ............................................................ 149

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When we, the authors, decided to write this book, we had a definite aim in mind
- to present a practical approach to the application of welding theories.

Over recent years universities and colleges have recognized the previous lack of
attention paid to the welding fraternity and subsequently greatly improved teaching
capabilities and lecture contents. As a result, the modem engineer is well versed in
basic metallurgical behavior; he is aware of the application of electronic wizardry to
modem equipment; fracture mechanics is not just an obscure theory but a practical
everyday tool; and, modem materials and consumables have apparently eliminated
many of the problems of the past. What the modem welding engineer lacks is the
knowledge of how to apply this knowledge in a practical sense. What we have
attempted to write is basically a distillation of almost 60 years (between the two of
us) of hard-gained realism in heavy engineering fabrication.
The basis of the book is therefore an assumption that the reader is already knowledgeable of basic welding and metallurgical theory. He is most likely a metallurgist,
materials science or mechanical engineering graduate who, during his or her university career has stumbled, or been fortuitously directed, into the welding field. It is
obviously a biased view, but in the opinion of the authors, welding is one of the most
exciting fields available to a young graduate. It is both vibrant and dynamic with new
avenues to be explored becoming available on a regular basis. Synergic gas metal arc
welding and inverter power sources, electron and laser welding, magnetic-impelled
arc butt-joint welding (MIAB), robotic welding, and diffusion bonding are careers in
themselves. It is difficult to identify another discipline where the range of possibilities are as diverse, broad, and exciting, and where the potentials for exploration and
discovery stretch enticingly into the future.
However, enough of such esoteric digressions. This book was not written from
that approach. It is intended to present the inexperienced welding engineer with some
sage advice on some of the pitfalls awaiting in the hard commercial world that
awaits. Be under no illusions; it is not sufficient to be the best theoretical welding
engineer in your company. You must know how to apply that knowledge in an almost
street-wise manner.

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Welding is regarded by many employers as a black art. Some of this reputation


has been due to welding engineers camouflaging their inadequacies, or uncertainties,
with professional jargon. Telling ones employer that the problem is one of cracking
initiated in a highly tensile stressed region of hard martensite or body centered cubic
microstructure of poor crack resistance surrounded by material of similar sensitivity
to crack propagation into which atomic hydrogen has diffused, and that until the diffusion rate is beneficially altered the problem will persist, is not clear. Telling him
that you have identified the problem to be one of delayed hydrogen cracking and that
increasing the preheat temperature by 25C will resolve it will undoubtedly raise
your standing in the company - unless you have an enlightened employer who asks
you why you didnt recognize that a higher preheat was necessary in the first place.
The book is entitled The Practical Welding Engineer. We hope you find it to be
practical. We also hope that, although you may not totally or even partially agree with
its contents, you find it readable and interesting.
Good Reading

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J. C. Lochhead and K. J. Rodgers

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the following personnel for their assistance in the
execution of this work.
T. Clement and M. Dorricott, Managing Directors, Brown & Root Highlands
Fabricators Ltd.
D. J. Wright, Managing Director, Brown and Root McDermott Fabricators, Ltd.
I. G. Hamilton, Consultant (for general advice).
Dr. W. Welland, for assistance with run-outstub length information.
Mrs. Patricia Vass and Claire Lochhead, for general secretarial assistance.
All other suppliers of photographs, tables, suggestions, etc.
The authors would also like to thank Training Publications, Ltd., Watford, England,
for permission to use data and Figures 8.1-8.9 and 8.11-8.13 extracted from Module
Manual F10 of the General Welding and Cutting for Engineering Craftsmen manual.
Permission is not transferable.

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Contracts and the Role


of the Welding Engineer
This may appear to be a strange starting point for a book intended to assist a welding engineer. However, it must be appreciated at an early stage that, as is common
with most disciplines, decisions based on technical judgments must be tempered with
economic awareness. In general, there can be several possible solutions (and hence
several possible costs) for any one problem. The principle behind every commercial
venture is to make a profit, and the welding engineer must always remember that what
leaves the factory gates is what pays his wages. It may leave in a timely manner, and
it may be of the finest quality; but it also must be profitable.
Commercial awareness usually is presented as an unessential part of the welding
engineers discipline. This thinking is misguided because in most fabrications welding plays a primary role of cost containment. If it is not right, either technically or
commercially, the companys profitability will suffer. This is an aspect that still is not
sufficiently recognized by many companies and engineers.
This chapter will deal with two aspects in some detail - commercial awareness,
and dealing with specifications.

1.1 Commercial Awareness


This section is not intended to be a detailed study of the commercial management
of a project. It is intended simply to make you, the welding engineer, aware and appreciative of the key links and actions in the chain of events that will ensure your company is fully compensated for everything it does for a client -or, conversely, receives
everything it is paying for as a client.
The following subjects will be discussed:
1. What is commercial awareness?
2. Making a profit.
3. The key elements of a contract.
4. Ensuring the company is fully compensated (or receives a full service).
5. Variations and claims.
In all of these elements there are fundamental points applicable to the welding
engineer, regardless of the size of the company in which he operates. They may not
be instantly recognizable under the descriptions given. However, they will exist in
some form, and the welding engineer should play a leading role in all these aspects.
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1.1.1 What is Commercial Awareness?


In simple terms, commercial awareness is the need for everyone to carry out their
work in such a way that the company makes a profit.
This means that
estimates for welding should be constructed on the basis of sound
judgments and well-defined logic,
everything should be done right the first time and completed in the
most cost-effective and economic manner, and
everything possible should be done to maximize revenue and
reduce expenditure.
These objectives can be achieved only if the welding engineer is fully aware of his
role and of the cost and planning parameters that control his functions.

1.1.2 Making a Profit


Profit is the lifeblood of any company. The essential ingredients that will ensure a
company makes a profit are
a good cost and price estimate,
a good plan,
an ability to manage both people and work efficiently,
quality (get it right the first time),
safety (bad practices cost money),
cost-effective execution of all work, and
maximizing revenue (i.e., ensuring that the company is paid in full
for everything it does).

1.1.3 Key Elements of a Contract


The seven key elements of a contract are
1. the tender (i.e., the bid),
2. the plan,

3. the scope of work,


4. purchasing,
5 . subcontracting,
6 . measurement and evaluation of the work, and
7. contractual obligations.
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Contracts and the Role of the Weldno Engineer

The Tender
The key elements of a tender (i.e., the bid) that form the criteria against which the
job will be measured are
specifications,
drawings,
scope of work,
procedures,
resources,
methods, and
price.
The tender describes the criteria and assumptions upon which the work is priced
and planned, and it establishes the base from which all changes will be measured.
Therefore, it is of paramount importance to define clearly the data and assumptions
used in compiling the price and plan. In addition, it must be made clear that if the
assumptions are wrong, or if they are not acceptable to the client, then there will be
an effect on the price, or the delivery date, or both. All factors and calculations used
in compiling the price and plan must be clearly recorded and retained throughout the
life of the contract. Remember, they will form the basis for any cost adjustments
resulting from changes.
The Plan
The plan describes how, when, and where the work will be carried out, as well as
the resources to be used. There are many instances when the time allowed by a client
for the tender period is very short, and the information relating to the scope of work
and deliverables is incomplete. This combination of factors complicates the development of a comprehensive plan. Nevertheless, the aim should be to develop an accurate plan that represents the way the work is intended to be carried out. The plan is the
base from which the effect of all changes will be measured, and this includes selfinduced changes.
The Scope of Work
In an ideal situation, the work would be executed strictly in accordance with the
original plan and cost estimate. In the real world, however, this rarely happens -usuCopyright American Welding Society
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On first impression, the welding engineer may perceive that few of these aspects are
applicable to him. This is erroneous. In fact, the welding engineer should have a fundamental role in every phase of the contract from the preparation of a tender to the
fulfillment of the last contractual obligation; and greater emphasis on this role should
be undertaken by the conscientious engineer. The seven key elements presented above
will now be described briefly.

The Practical Welding Engineer

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ally because the work is insufficiently defined at the time of the tender. It is important
that the people who are responsible for executing the work are fully aware of how the
work was planned and costed, so they can operate within their parameters or can identify and notify change to the same. The identification and notification of changes is
the most important link in the chain of events that leads to payment for the effects of
changes.

Purchasing
Cost-effective purchasing is a key factor in successfully executing a contract. At the
tender stage, delivery dates and prices for all required materials should be obtained.
After the contract is awarded, it is important that materials are procured in accordance
with the needs of the production department - that is, in accordance with the plan
and within the quoted prices. Additionally, if items such as new welding machines or
consumables are necessary for the job, sufficient notice should be given by the welding engineer to the relevant departments to obtain adequate quotations. Any relevant
purchase lead-times also must be included in the plan.
Subcontracting
Regardless of the size of the subcontract. the rules are the same. The subcontract
must
o clearly define the scope of work,
o specify the dates for deliverables to the subcontractor,
o agree to a schedule for completion, and
o specify the services to be provided (if any) to the subcontractor.
Subsequent changes in specifications given to the subcontractor should be minimized. If this is unavoidable, any effects must be properly monitored. It is the responsibility of the welding engineer to ensure that all necessary approvals of the subcontractors welding procedures, etc., are made on time; otherwise, claims for consequential delays are likely to appear on his desk.
Measurement and Evaluation of the Work
There are a number of ways of measuring the work, but the two most common are
lump-sum pricing with a schedule of rates, in which only variations
are measured; and
lump-sum pricing based on a bill of quantities, and a schedule of
rates, in which all of the work is measured.
The work is measured from the drawings, and all changes that flow through drawings should be picked up in that measurement. Of course, the increased work resulting from a change to drawings would be picked up in a subsequent re-measure and
valued at the schedule rates, and the effect of the increase on the schedule would warrant a claim for extending the duration of the contract.
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Contracts and the Role of the Welding Engineer

Changes initiated by means other than drawings are the subject of variation orders,
for example,
changes in specification,
changes in timing, and
changes in design after work has been completed.
Generally, such changes would be measured as an effect on the cost of labor, equipment, and facilities and would be priced accordingly - not on the basis of the schedule of unit rates.

Contractual Obligations
The major contractual obligations that affect the performance of the work are:
execution of the work in accordance with drawings and specifications;
execution of the work in accordance with the schedule, unless it can
be proven that this has been prevented by factors beyond the company?s control;
provision that work is free from defects (noting that, even where
work has been inspected and/or certified, the manufacturer is liable
for any defects that may be found subsequently; and, while a contractual obligation extends through to the end of the maintenance
period, a common-law and/or moral obligation extends far beyond
that date);
appreciation that approval of drawings, method statements, weld
procedures, etc., do not relieve the company from contractual obligations;
appreciation that inspectors and certifications by certifying authorities do not relieve the company from contractual obligations; and
knowledge that, in cases where the client causes disruption or delay
to the progress of the work, the contractor has an obligation to minimize the effect of the same, provided such mitigation does not add
to its cost.

1.1.4 Ensuring the Company Is Fully Compensated


The welding engineer can make a significant contribution toward ensuring identification of the company?s full entitlement. The re-measurement of quantities of work
and the monetary evaluation of variations issued by a client are generally straightforward. The difficulties arise with
changes that affect the progress of the work,
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the cumulative effect on the schedule of a number of changes that,


individually, may have little of no effect, and
the introduction of changes late into the schedule.
There is no easy method for identifying or quantifying the above types of changes.
However, there are two basic rules that assist in carrying out this identification and
qualification:
Each employee must be fully aware of, and be fully conversant
with, their individual scope of work, its budget and schedule, and
how their work fits into the overall plan.

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When a change occurs to that scope of work andor schedule,


whatever the cause, then the individual concerned must immediately notify the project manager of change and ensure that its
effects are quantified.
In the evaluation of schedule and cost effect of all changes, the following actions
will make the task simpler and more productive:
Identify the change as early as possible;
notify relevant personnel and/or the client;
quantify the schedule and cost effects as soon as possible and within a prescribed time;
keep the client informed of the effects; and,
request the clients instructions on recovery measures.

1.1.5 Variations and Claims


The quality of the presentation of a variation request, or claim, can have an important bearing on the amount the contractor will be paid.
A sloppy presentation will indicate either lack of knowledge on the subject or lack
of confidence in any entitlement to be paid, and it will be treated accordingly by the
client. Good presentation will maximize the payment.
The presentation should be well prepared and built up systematically from the contract base, and it should clearly detail all effects of the change. All backup documentation should be clearly referenced and attached to the variation request. It will be
much easier to achieve a high-quality presentation if all involved parties pay attention
to the actions previously described.
While there is often the temptation to take shortcuts on the preparation of variations,
this is usually counterproductive. By good preparation and good presentation, the
welding engineer will help the client to pay his company its full entitlement -and on
some occasions, perhaps more.
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Contracts and the Role of the Welding Engineer

Three main factors therefore emerge, all essential when dealing with commercial
aspects:
Keep good and explicit records,
be vigilant, and
think profit.
The foregoing was a general summation of the relevant commercial aspects in
which a company welding engineer should be involved during a project. However,
there is one very important function in particular that deeply involves this individual
- dealing with specifications. Section 1.2 will discuss this aspect in detail. Many
other facets also relevant to commercial success - welding costs, choice of equipment and consumables, assessing procedure requirements etc. - are dealt with in
subsequent chapters.

1.2 Dealing with Specifications

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International codes and specifications often vary with respect to the degree of legal
influence they carry. Similar variation exists internationally in the administration of
such codes and practices. In some countries there is an inspectorate -that is, a board
of inspectors - that makes rulings on the interpretation of the code, approves the
design, and carries out physical inspections during construction. In other countries
(the U.K., for example) there is no government-approved inspectorate; instead, an
independent authority is generally appointed by the purchaser to inspect on their
behalf.
In such a disparate legal and political environment, the only safe procedure is to
work according to the code specified. However, there is no logical reason why specifications and codes related to welding fabrication should be exempt from rational and
critical scrutiny, with the intent of obtaining cost reductions. Of course, the importance of welding to the overall integrity and reliability of a fabricated component must
not be understated; but, by the same token, the specified requirements for materials
and for finished weldments should not be regarded as sacrosanct edicts carved in
stone. This awareness is especially pertinent when considering a clients individual
specifications that supplement a national code. Such additional requirements usually
come about in one of two ways: from individuals who choose to incorporate certain
objectives through personal experience and prejudice; and from a committee seeking
to achieve the highest common denominator acceptable to all (i.e., the most rigid
interpretation). The cost implications of the second approach are usually severe.
One natural consequence of supplemental contract specifications is that, more often
than not, they tend to place overly heavy emphasis on how-to rather than simply
specifying what is required. In other words, they are not performance driven. If a
given material is sufficient to achieve the desired results, then the welding engineer
should be allowed to use it, whether it is alloy steel or chewing gum. Ultimately, such
an approach could result in a welding specification comprised of just two tables: One
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specifying the base material and weld metal properties; the other specifying any nondestructive examination requirements.
Nevertheless, great care must be taken in assessing the implications of any contract
specification out of the ordinary. Particularly important is the stage of negotiation at
which this assessment is carried out - i.e., has a contract actually been placed, or is
it still at the bid stage? If the latter, then mitigating the apprehension of the client must
be the foremost consideration. Sound judgment must be used in deciding which contract specifications will have serious cost implications and which are merely advantageous to avoid, but not serious enough to jeopardize a contract award. Two convenient
means can be utilized in exercising this determination. These may be labeled
Exceptions to the Specijcation and Clarifications to the Specijcation, and they can
be easily written directly into the tender. Two other possibilities exist, but these will
be explained in more detail later.

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Exceptions to Specification
The Exceptions category should be avoided if possible, or at least restricted to those
few major items where the specification demands are virtually impossible to achieve
economically. The reasons for making such exceptions must be clearly identified. A
common example would be a requirement to maintain preheat until a certain percentage of the weld volume has been completed. A simple illustration of this would be
rolling a tubular section in the manufacture of a pressure vessel or offshore rig. It is
very common for the rolling contractor to tack and root weld the longitudinal joint of
the rolled cylinder when it is still in the rolls, then to transfer it later to a welding station. Maintenance of preheat throughout this process is not practicable, and abandoning this requirement can be justified based on the success of past practice. Indeed, the
argument of successful past practice is a very persuasive one and should be used
whenever possible.
Clarifications to Specification
Clar$cations to the Specification can be a subtle method of identifying what are
really exceptions. These are basically in-house or preferred interpretations of sections
of the specification that are unclear or ambiguous. Obviously, the interpretation most
practical for the welding engineer will be preferred; but, on occasion, it is advisable
for the engineer also to consider foregoing the preferred interpretation and applying
the less-convenient one. In the latter instance, when a significant cost can be attributed directly to the clients preferred or anticipated interpretation, then it should be
noted specifically in the tender. If the clients perceived benefit does not outweigh the
additional cost, then a reversal of opinion will likely be forthcoming.
As mentioned previously, there are two other useful tactics that fall outside of the
above classifications. One is to include a passing general statement in the tender that
would leave an open door for future compromises on the requirements of the contract.
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Contracts and the Role of the Welding Engineer

No client likes to see pages of alteration to his specification, especially if much of it


is relatively minor; but a convenient phrase, such as, there are in addition a number
of items on which we would welcome discussion, can tentatively gloss over an indefinite number of exceptions and clarifications. Further discussion is often delayed until
after the contract award; or, alternatively, such discussion can be deferred until the
post-contract period and slowly advanced to the client under the guise of engineering
queries. Small modifications in the specification to avoid changes in production activities or welding practices can be swept up rather informally by this approach without
irritating the client.

Monitoring Production
There is a very common pitfall of which the welding engineer must be ever mindful when dealing with specifications. It is the assumption that his interpretation of a
clients specification, if it is against the companys practice, will be applied in production when a tender becomes a contract. Ideally, the welding engineers responsibilities with respect to specifications will be defined loosely enough to permit his
feedback throughout the companys departmental structure. Generally, it is better (and
safer) for the company to allow this sort of follow-through on a contract, rather than
assume that it will be covered by some other department.
Of course, the responsibility of the welding engineer principally will be with those
points in the specification dealing directly with welding activities. However, there can
be instances outside of the engineers day-to-day responsibilities in which other
departments rely on his guidance. If, for example, the engineer is aware of recent
changes in welder qualification requirements, it is his obligation to convey this to others, regardless of departmental responsibilities, to ensure that the contract is executed
correctly.
In every industrial setting, engineers face process-control problem areas, and the
welding engineer is no exception. Therefore, all specifications should be compared to
the last contract and examined for changes. Never assume that the specification is
identical just because the client is the same. Likewise, never assume that different
clients will interpret the same specification in a similar manner.
Examples of such potential problem areas are:
Material Weldability -Is the steel identical to that supplied for the
last contract, or should new weldability tests be carried out?
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In addition, exceptions, clarifications, etc. - although they are common practice can reflect negatively upon the client; and it may be worthwhile, especially in pre-tender negotiations, to offer options. Although usually designed to suit the fabricator,
these options also should convey to the client that acceptance of such will be advantageous to him either technically, economically, or otherwise. Consequently, these
should be presented in a logical and structured fashion with client benefits clearly
stressed.

1O

The Practical Welding Engineer

D = Max. depth relative to the surface, typically 1.O, 1.5 or 2.0 mm.
S = Max. space (center to center) between indentations through heat-affected
zone (HAZ), typically 0.5 mm or 0.75 mm (may vary with location in survey).
1. The higher the value of S the fewer the indentations made and the less risk
of encountering a hard spot.
2. The value of D will affect different welds in different ways depending on the
weld interface shape.
3. Generally higher loads provide an averaging effect and decease the risk of
reporting hard spots.
4. Some surveys ask for additional impressions (shown as dots above) following the weld interface. This type of survey will increase the risk of
reporting high values due to the increase in the number of impressions
adjacent to the maximum hardness zone.

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FIGURE 1.1 -ASSESSING HARDNESS SURVEY REQUIREMENTS FOR


STEEL WELDMENTS
Different manufacturers can supply to the same specification using
different routes, resulting in wide weldability differences.
Hardness Surveys -Are the test locations and test loads similar to
those previously used? Small changes to these details can change
the values obtained. Some typical survey requirements are illustrated in Figure 1.1.
Impact Tests - Are the acceptance values and test locations the
same? Are the test temperatures specified the same?
There are numerous other examples, and the welding engineer should, at the very
least, draw up a mental checklist of such potential pitfalls.
Having identified the differences, what should be done about them? One option
would be simply to identify them as exceptions or clarifications, as shown previous-

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Contructs and the Role of the Welding Engineer

11

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ly; but, obviously, it would be better if they were not. A preferable option, if it were
possible, would be to carry out in-house testing to ascertain'the effects of the change
on the cost and time of production. Possible testing methods might include simple
repeat hardness surveys, or bead-on-plate trials to examine effect of preheathardness
levels. These need not be extensive or expensive, but the results can reaffirm confidence in accepting a specification.
A final word of caution is extended here regarding the interpretation of suppliers'
typical data (consumable or weldability data, and the like), and the relevance of this
data to specification requirements. Do not assume these values are minimum or even
average values; in fact, they are more likely to represent typical good results from
tests carried out under ideal conditions. In cases where such typical data are close to
your minimum specified requirements, take great care to avoid assuming responsibility for aspects of a specification that may prove to be technically unachievable. Such
assumptions may lead your company to penalties for failing to attain specified
requirements, with all the commercial implications such failures carry.

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Selection of Welding Processes,


Equipment and Consumables
In this chapter it has been assumed that the welding engineer has a basic theoretical knowledge of the various welding processes. There are many worthwhile books
available on this subject (see recommended reading), so no attempt will be made here
to provide detailed information on welding processes. However, as a memory aid,
Table 2.1 lists the main processes likely to be encountered. Some of the advantageddisadvantages pertaining to each are also identified.

2.1 Welding Process Selection


The ideal welding process is that which achieves the minimum specification
requirements at the minimum cost; and, although the selection of a process for a given
welding application is seldom scientific or precise, it always requires careful judgement. Moreover, the approach to process selection should be sufficiently thorough to
ensure balanced judgment. There are several aspects to be considered, and a careful
assessment of each in turn should be undertaken by the welding engineer in close
association with production personnel. The main factors to be considered are shown
in Table 2.2. These factors address quality (a contractual obligation) in conjunction
with resources and cost (both related to profitable operation).
The correct process choice, therefore, is the best compromise between resources
and cost, which also satisfies quality. Each of these aspects will now be discussed in
more detail, but a summary of the selection method is given in Figure 2.1.
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Specification Requirements
The fabrication specification is the first and most important step in selecting a
process. At this stage the engineer must establish what is required -in terms of joint
type, mechanical properties, nondestructive examination (NDE), etc. - not only for
the particular joint in question, but also for the overall effect of welding on tolerances,
where these could influence the approach to a particular fabrication problem. Clearly,
the specified requirements represent a fixed point in the process selection exercise,
and, unlike the many other factors concerned, a compromise is not acceptable in terms
of the minimum quality demanded by the specification. Therefore, it is the duty of the
welding engineer to ensure the process, or processes, accepted at this initial stage are
capable of meeting all specification requirements. A list of typical points for consideration at this stage is given below. These at least should be questioned mentally and
assessed by the welding engineer prior to his decision.

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14

The Practical Welding EIIQneel

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-roe
m
rom

m mz
$ m

m m
z

$ m

- m

TABLE 2.1 -WELDING PROCESSES


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Selection of Welding Processes, Equipment and Consumables


I

"pil:U

I-

FIGURE 2.1 - PROCESS SELECTION METHOD


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15

16

The Practical Welding Engineer

Practical Constraints
Within this category are found the many and varied aspects of a fabrication method
that can influence the choice of welding process. It is therefore necessary to establish
the overall manufacturing sequence ahead of, or at least in parallel with, any decision
on welding methods. For example, the initial selection stage may have identified three
processes - shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), flux cored arc welding (FCAW),
and submerged arc welding (SAW) - as suitable for a simple fillet weid. Yet, it
quickly becomes evident that SAW is not suitable if the component happens to be fabricated in a sequence that places this fillet in, say, the 3G position. The meclianical
properties inherent in certain combinations of processes and consumables for various
welding positions also must be considered at this stage. For instance, if low-temperature impact properties are not important, then a particular self-shielded FCAW consumable could be used for 3G uphill welding, whereas if impact properties are critical [ 11, downhill welding or even another process may be required. Other factors such as accessibility, fitup, type and standard of weld preparation, etc. -can all influence the suitability of the welding process chosen. Similarly, other environmental features such as indoor (shop) vs. outdoor (site or field) fabrication have a major influence on process choice, particularly with respect to the suitability of gas shielded
processes.

FACTOR

GOVERNED BY

Quality

Specification

Resources

Practical constraints
Functional constraints

cost

Economic factors

TABLE 2.2 -WELDING


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PROCESS SELECTION

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Mechanical properties: tensile strength, impact toughness,


higMow temperature properties, etc.
NDE perjormance: visual only vs. volumetric; technique specified, acceptance levels, etc.
Special features: dimensional tolerances, surface finish, etc.
Weldability (i.e., special material requirements): ferrous vs. nonferrous, dissimilar or reactive metal, etc.
Limited selection per speci3cation: Does the specification limit
process choice directly? They often do.
Consumable availability: choice limited by availability of suitable
consumables

Selection of Welding Processes, Equipment and Consumables

17

Functional Constraints
Unlike the previous considerations, this group contains a number of intangible factors as well as tangible and straightforward problems. The more easily recognizable
areas to be considered are
availability of equipment;
availability of personnel and skills;
availability of services such as gas, power, water, air, etc.; and,
availability of shop space.
Each of the above items will influence the choice of welding process - either
directly via the total unsuitability of available resources, or indirectly via the additional cost of providing suitable resources. As such, these aspects are dealt with relatively easily during the selection of a welding process. More difficult is the assessment of the sometimes-less-tangible constraints imposed on the selection decision,
such as

Economic Factors
If all other factors are equal, the final choice of welding process should be made on
the basis of production costs.
An assessment of costs, however, involves many interrelated factors, some of which
already have been mentioned. It is important to consider costs on the basis offinal
cost, not on the basis of individual process costs in isolation. Thus, if a group of
skilled shielded metal arc welders were available for an average of 10 hours per week
(surplus to the requirements of another project), then it may be worthwhile to utilize
SMAW for a particular application rather than the nominally more productive FCAW
or SAW.
Similarly, it may prove more economic to choose a less productive welding process
to achieve some other desired feature (e.g., surface finish), where the additional time
spent welding the component can benefit overall production costs by reducing machining or dressing operations later. Careful consideration should also be given to the merits of mechanization or automation; since, despite the major productivity benefits, the
potential payback is highly dependent upon the degree of utilization in the plant. As a
result, what may be a good investment in a production line environment (high utiliza-

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utilization of personnel (i.e., if there are a number of skilled welders


from another project available on a part-time basis, economic factors
may demand the use of such personnel),
capacity of individual work stations (i.e., there may be existing production bottlenecks to be avoided), and
overall time savings (Le., there is little point in welding a component faster unless the total production time is reduced as a result).

78

The Praciical Welding Engineer

tion) .may prove excessively expensive in a mixed fabrication shop (low utilization),
despite any improvement in the welding time for the item in question.

2.2 Equipment and Consumable Evaluation


General Principles
The evaluation of new equipment, or altemative consumables, can sometimes form
a significant part of the welding engineers function, although this obviously depends
on the type of business in which the engineer is employed and, in some cases, only if
sufficient time is available. Nevertheless the importance of a good evaluation system
should be recognized by all. As a starting point, the following questions should be
posed:
Why is the proposed evaluation being carried out?
What are the key points of interest?
If the answer to either of the above cannot be identified positively, then it is likely
that the proposed evaluation is either premature or unnecessary, and of little benefit to
you. It is very important to identify in advance the main factors of interest and not
allow good salesmanship by your supplier to lead you into receiving a demonstration
of only the best features of the equipment or consumable. These are of little value
unless they are also what you require. Another point worth remembering is that by the
time your evaluation is complete and your technical choice has been made, it may
then be too late to obtain the best commercial deal with your supplier. It is therefore
a good general practice to obtain quotations or pricing information at an early stage,
particularly in situations where competitive products are being assessed.
For both consumables and equipment, there are two general reasons leading to a
need for assessing new or alternative products, namely,
alteration of existing practice, e.g., replacement plant or consumables, and
introduction of new practices, e.g., replacement of SMAW by semiautomatic welding.
Each of the above require a different treatment. In the first case, where there will be
no change in working practices, the comparison to be made should be straightforward.
Here, existing equipment and consumables will form a benchmark against which the
performance of the new product can be measured. It is still important, however, to
approach the evaluation methodically. For this reason a checklist, or score sheet of
some form, can introduce a degree of objectivity. This aspect will be discussed in
more detail later. In the second case, the evaluation can be twofold in that the equipment and consumables are not only being evaluated against competitive products, but
also against existing practice in terms of productivity, NDE performance, etc. This situation can lead to problems, and it is better to keep both of these aspects separate.
Although this may be difficult, it is important to avoid situations where a product is
being condemned on the basis of a requirement related to an existing practice, which
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Selection of Welding Processes, Equbment and Consumables

19

may not be relevant if the overall working practices are changed. There is no doubting the fact that the availability of capable welding equipment and consumables will
affect the decision-making process in relation to changing working practices.
However, unless only one specific consumable or piece of equipment is potentially
suitable, the process decision can be made based on generic information. Having
made the decision in principle to change working practice, then the equipment or consumable assessment can be carried out against clearly defined target requirements.

Equipment Assessment
As mentioned above, it is worthwhile to establish a checklist against which both
your requirements and equipment performance can be judged. This will differ, obviously, for different types of equipment; nevertheless, the following lists are offered as
examples dealing with two distinct applications.
Power Source Checklist
Type of current (AC or DC).
o Polarity (electrode positive or negative).
Pulsing facilities (peak current range, background current range,
frequency range, synergic capability).
8
Programmability (e.g., preset facilities).
Process capability (Shielded metal arc, submerged arc, gas metal
arc [GMA], flux cored arc, and gas tungsten arc welding [GTAW]).
8
Interchangability with existing plant (e.g. spares).
Power input requirements (power limitations, single-phase, threephase, type and availability of fuel for generator engine).
Energy consumption (i.e. efficiency).
Duty cycle.
Ancillary equipment required (wire feeders, high frequency units,
etc.).
Availability, cost, and ease of servicing.

.
.
.

Orbital Gas Tungsten Arc WeldinP Unit Checklist


Type of head (direct pipe mounting vs. track mounting).
Power source and programmer (pulsing mechanisms, programming
systems, level and number of programming steps possible for given
current, voltages, wire speed, travel speed).
Pipe size capacity.
Ability for interchange of heads.
Head facilities (wire positioning facility, wire drive on head, external arc-length or arc-voltage control, gas lens, water-cooling facilities, electrical and thermal protection, general ruggedness).
Head access limitations.
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The Practical Welding Engineer

Consumable Assessment
The selection and assessment of consumables depends very much on the application
range in view. For instance, there is little value in assessing the positional welding
capability of a filler metal if the intended use is exclusively for flat-welding-position
fillets. Obviously, there is a need to match the assessment to the application. Having
established the target application(s), the assessment of any consumable provides two
main areas for evaluation, namely,
operability, and
weld properties.
Each of the above features is examined differently -that is, operability is a judgment affected by the welders ability and bias, whereas weld properties normally
will present a well defined target that may or may not be achieved. The only complication regarding weld properties is that these are influenced by the detailed weld procedure used. It is recommended, therefore, that you incorporate the recommendations
of the consumable manufacturer regarding specific techniques in any evaluation
involving a property assessment. If these recommendations are impractical, or limiting (but necessary), then this factor in itself could eliminate a consumable from further consideration.
Operability, however, is of equal importance; there is much to be said for a product
that has welder appeal. Ease of use normally will translate into fewer defects and
better productivity, so operability should be an important consideration in any evaluation. Given that operability can be a subjective assessment, it is worthwhile to establish a score sheet covering the various aspects of operability that should be addressed.
An example of such a score sheet is shown in Figure 2.2. This is a particularly useful
tool when evaluating manual-process consumables. Another consideration is to hear
reactions from several welders, because opinions often vary. In terms of general
approach, the first action would be to identify a number of consumables that meet the
mechanical and chemical analysis requirements of the weld on paper. Having estab-

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Length of interconnects.
Number of passes possible on continuous operation.
Headtrack clamping methods (Le., automatic vs. manual centering,
arc voltagelength monitoring mechanisms, etc.).
Previous industrial experience.
Availability, cost, and ease of servicing.
Availability of machining facilities for weld preparation.
Necessity for orbital welding (possible options such as rotation of
component, etc.).
The above examples are intended to illustrate the advisability of an objective
approach to equipment assessment and purchase; they should not be regarded as ideal
checklists. The ideal checklist is the one outlining your requirements in detail.

Selection of Welding Processes, Equipment and Consumables

21

CONSUMABLE ASSESSMENT SHEET

Welding Current: DC o ACO


Special Tests:
Welder:
Date:

Electrode:
Power Source:
Joint Prep:
Welding Position:

Amp:

EVALUATION OF WELDING CHARACTERISTICS


Score*

Comment

Arc Action:

Weld Root Stability


Fill & Cap Pass Stability

o
o

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Striking/Re-Striking

Slag Action:
Control
Removal
Fume Emission
Coating Stability

o
o
O
o

Deposit:
Shape/Profile

Spatter

Total:

General Comments:

*Scale: 10 = Excellent

FIGURE 2.2

8-9 = Above Average

6-7 = Average

-5 = Below Average

-SAMPLE SCORE SHEET FOR CONSUMABLE ASSESSMENT

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22

The Practical Welding Engineer

lished such a list, samples can be obtained and used for simple operability tests. These
should be designed to suit your intended application (e&, for SMAW on a fully positional pipe weld using a butt joint, a simple test involving the filling of a shallow
groove in a 5G- or 6G-positioned pipe would suffice).
The best two or three products can then be assessed further on the basis of full weld
procedure tests to establish required properties. The operability factor obviously can
mean different things for different processes; examples of what should be considered
for shielded metal arc welding are given below:
Deposition efficiency.
Coating type (basic, rutile, iron powder, etc. -choices may be limited by specification).
Electrode application range (current and polarity, positional limitations per available resources and applications, etc.).
Electrode operability (factors to be considered and scored
include arc action [strikinghestriking, root stability, and the stability of the cap pass]; slag action [control, removal, fume emission,
coating stability, etc.]; and deposit [shape and spatter]).
An example of an evaluation code that incorporates many of these features in
greater detail is shown in Figure 2.3.
For processes employing a bare wire electrode, there is seldom a need for an operability type of assessment on the wire consumable, since these usually are ordered
according to an analysis specification. Other processes, especially those that involve
a flux, can be treated in a fashion similar to the SMAW scenario described above. For
all welding processes, including SMAW, a further consideration in many industries is
the level and type of consumable-handling practices required to meet and maintain
low weld-metal hydrogen values. As this can have cost implications and affect the
preheat levels required, it is a factor that also must be considered before the final
choice of a consumable.

References
[i] Rodgers, K. J., and Lochhead, J. C. 1987. Self shielded flux cored arc welding
- the route to good toughness. Welding Journal 66(7): 49-59.

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Selection of Welding Processes, Equipment and Consumables

23

EVALUATION CODE FOR TEST WELDING


OVERHEATING
Any overheatingtendency is shown by indicating approximately how many mm of the electrode remains at the point when overheating
effects are noticed.
WELD BEAD APPEARANCE
Two numbers are used here. The first
describes bead shape in a V-Joint as follows:
1 Convex (high peaks)
2 Convex (very high peaks)
3. Flat
4. Concave
A second number is used to describe bead
surface smoothness (.e., solidification ripple
pattern) as follows:
i.Ripples coarser than normal for the electrode type.
2. Normal ripple pattern.
3. Ripples finer than normal for the electrode
type.

SLAG REMOVAL
1. Slag very difficult to remove.
2. Slag difficult to remove
3. Slag cover is whole and remains on bead
but can be removed with normal de-slagging
method for the type of electrode, .e., wire
brushing, use of chipping hammer, etc.
4. Slag cover remains on bead but is loosened
up by cross cracking and is easy to remove.
5. Slag is self-releasing.
Auxiliary Code
SS Large areas of slag remain on bead after
de-slagging.
S Small areas of slag remain on bead after
de-slagging.
Sp Slag particles 'fly o f f during cooling.
h addition to 4 if the slag loosens in one
piece with light de-slagging.
+ used when comparing two electrodes
where the difference between them is not
great enough to shift from one main code
to another.
SPATTER
1. More spatter than normal for the type of
electrode.
2. Normal spatter.
3. Less spatter than normal for the type of electrode.

Note: A n additional "+"may be added to differentiate


between two relatively close electrodes.

Note: The above may be augmented by a "+"to differentiate small differences between two electrodes.

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ARC STABILITY
1. Less stable than normal for the type of electrode.
2. Normal stability
3. More stable than normal for the type of electrode.
Note: The above may be augmented by "+s''if there is
a tendency for the arc to extinguish, or "+n" if there is
a tendency for the electrode to "stick or "reeze."

COATING BRITTLENESS
The electrode is bent over a 150-mm-diameter pipe, and a scale of 1-5 is used to
describe the effect on the coating.
1 =very brittle 5 =very ductile
RE-STRIKING
For those electrode types where this property is of interest, restriking is tried 5, 10, and 30
seconds after the arc is extinguished. Welding
time before the arc is extinguished is about 10
seconds. If the electrode re-strikes then the
appropriate box is marked with X.
COMMENTS
Any special observations are noted here,
e.g., porosis: slag removal on root side, if electrode gives unusually much or little fume, if the
coating breaks off around the arc, if the slag
characteristics change during a test series run,
if the arc column is stable in the joint, etc.

FIGURE 2.3 -SAMPLE EVALUATION CODE

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Chapter 3

Weld Procedure Qualification


A major part of any welding engineers job is the assessment, initiation, qualification, and reporting of weld procedure tests, and the engineers performance in this
area has considerable financial implications. Significant cost penalties can result if he
should fail to identify completely the specified requirement, choose consumables that
prove inadequate for the function intended, or fall short of completing the proposed
weld procedure qualifications within the production program requirements. The following sections discuss various finite stages to be observed during the welding procedure qualification process.

During the bidding or pre-contract stage, drawings and specifications must be examined carefully to assess the number of tests that will be required, taking into consideration the thickness ranges, the material groupings, the heat treatment conditions, and the
welding positions. If there is sufficient time, this initial assessment should be circulated
among managers in other appropriate disciplines -such as planning, quality assurance,
and, especially, production - for comment and feedback. Cognizance should be taken
of any restricted-access conditions or equipment limitations; and, where necessary,
alternative procedures should be proposed. Insomuch as an initial procedure-requirement estimate is seldom sufficient to accommodate client alterations, changes in fabrication methods, and other unforeseen factors, it is a good rule of thumb to overestimate
by 10 percent when establishing budget requirements. Of course, this contingency multiplier could be increased or reduced depending on the engineers level of confidence
in, or familiarity with, the type of work being bid.
Having established the initial procedure test requirements, the engineer preparing
the bid should determine whether any of the proposed procedures can be considered
suitable for acceptance by virtue of being prequalified. Confusion can arise between
the casual use of the terms prequalified and previously qualified. A prequalified
welding procedure specification is defined in ANSIIAWS A3.0-94 - Standard
Welding Terms and Definitions as a welding procedure that complies with the stipulated conditions of a particular code or specification and is therefore acceptable for
use under that code or specification without a requirement for qualification testing.
(authors emphasis).
In some cases, prequalification may relate to the use of code-approved procedures
(e.g., AWS Dl.l), but it can equally relate to situations where previously qualified
procedures (satisfying all current requirements) are the only allowable means of pre-

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3.1 Assessing Weld Procedure Requirements

26

The Practical Welding Engineer

qualification. This assumes, naturally, that the relevant national or client specification
permits prequalification, and that the proposed material is sufficiently similar to that
on which the previous tests were performed. Even so, the engineer might consider
testing a limited number of specimens to reassure both himself and the client that the
materials are worthy of prequalification. Qualification is a significant factor in the
cost of most fabrications; therefore, one must take advantage of prequalification
whenever permissible. This is why engineers often will specify a desired procedure in
terms of more than one process, each of which is prequalified separately; or, they will
combine the results of several procedures into a single hybrid procedure, which can
then be offered (with supporting data) for consideration by the client as being prequalified.
At this point, one could deliberate the extent to which the engineer may apply the
strategy of substituting specified procedures with prequalified procedures. For instance,
it may be that certain specified procedures differ from existing qualified procedures in
only minor details -e g , number of specimens, location of hardness tests, etc. Should
the prequalified procedure be discounted? - not necessarily! In the interest of cost
reduction, many clients will accept such procedures, especially if the rest are qualified
as originally specified. However, the engineer must have enough familiarity with the
client to win his confidence, as this action presumes a good deal of faith in the engineers judgement. Offering alternatives is an easy way to avoid cost-inflating specification details, particularly when they impact procedure qualification requirements. The
engineer can always offer a small amount of additional testing once the bid is accepted.
This can be a useful tactic in persuading the client to accept his recommendations.
Finally, when the information at hand is inadequate to fully establish welding procedure requirements, the welding engineer must be prepared to recognize this during
the bidding or pre-contract stage. Two strategies are available to the engineer in this
event. First, he can assume, from background knowledge and experience, what type
and number of procedure tests are likely to be required; then, these can be listed and
identified to the prospective client as the total number upon which the price has been
established. Second, an average price per individual test plate can be calculated; this
figure can then be inserted into the bid document, leaving the final price subject to
change. Most clients favor the former method, not surprisingly, as they prefer to have
at least some knowledge of what the ultimate figure will be.

Planning a Test Program


At this stage, the number of prequalified procedures should be removed from the
pre-contract list of procedures to be tested, and the welding engineer should subsequently engage other departments, as necessary, in the preparation of a qualification
test program. Priorities must be established as early as possible so that the required
procedure will be qualified, reported, and accepted by the client as far in advance of
the production starting date as possible. Seldom will a program run 100-percent
smoothly; so, a time cushion should be included to allow for possible rewelding due
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27

28

The Pracfical Welding Engineer

Assessing Test Material Costs


The quantity of material required must be considered carefully, since additional
costs can result from underestimation as well as overestimation. A modest overestimate, however, is preferable to an underestimate that results in embarrassing program
delays. The foremost requirement is to provide sufficient test material for conducting
all required mechanical tests plus an allowance for retests. The importance of this
extra allowance should not be discounted, as there are few experiences more frustrating than having to rerun entire procedure tests for lack of a few extra millimeters in
the original test piece.
In estimating the amount of weld required for mechanical test purposes, it is necessary not only to list the number of tests to be taken (making an allowance for
retests), but also to identify the amount of material required per individual test piece.
Also allow for the wastage of material due to machining or cutting. This issue is best
discussed in advance with the testing facility performing the mechanical tests: the
testing facility can often provide useful guidance on overall material requirements for
individual weld procedure tests. As a simple illustration, consider the following cases:
A pipe butt joint weld procedure qualification on small-bore pipe
(say, 1 in. [25 mm] or less) - here, several individual butt joint
welds may be required to obtain the tests needed for one weld
procedure qualification.
A thick plate (say, 2 in. [50 mm] or greater) butt joint weld involving Charpy impact testing at several locations. In this case, impact
specimens for weld root, mid-thickness and the cap pass subsurface usually can be machined from a single through-thickness slice
at a particular location: hence, the total length of weld required
may be less than for some thinner plates.
The importance of having some spare procedure test material should not be
ignored: but the cost of providing redundant test samples must be taken into account
as well, since the cost of a procedure test program can quickly escalate. Remember
that the largest single expense item in a welding test program is often not the material, but labor. If all procedures in a weld procedure qualification program were based
on manual welding processes (e.g., shielded metal arc welding [SMAW]), any major
over-allowance on the amount of weld required could prove very costly. Conversely,
for automatic and mechanized welding (e.g., submerged arc welding [SAW]) the cost
of welding a 6-ft-long (2-m) test plate may not be significantly higher than welding a
3-ft (1-m) test plate; and, in this case, a provision for additional test material would
be relatively inexpensive. In all cases, a common-sense approach should prevail. A
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to nondestructive examination (NDE) or mechanical test failures. Regardless of the


number of times a procedure has performed satisfactorily in the past, statistical laws
guarantee that there will be a failed result eventually, and Murphys Law guarantees
this result will occur at a critical time. Figure 3.1 illustrates a typical weld procedure
summary sheet identifying most of the relevant points mentioned in this section.

Weld Procedure Qualification

29

10- or 20-percent allowance for potential retests should be adequate for all but the
most problematic of procedure tests.

Making the Test Welds


Once the procedure test requirements are established, the material identified and
sourced, and the test program finalized, then actual welding of test samples can begin.
The foremost consideration here is that qualification of procedures should simulate
the actual site conditions as closely as possible, using production equipment and production welders whenever and wherever circumstances permit. There is no benefit in
qualifying a test piece under ideal conditions, using specially trained welders with better-than-normal equipment. This will only invite trouble later, in production - when
welds are rejected during inspection or, worse, when they fail during mechanical testing. Welding parameters used during procedure qualification should be logged for
every pass, so that the subsequent welding procedure instruction or operating sheet
may be derived based on realistic working ranges for the main parameters.
The importance of simulating production conditions may seem obvious, but it is not
always observed in practice. Consider, for example, the use of a temper bead technique to obtain acceptable heat-affected zone (HAZ) hardness levels in alloy steels.
While this can be achieved
under strictly controlled
conditions (such as during a
procedure test), it is often
impossible to guarantee or even measure -in a production environment,unless
CONTROLLED SEPUENCE FOR CAP PASS : LAST BEAD MUST NOT BE ADJACENT TO BASE PLATE, BUT NO OTHER CONTROL IS EXERCISED.
extensive provisions are
made to supervise the operation.
If
specifically
required for particular applications,
any cap-pass
sequence method to be used
should be clearly stated and
agreed upon with the client.
Figure 3.2 illustrates the difference between a true temper-bead technique and a
simple, controlled cap-pass
JEMPER BEAD: LAST BEADS MUST NOT BE ADJACENT TO BASE PLATE; ANO. A
sequence. The latter method,
DEFINED OVERLAP BETWEEN BEADS IS SPECIFIED, AS ESTABLISHED BY EXPERalthough sometimes effecIMENT. (DIAGRAM ABOVE REFERS TO DIMENSION NOTOVERMPPED).
tive in reducing HAZ hardnesses, cannot be relied
FIGURE 3.2 -COMPARISON BETWEEN
CONTROLLED CAP-PASS SEQUENCE AND TEMPER
BEAD TECHNIQUE
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upon in this capacity unless subjected to the level of control inherent in m e temperbead techniques.
On completion of its welding, and prior to being machined for test purposes, the
test plate should be subjected to the same NDE, heat treatment, and other postweld.
operations planned for the production welds. If the weld fails at this stage (i.e., after
NDE), any further action should be confirmed between the welding engineer and the
client. It may be still possible to utilize the test plate if the defects found were welderinduced and unlikely to affect mechanical performance of the joint. Otherwise, a new
procedure test may be required. In this case, however, the cause of the original NDE
failure should be considered; and, if appropriate, the procedure should be changed
prior to rewelding.

3.2 Routine Mechanical Tests


The extent of mechanical testing during procedure qualification will depend on the
particular application, the appropriate national standards, client specifications, etc.
This section is intended to provide an overview of mechanical testing, its relevance,
and control. No attempt will be made to discuss specific standards or to provide
detailed test methodology. Rather, the more common weld procedure test requirements will be examined, and a number of simple checks will be recommended for use
by the welding engineer in assessing both test-house capability and test results. A key
point is that all unusual results should be queried (if only mentally), as it is from such
results that most experience is gained. Such queries often can lead to a potential production problem being identified at an early stage, and consequently prevented.

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Macro-Examination
The purpose of a macro-specimen is twofold: to provide an overall view of the metallographic appearance of a weld, and to provide a cross section that can be examined
for weld defects, etc. This specimen can be either a section that samples the weld in a
typical or pre-specified location, or a section taken to investigate some particular
problem or aspect of the weldment.
Given the considerable amount of information that can be gained from simple
macro-examination of a weld, one must question why the humble macro is so often
underrated. With a detailed knowledge of the welding process, one can gain from the
macro-specimen a means of establishing whether or not the weld was completed within the stated parameters. An example of such a use is given in Chapter 4.
In addition, a simple bead count and bead placement check can quickly establish
the accuracy of the written weld record for the procedure test in question. In production tests, placing a limit on the total number of beads, or the bead count per unit
length of the weld interface, can help ensure that production welds are comparable
to procedure test welds.

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Weld Procedure Qualification

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Aside from the merits of macro-examination, remember that this method is intended to be performed with minimal, if any, optical magnification (commonly xlCLx20
maximum), and care should be taken in assessing any apparent defects discovered at
higher magnifications. Also, if a specification requires examination at a particular
magnification, use it.

Hardness Survey
A hardness survey, normally performed on the specimen taken for macro-examination, is a common requirement of weld procedure tests. The function served by the
hardness survey will vary according to the application. Probably the most widely
known application relates to identifying the maximum HAZ hardness in
structural/pipe steels, as this is regarded as a good indicator of the risk of encountering HAZ hydrogen cracking. In other applications, such as hardfacing, the hardness
survey is important with respect to wear resistance; and, in this case, minimum hardness criteria will be specified.
In terms of testing technique, the three main factors to be aware of are choice of
load (commonly, Vickers Diamond 10-kg load is specified), calibration of equipment,
and accuracy of placement for indentations. The last-mentioned factor is particularly
important with respect to many steel fabrication specifications in which keeping
below the maximum HAZ hardness is the main objective. Here, indentations are
required to be within, say, 0.5 mm of the weld interface and positioned at intervals of
0.5 mm on a traverse through the HAZ. This requires accurate placement of the indentations; and, as this can have a marked influence on the results obtained, the indentation location should always be checked in such cases, with particular attention paid to
any unusually low hardness values reported. For most structural steel applications, a
macro-specimen employing a Nital (i.e., 10- to 20-percent Nitric acid in Methanol)
etch is a long-established and normally acceptable practice for delineating the weld
zones. However, some specifications call for the use of dendritic etches using, for
example, a saturated solution of picric acid with a wetting agent (SASPA-NANSA),
which delineate the fusion boundary more clearly, and also assist in locating the hardness indentation. The relative appearance of both types of etches on similar steel weld
samples is shown in Figures 3.3(a) and 3.3(b), respectively. The use of such special
etches should be governed by need rather than routine, since they require a considerably better standard of preparation (typically polished to a 1-micron finish) and therefore involve more time and cost. In addition, the SASPA-NANSAetch has been found
to be unsuccessful when examining some self-shielded flux cored arc welds.
On some materials, such as certain stainless steels and nickel alloys, the sample
preparation can influence the result obtained in a hardness survey due to the formation of a work-hardened surface layer. Awareness of this probability should govern
any assessment-of unusually high hardness values reported in these materials. Also,
on these materials, avoid severe preparation methods such as heavy grinding or
milling. It is best to prepare samples by progressive, light surface-grinding passes

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The Practical Welding Engineer

directly on the as-cut surface of the specimen. Although time-consuming,this method


is usually successful; if not, the use of other methods, such as electrolytic techniques,
may be worthwhile considering.
On some types of welds, particularly single-pass welds in steel, it is possible to get
significant hardness variations along the length of the test piece; this is probably due
to slight variations in heat input, heat buildup, etc. In such cases, higher hardness values are often found near the start of the weld. In these circumstances, use additional
sampling for information purposes - particularly in a situation where the maximum
hardness levels reported are approaching any specified limits.

Micro-Examination
Micro-examination is rarely a
requirement in weld procedure tests,
except in cases where it can influence
the serviceability of a component, and
where discontinuities must be detected
prior to their effect being noticed via
other, more routine tests. Micro-examination procedures may include ferrite
testing - that is, measuring ferrite
levels, which are known to affect
solidification cracking, sigmatization
potential, and corrosion properties in
some stainless steels. Corrosion resistance testing is an alternative, nonoptical form of micro-examination.
As with macro-examination, microexamination should be carried out only
after the specimen has been correctly
prepared, and always at an appropriate
magnification. The information that a
micro-examination can provide for the
welding
engineer
is
more
likely to be worthwhile in situations
such as failure investigations, investigations of poor mechanical test performance, etc. - where a detailed metallurgical assessment of the weld and
HAZ is often invaluable.

Nital Etch (HAZ Region)

x 500
(0)

SASPA-NANSA (HAZ Region)


x 500

(b)

FIGURE 3.3 ETCHES OF SIMILAR STEEL


WELD METALS

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Tensile Testing
The type of tensile test specimens used are variable and are normally governed by
the application of a national standard or client specification. Within the scope of weld
procedure testing, these fall into two main categories, namely,
all-weld tensile tests (those in which only the weld metal is tested),
and
transverse or cross-weld tensile tests (those in which the complete
weld cross section, including adjacent base material, is tested).
The significance of the tensile test is readily apparent, inasmuch as the information
generated has a specific design relevance to the strength of a component or structure.
By pointing out this relevance, it is sometimes possible to have results that are slightly outside of specification accepted -presuming, of course, that one checks with the
design or structural engineer responsible. Often, the tensile test performance is predictable, and any sudden departure from expected results is worthy of investigation.
For instance, an unusually high or low result could indicate a problem with material,
specimen location, specimen identification, etc.; such factors should be checked
before retesting.
The specimen location within a weld can influence tensile values obtained as a
result of dilution effects on the weld metal analysis. This is demonstrated in
Figure 3.4, which shows the effect of specimen typeAocation on results obtained in a
typical structural-steel weld. In the case illustrated in diagram (a), the all-weld tensile
result is shown to be affected by its through thickness location. This is associated
with small, compositionaldifferences between the sample close to the root (more dilution) and the sample close to the final layer of the weld (less dilution).
Diagram (b) shows a similar example taken from an actual procedure test. Here,
because of the limited capacity of tensile testing equipment, the initial transverse tensile test was carried out as a series of overlapping specimens (an acceptable practice).
The results obtained were marginally outside of the specified minimum ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and therefore deemed unacceptable by the client. Then, it was
noted that previous all-weld tests performed on the same weld were acceptable, and
that the transverse sample taken toward the root side of the weld was also acceptable.
For the retest of this weld, it was decided to have a full-section tensile test performed
at a different test establishment - where machine capacity was not a factor, and a
fully acceptable retest could be obtained. This example is worth remembering, particularly when, as in this case, it is known that the weld metal strength is marginal. In
general, the use of a full-size specimen should be beneficial in such situations.
Another test result warranting caution would be any unexpected increase in the
yield stress or yield stressAJTS ratio. Again, this could be indicative of a material
problem or simply an error in calculation; but, it could be the result of incidental cold
work due to improper handling of the test material. An example of the effect of previous cold work, or pre-straining, is shown in Table 3.1.

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The Practical Welding Engineer

Yet another notable tensile-test feature in steel weldments would be the appearance
of fish eyes on the fracture surface, as shown in Figure 3.5. Attributed to the presence of hydrogen, these are sometimes noted on welds made with cellulosic/rutile
SMAW electrodes. They also occur occasionally on some self-shielded flux cored arc
welds, particularly if tested in as-welded conditions. They should not be considered as
defects; but, if noted on welds made with a low-hydrogen process, they are worthy of
investigation (e.g., verifying that correct consumables were used).

Bend Testing
Bend tests are essentially qualitative in nature, and so they do not generate data of
direct relevance in engineering terms. The bend test is, however, a widely specified
(and cheap) test -both as a part of weld procedure qualification and, more often, as
a requirement in welder qualification tests. Although crude, the bend test is good at

DATA FROM A RANGE OF AS-WELDED SELF-SHIELDED FCAW TEST PLATES


Description
FL = FINAL LAVER
R =WELD ROOT

Yield Stress Nlmm


405-455
444-485

UitimaeTensile Strength Nimm


485555
52-551

(a) Varlobillly due Io All-Weld Tensile Lowtion

DATA FROM A HEAVY SECTION SELF-SHIELDED FCA WELD (POSTWELD HEATTREATED)


SPECIFIED MIN. UTS = 450 Wmm
Description
FL E FINAL LAVER
M = MID
R =WELD ROOT
F e FULL SECTION

UltimateTensile Strength Nimm


439,442
442,445
483,483
478,402,482

(b) Varlablllty due IO Transverse Tensile Dimensions

FIGURE 3.4 - EFFECT OF TENSILE TEST SPECIMEN TYPE AND LOCATION


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Weld Procedure Qualification

35

highlighting the presence of


weld defects, and it gives a
general indication of weld
metal ductility.
One situation where more
care is required is that involving a weld metal significantly
overmatched or under-matched
in tensile strength compared to
the base material, and similarly
for transition welds involving
quite different materials. Such
FIGURE 3.5 EXAMPLE OF "FISH EYES"
situations can have the effect of
concentrating the strain in the
lower strength zone, resulting in a failure not necessarily indicative of poor practice. In
the former case (weld metal), the preferred solution would be to select a weld consumable more closely matched in tensility. In the latter case, a slight offset of the fulcrum position can sometimes provide a more representative test.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Impact Testing (e.g., Charpy Tests)


The impact test, particularly the Charpy V-notch test, is widely used in materials
where toughness properties are important. In structural steels, the test is usually carried
out at a specified temperature, often -40C or F; and it provides useful (although only
comparative) data on the fracture toughness of the material tested. Unlike the crack tip
opening displacement (CTOD) test, which is conducted to provide a direct measurement of fracture toughness, the impact test does not provide a value of direct engineering significance; rather, it produces a relatively cheap and simple way by which
materials can be compared against each other over a range of temperatures. After
impact testing, and by comparison against historical data, the material can be judged as
safe, or otherwise, in terms of fracture toughness.

CONDITION

YIELD STRESS Nlnnm2

UTS Nlnnm'

YSAJTS

As Received (AR)

363

536

0.68

+ 2% Pre-Strain
AR + 5% Pre-Strain
AR + 10% Pre-Strain

406

553

0.73

500

569

0.88

583

608

0.96

AR

TABLE 3.1-

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36

The Practical Welding Engineer

In weld procedure tests on steels, it is normal practice to test both the weld metal
and the heat-affected zone. In the latter case, the positioning of the notch is important; and, close attention must be paid to this point, as moving the notch by as little
as 0.5 mm can often have a dramatic effect on the results obtained. Therefore, the
notch locations should be checked by etching individual specimens to ensure that the
correct locations have been taken. A similar procedure should be adopted prior to
notching Charpy specimens to ensure correct notch location. Notch profile and test
temperature also must be closely controlled. Despite its simplicity, the Charpy test is
one that requires close attention to detail in order to achieve reliable results.
Otherwise, the unpredictability associated with impact testing of welds (particularly
H u s ) will be so chronic, it will leave the welding engineer seeking divine intervention.

3.3 Simple Checks

Subject

Check

Equipment Calibration

Verify that all pieces of equipment are uniquely identified


and traceable to current calibration certificates.

Test Piece Identification

Verify how incoming test pieces are identified, and that


identification is maintained during machining.

Recording of Results

Verify that all relevant data are recorded, and are previous
data retrievable?

Tensile Tests

Spot check dimensions, particularly those relevant to


cross section.

Impact Tests

Spot check notch profile and review methods used by test


house. Check machine zero and specimen alignment.
Also check bath temperature (where applicable) just
before and/or during testing.

Micro/Macro-Examination

Check that a representative sample has been taken. Verify


that macro corresponds to weld records, and check
opposite (unprepared) face for obvious defects.

Hardness Survey

Check indentation locations. Also check load used.

Results

Query any unusual results (see previous text).

TABLE 3.2 - SIMPLE CHECKS

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Any test performed is of little value if the competence of the testing facility (whether
in-house or independent) is questioned. The welding engineer may sometimes be in a
situation where a review or witnessing of weld procedure tests is required, possibly at a
subcontractors premises. In such a situation, the simple checks mentioned in Table 3.2
can be useful for establishing a good level of confidence in the tests being undertaken.

Weld Procedure Qualification

37

The checks presented in Table 3.2 are not intended to provide the requirements for
a comprehensive quality or technical audit of a testing establishment; rather, they are
provided so the welding engineer may conduct checks at an individual level, easily and
informally. Any grossly unacceptable practice highlighted by such checks would, however, warrant a much more detailed assessment under formal guidelines.

3.4 Fracture Mechanics Test


The tests noted thus far in this chapter form a basis for routine weld procedure qualification testing in most industrial fields and have been the norm for many years.
However, in some situations (e.g., nuclear industry, offshore structural fabrication, pressure vessel fabrication, etc.) there is an increasing demand for more data on fracture
toughness properties - enough so that full consideration of fracture safety can be built
into the design of a structure at an early stage. The Charpy impact test, as already discussed, is an excellent ?comparator? in terms of fracture toughness; however, this test
does not provide data of direct engineering relevance in terms useful to the designer. For
data that can be used in such a manner, the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) test
must be carried out (usually at the design minimum temperature). In extreme cases, fullscale load-to-fracture testing or wide-plate fracture toughness testing may be required.
The CTOD test is, however, the test most widely applied to welds. This test is fully

Standard
Dimension

Speclmen

Subsldy
Specimen

WIDTH
THICKNESS
NOTCH THICKNESS
EFFECTWE NOTCH LENGTH
EFFECTIVE CRACK LENGTH

W
B = 0.5W

B-W

m
a

FIGURE 3.6 - CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT SPECIMEN


(REFER TO STANDARD BS 7448 FOR DETAILS)
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The Practical Welding Engineer

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described in various national standard, and a specimen form is shown diagrammatically in Figure 3.6.
Normally, the CTOD test is performed on the full section thickness of the weld. The
test can be applied either to the weld metal using a notch placed at the centerline, or
to the HAZ at a preselected location. The most commonly specified location for HAZ
testing in steels is the coarse-grained HAZ adjacent to the weld interface. Remember,
however, that this idea assumes such location represents the lowest toughness zone. A
specific feature of this type of test when applied to HAZ testing is the criticality of
accurately placing notch and fatigue cracks, since an error of just 0.25 mm can make
a very significant difference to the values obtained. For this reason, HAZ-CTOD data
must be supported by metallurgical examination reports on the broken specimens to
confirm that the fatigue crack tip has indeed sampled the microstructural zones targeted. A good explanation of such examinations is now provided in various standards
[3]. The necessity for accurate notch placement influences the overall approach to
such a test program; and, while the testing facility technician must inevitably play a
major role in the success of targeting specific microstructural areas, his chance of success is greatly affected by the standard of weld supplied for the test.
Two forms of CTOD testing are relatively common, namely,
through thickness notch specimen, and
surface notch specimen.
When testing the through thickness notch specimen, commonly carried out on a
single-bevel butt joint weld, it is important that the weld interface be kept reasonably
straight so the notch can sample as many areas as possible in the specified microstructure. This often means that additional precautions must be taken during welding, such
as controlling wire-to-wall position in submerged arc welding to ensure that the weld
interface remains straight. However, some might argue that, even with extra precautions, this method may not produce a .test representative of production conditions.
When a fully representative sample is demanded, the surface notch approach can be
taken; but, this method can be expected to produce a high number of microstructurally invalid test pieces (often in excess of 50 percent), which can become prohibitively
expensive. Another approach is described in other literature [l, 21, based on searching for the zone of minimum toughness. The methods above, however, are those normally specified.
Another use of the CTOD test is with respect to weldability testing for the qualification of material supply routes. This is now a fairly common requirement for offshore
structural fabrication activities, obligating the steel supplier to provide fracture toughness data for all thickness ranges and heat input ranges to be applied during fabrication.
Often, by presenting such data, the fabricator can avoid extensive CTOD testing as part
of the weld procedure requirements. However, when reviewing such information (supplied, for example, by the steelmaker), ask the following questions:
Is the data recent and does it reflect current steel chemistry and production routes?

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Weld Procedure Bualifcation

39

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How independent was the data?


Were the welds performed by a steelmaker or by a fabricator? Are
they representative of fabrication practices?
Are all results reported? (Beware of data reporting only averages, as
this can hide poor minimum values.)
Any assessment the welding engineer makes regarding the overall acceptability of
a material must take into account the above factors, as well as purely technical aspects
regardless of whether the data is viewed from the specifiers or the fabricators viewpoint.
Fracture toughness testing of this type remains the exception rather than the rule,
and it will not be required in the majority of weld procedure qualifications undertaken. Even so, the welding engineer should make himself aware of the potential for such
tests. The ability of the CTOD test to provide information of direct relevance to the
designer can sometimes be advantageous to the welding engineer faced with, say, procedure testing, or production-stage Charpy impact test failures. In such situations,
resorting to a fracture toughness test can sometimes satisfy the client that the weld is
fit for purpose. Another use of CTOD testing is to justify as-welded fabrication. For
instance, by demonstrating good as-welded fracture toughness, the avoidance of
expensive postweld heat treatment is sometimes possible (see the section on CTOD,
titled Fracture Toughness Justification, in Chapter 6, page 98).

3.5 Test Failures


During procedure testing, it is almost inevitable that the welding engineer will be
faced with test failures. Whether these are NDE rejections or mechanical test failures,
such failures immediately raise several questions. For example:
Can the cause of the failure be identified?
What impact, if any, will the failure have on production programs?
Can the procedure test be salvaged via retests and/or negotiation
with the client?
Is a complete rethink of the proposed welding procedure required?
In a well organized operation, the answer to the second question above should be
known in advance, and the amount of time available to the welding engineer prior to a
production requirement will obviously affect the way in which a failed procedure test
should be approached. For example, if the production need is not immediate, then there
may be time to fully assess the reason for the failure and take the required actions in
due course. However, if there is little time to spare (or, indeed, the procedure is already
late), then the welding engineer can expect little praise for providing an ideal solution to the problem in a week or two. A solution in this case is required immediately.
In a time-sensitive situation, the engineer must act quickly to obtain a qualified procedure in the shortest possible time. This may not be the best or most productive weld

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procedure, but a better solution can always be adopted later. In this type of situation,
it is usually advisable to generate options. For instance, if your instinct tells you that
it is possible to convince your client of a procedures fitness for purpose, then by all
means pursue this course of action. In the meantime, however, rerun the procedure
with a different weld preparation, consumable, or whatever is suspected to be the
source of the initial problem. Delays to production are far more costly than an extra
weld procedure test. So, do not waste time waiting for the answer to your first option;
it may be negative.
When presented with a test failure, it is important to establish the cause of the failure as soon as possible - or, at least, to rule out all non-causal factors. The cause
may be attributable to human error, equipment malfunction, a metallurgical problem,
or simply an unsuitable procedure. If the problem is traceable to the equipment used
or to the welder (e.g., porosity related to an equipment malfunction or slag inclusions), then it is usually possible to get the procedure accepted on the basis of
mechanical properties alone - possibly with the proviso of satisfactory NDE performance on the first production weld. Such occurrences should not be regarded as
indicative of poor weld procedures, provided of course that the slag inclusions were
not related to some adverse geometrical feature or access problem that made the
weld unusually difficult to accomplish.
The engineers reaction to failed mechanical tests should be governed to some
extent by previous experience. If the procedure test was utilizing previously proven
technology with respect to the consumables, then the f i s t thing to check is the source
and quality of the materials and consumables. At this stage, it is also worth checking
whether the same batches, casts, etc., were used in production -especially if serious
doubts are arising as to their acceptability.
Finally, it is necessary for the engineer to examine clearly the nature of the failure
to eliminate the possibility of simple errors such as incorrectly located specimens,
inaccuracy in notch location (impact tests), etc. Even if such a problem is found, the
fact remains that a failed result was obtained, and this cannot be ignored.
Nevertheless, close examination is required to establish where the problem lies, both
technically and contractually; because, if the failure is related to HAZ or base material, then it may be your clients problem (e.g., if the material was free issued or from
a contractually specified supplier). This in itself does not solve the technical problem,
and it does not absolve the welding engineer from his responsibility to solve the problem; but it may affect who pays the cost of rerunning weld procedures and, more
importantly, of delays in production. Contractual responsibilities must, therefore, be
borne in mind. A simple decision tree is shown in Figure 3.7 to illustrate the various
points noted and actions advised. Note that Figure 3.7 is not intended to provide a
fully comprehensive list of questions. The engineer must consider additional questions as necessary.

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--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIGURE 3.7 - FAILED TEST PLATE DECISION TREE


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References
[i] Rodgers, K. J. 1988. Heat-Affected Zones -A Fabricators Viewpoint. OMAEA
88, Paper 903.
[2] Private communication of original idea, Tad Boniszewski.

[3] American Petroleum Institute standard RP-2Z, Preproduction Qualificationsfor


Steel Plates for OfSshore Structures, 3rd Edition, 1998. Washington D.C.: American
Petroleum Institute.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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Chapter 4
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Production Welding Control


Production welding control is undoubtedly the sharp end of the welding engineers
involvement in any production environment. It cannot be emphasized enough that for
manual and semiautomatic applications, and to a lesser extent for machine welding
processes, the welder is the most important factor in controlling weld quality. No matter how good the welding procedure appears on paper, or how advanced the consumable or equipment may be, if the welder is not properly instructed, or controlled, the
chances of a poor weld resulting from his work increase dramatically. For example, if
the welder feels what he is doing is incorrect, or if the fume from the electrode is causing problems, or if the equipment seems awkward or wrong, then the welder will
prove that your procedure led to poor quality.
To help the welder produce good quality welds, there are several factors that must
be continually monitored and controlled. These are listed below in the order of importance to a welding engineer, then subsequently examined in detail.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Defect analysis
Welder training/qualification
Supervision
Useful aids
Consumable control
Production tests

4.1 Defect Analysis


This may appear to be a peculiar placing for this topic. However, unless the welding engineer is aware of what the problems actually are, he can make little progress
in rectifying them. Many companies benefit from the availability of a defect analysis
system. The usual format is one in which percent defect is expressed as defect length
divided by weld length. This may be further divided into linear or volumetric defects.
The use of weld length as an overall measure is simple to apply but lacks the effect of
volume. Consequently it has no absolute meaning, so take care in interpreting such
data - especially when a large amount of fillet welding is included in the overall
total. In this instance, a problem with a high defect rate on full penetration butt joint
welds could be easily masked.

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Should the engineer be fortunate enough to be able to relate percent defect to individual weld procedure (again, a format greatly desired and becoming increasingly
common), then a strict analytical routine should be applied to determine the cause(s)
behind the defect levels being achieved.
The defects will, in general, be induced by one or more of the following:
geometry,
equipment,
consumable,
procedure, or
operator.
A preliminary determinant can be the type of weld. Fillet weld defects are most
likely to be linear, caused by one or any combination of the following: cracking,
undercut, poor surface profile or overlap. With butt joints, one must ascertain if the
defect is linear or volumetric in order to help pinpoint the reason.
Presuming the defect can be identified, the causes listed in Table 4.1 can be examined. However, there are a number of other reasons for defects that should also be
examined in conjunction with those listed.

Geometry Related
The welding engineer must ask this basic question: Was the weld preparation suitable for the particular application? That automatically raises further questions.
Did the welder have sufficient access or vision?
Was the bevel angle too steep for adequate fusion?
Was the root opening too tighvwide?
Was the nose too thick or too thin?
If the weld preparation was such that gouging was specified prior to
second-side welding, was the backgouge too shallow?
Was there too small a radius at the weld root?
Do not assume, for instance, that if a backgouge depth of 8-10 mm (minimum) is
called for, this will always be what is needed. In reality this range will, more often
than not, need to be extended usually upward to, say, 15 mm. An examination of the
weld procedure preparation and careful consideration of the location of the reported
discontinuity often gives clues.
If geometry is thought to be the basic cause of the discontinuities, then the necessary remedial action can be taken. This may be re-preparation, relocation of the workpiece to increase welder accesshision, or even use of simple depth gauges and profiles to ensure more accurate backgouging.

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Welder Related
The main welder-induced faults are listed in Table 4.2. Other causes more difficult
to pinpoint are also possible. These include misuse of the procedure where, for example, a welder may utilize a larger gauge of electrode at an early stage where the weld
preparation is unsuitable. (Indeed, he may simply be new to the process or particular
technique.) Another aspect not to be overlooked is familiarity with the particular consumable itself. In this case, communication, trust, and rapport with the welder is of

Procedure Problem

Porosity

Dirty base metal or consumable


Wrong arc length or poor technique
Excessive moisture in weld area

Incorrectchoice of consumable or
gas shielding
Wrong preheat, Contaminatedbase
metal

Tungsten
inclusions

improper Inter-run cleaning


Current too highhungstentoo small
Poor technique
Joint positioned incorrectly
Use of damaged electrodes

Joint access too restrictive,


preparation problem

Inadequate
Fusion

Welding outside procedure


incorrect eiectrodeitorchposition
Weld pool running ahead of arc

Insufficientheat input
Poor joint design
Wrong choice of gas shielding

Inadequate
Joint
Penetration

Welding outside procedure


Incorrectelectrodes
Positioning or poor technique
Poor joint fitup
Incorrect backgouge

Wrong joint geometry


Insufficientheat input
Incorrectelectrode diameter specified
Incorrectbackgougespecified

Weld metal
Cracking

Poor fitup
incorrect consumable handling
Welding outside procedure
Poor technique - crater cracking
Balanced welding and/or backstep
or block welding required

Joint rigidity not allowed


for in choice of preheat
Consumable choice and dilution effects
Contamination from base material

HAZ
Cracking

incorrect preheat used


Incorrectconsumable used
Welding outside procedure
Contamination due to poor cleaning

Incorrectconsumable specified
Wrong preheat specified
Known base material problems not
properly catered for in weld procedure

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Welder or Shop Floor Problem

TABLE 4.1 TYPICAL DEFECTS AND CAUSES

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46

overwhelming importance. Many a welding engineer has spent an inordinate amount


of time investigating red herrings given to him by a welder with something to hide.
Changes in manual or semiautomatic electrode wire from one supplier to another,
or even within the same manufacturers range, can cause problems. A welder can
become accustomed to the handling characteristics of one particular consumable; this
can be at variance with another manufacturers assumed equivalent electrode.

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Material Related
Base materials being welded are less common sources for discontinuities, but nevertheless warrant investigation. The usual assumption is that what is supplied is correct regarding type, condition, microstructure, properties, etc. This is not always the
case. Plate, forging, casting, and piping manufacturers have been known to produce
out-of-specification products. Cracking can result from material having higher carbon
contents than specified. Discontinuities located by ultrasonic examination have been
traced to a large grain size that, according to the specification, should not be there.
High carbon piano wire has even been erroneously supplied as C-Mn wire for submerged arc welding with disastrous results for the weld metal.
Another material-related phenomenon is that of magnetism. During working of
carbon and low-alloy steels (by gouging, grinding, or at an even earlier stage of material manufacture), the component to be welded can gain residual magnetism. If high
enough, this can manifest itself in the form of arc blow. This problem may also have
other sources related to the welding current itself. It is usually encountered when
using direct current (DC) and can result in incomplete fusion, porosity, and excessive
spatter (see Chapter 6).
Overview
The overwhelming conclusion in defect analysis is that the welding engineer must
have, if possible, no preconceived ideas. The problem should be approached with an
open mind, not accepting the approved or obvious without question. The variability of
discontinuities and the many reasons for them require the welding engineer to investigate each instance comprehensively so that the actual reason for the discontinuity
may be ascertained. Only then can the proper remedial actions be implemented.
From a practical and managerial position, it always provides satisfaction to reach
a definitive conclusion, but do not forget that this is not always possible. No true engineer should be afraid to state that the reasons for a problem are not completely understood. Indeed, the solution may be a combination of factors that will never be satisfactorily explained.

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4.2 Welder Training and Qualification


The training andor qualification of welders plays a vital role in the success of any
fabrication business. Ultimately, the quality of the weld depends on the welder - an
obvious but often forgotten fact. The various national codes for the qualification of
welders provide a means by which a welders ability to reach a nominal quality level
can be assessed. The ability of a welder to pass any national code requirement is, however, no guarantee that he meets your requirements. Often the best, and possibly the
only, good reason for requiring a welder to undertake qualification to a national code
is that this is a specification requirement. The welding engineer and supervisory staff
must identify whether or not this requirement is the only test required, and, if not,
what other practical training or workmanship testing is necessary. National codes and
standards must be observed, but unless it is known that these effectively cover your
needs, they should always be regarded as a minimum. Along with recognizing any
need for additional practical training, the whole question of welder education, or
instruction, should be addressed thoroughly.
Good communication between the welding engineer and the welder can play an
important role in achieving an optimum quality level. In too many cases, communication is restricted to the welding procedure only. Recognize that the weld procedure
is only a limited set of welding instructions to be followed by the welder who, unfortunately, is often given little, or no, say in what is specified. Many problems with weld
procedures could be overcome simply by discussing the proposed parameters with a
skilled welder whose opinion can be invaluable in many practical circumstances. No
critical weld should be undertaken unless there has been discussion with the welder to
ensure that he understands the quality requirements and has had the opportunity to
comment on the procedure. In cases where the welders advice is ignored, he will
invariably prove the engineer wrong, resulting in a high defect rate. The welder is
more likely (unconsciously, at least) to respect an engineer who values his expertise;
the welder will soon recognize the value of mutual respect. Consequently the welder
will be more likely to accept changes to previously standard practices that the engineer may be forced to introduce to meet specification requirements.
Also remember that while the weld procedure documentation required by national
codes is necessary, it may be useful and appropriate in some cases to provide welders
with simplified procedure data in the form of a readable pocket-sized card. This would
contain the minimum of data required and only basic working parameters. The advantage here is that the welder will always have the procedure information at hand - a
key to quality assurance. Easy reference should also reduce the likelihood of working
outside procedure parameters.
Additional instructions given to welders can take many forms, from a casual conversation or an informal seminar, to the provision of written instructions to supplement weld procedures. Regardless of the method, the important feature should be the
provision of all relevant information to the welder in a format he can understand and
accept. There is little point in presenting a welder with a highly technical explanation
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of heat flow, critical cooling rates, microstructural effects, etc., when all that you wish
to ensure is correct preheat. The following statement is suggested as an adequate
explanation for this specific requirement:
The faster a weld cools, the harder and more brittle the metal
will become and the more likely it is to crack. Preheat is used
to slow down the rate of cooling. The preheat stated on the
weld procedure has been chosen to suit the material and it is
important that this preheat is correctly applied.

Main Causes

Porosity

Poor welding technique


Incorrect setting
Lack of cleaning
Electrodes not dried

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Type of Discontinuity

Slag Inclusions

Poor welding technique


InsuffMent interpass cleaning

Tungsten Inclusions

Welding current too high


Electrode contamination
Poor welding technique
Current too low
Welding speed too high

Incomplete Fusion

Incomplete Penetration

Poor arc control


Current too low
Welding speed too high
Root opening too narrow

Excess Penetration

Poor arc control


Current too high
Welding speed too low
Root opening too wide

Undercut

Poor welding technique


Current too high

Underfill

Insufficient weld layers deposited

Arc Strikes

Poor welding technique

Crater Cracking

Poor welding technique


Incorrect termination of the welding arc and/or
shielding gas

TABLE 4.2
WELDER INDUCED DEFECTS AND CAUSES

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In some circumstances, even just a simple, highlighted statement can suffice, such
as Preheat prevents cracking.
Some argue that the welder does not need to know, for instance, why a particular
preheat is used; in strict terms this may be true. However, it is probably also true that
more attention will be paid to detailed requirements where an appreciation of the need
for such requirements exists; this should benefit quality levels overall.
Similarly, a useful approach to reducing defect levels is to ensure that welders and
other shop floor personnel are fully aware of the consequences of their particular operations - for example, how the standard of fitup or machining can influence weld discontinuities, or the importance of pre-weld cleaning on porosity, or interpass cleaning
on avoiding slag inclusions. This introduces the principle of self-inspection whereby
the welder is the first person with the opportunity to judge the visual acceptability of
a weld. By empowering the welder to make this judgement, the company should reap
benefits, establishing a principle of pride in workmanship.
Actual samples illustrating these points to the welder provide an excellent communication technique. Given a piece of hardware demonstrating, for example, that
welding in the uphill position instead of downhill can produce large beads and hence
poor notch impact values, will make the point in a more memorable and meaningful
fashion than mere words on a weld procedure.
The welder should be made aware of the main discontinuities encountered in welding and, specifically, any discontinuities known to be prevalent in the particular components or material being welded. A typical list of such discontinuities can be produced for general reference, and those shown in Table 4.2 are offered as an example
(together with the causes relevant to the welder). The main causes of discontinuities
are in many standard textbooks, but these should be augmented by any specific
knowledge from past experience. No matter how good a textbook seems, such books
cannot be expected to cover all situations. It may be.that for a particular procedure or
process, the parameters are particularly critical.
A good example is the self-shielded flux cored arc welding of offshore structural
steels. Here, the requirement for good, low-temperature toughness properties effectively restrict the type of weld procedure that can be used, despite that defect-free
welds can be produced over a fairly wide parameter band [i].In such situations, it is
even more important that the welder be well informed to ensure that he does not
unwittingly improve production by increasing deposition rate, thereby causing
problems with weld metal toughness. In just such a case, strict control over weld
travel speed was required; this was monitored via relationships established with bead
width (Le., controlled bead width = controlled travel speed = good toughness). An
example of how strict this requirement had to be is given in the section of this chapter discussing production tests (see Production Weld Test Pieces, page 60).

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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4.3 Supervision

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The supervision of welded fabrication encompasses many aspects of shop floor


management, Within the concept of this book, however, only the technical supervision
of welded fabrication is relevant. Company structures of course vary considerably,
and although ideally all personnel should be committed to producing the maximum
output at an acceptable quality level, sometimes the interests of production management and technical management will appear to be in conflict. The interchange of ideas
between the production supervisory staff and the welding engineer can assist in minimizing such conflict. It does this by ensuring that, as in the case of welders, supervisors are fully aware of the requirements of the weld procedure and their associated
specifications. Supervisors must also be aware of the consequences of not adhering to
procedure and specification. Production supervision by its nature, of course, will
always tend to be more concerned with maximizing output. While technical instructions and specification rules should not be ignored or broken, you can assume they
will be given their most liberal interpretation. This will also apply to the welding procedure and any general welding instructions that the welding engineer may issue. For
this reason, it is important that all such requirements are both justifiable and extremely clear.
The relationship between the welding engineer and the welding supervisor is crucial. The engineer may, in some situations, be totally reliant on the supervisor for the
implementation of specific requirements. At the same time, the supervisor represents
a first-hand source of information on problems occurring on the shop floor, thus providing an opportunity for early correction.
The next section in this chapter on Useful Aids provides guidance on some methods that can enhance shop floor control. Knowledge of such gadgetry to supervisors
is worthwhile in itself. As a general rule, individuals will be less likely to ignore
requirements when a means of checking them (and the knowledge that checks are carried out) is available. Thus, if a welder knows that spot checks on weld parameters are
carried out he is more likely to ensure he will be working within procedure limits.
Similarly, the availability (and visibility of use) of contact pyrometers, or a range of
temperature-indicator crayons, should significantly improve the application and maintenance of preheat levels.
Good supervision, however, need not and should not involve constant checking of
such detail. If the communication of ideas between the engineer, the supervisor, and
the welder is functioning properly, then less time will be needed for such routine
checks and more time will be available for addressing real problems. It is becoming
more common in certain industries to allow a suitably trained supervisor to perform
formal visual acceptance of completed welds. The main criteria here are the needs for
appropriate training and qualification. Companies operating such practices have
quickly realized benefits from less waiting time on the shop floor and greater pride in
workmanship. Empowering the work force to be responsible for quality rather than
trying to inspect quality can be shown to increase both productivity and quality [2].

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4.4 Useful aids


There are various methods by
which production welding control
can be enhanced with simple tools
and gauges, often at relatively low
cost.

Standard Workmanship
FIGURE 4.1
Examples
STANDARD
WORKMANSHIP EXAMPLE
Exhibiting a typical component,
or section of a component, in the
workplace that demonstrates the required weld quality in terms of, say, fillet size or
surface finish can sometimes be extremely helpful. Although this would not be appropriate or necessary in most situations, it can prove a worthwhile exercise in applications where production is regularly affected by disputes regarding quality. Such an
example is shown in Figure 4.1.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Weld Replicas
As an alternative to the above, and especially useful on large projects involving
many work fronts, there are methods available by which accurate epoxy replicas of
weld surfaces can be produced. These
lightweight samples are then available to
both fabricator and client inspection personnel as necessary. One method for producing these replicas is described below.
At the procedure qualification stage, the
fabricator and client should select a sample from the procedure test that will form
the basis of either a ?typical? or a ?worst
acceptable? weld profile or surface finish. A block containing this portion, ideally about 6 in. (150 m)long (in weld
direction) and trimmed to provide about
1-2 in. (25-50 mm) of base material
adjacent to the weld, would be removed.
This block would then be placed in a
suitable container and a silicon rubber
compound cast around it. After curing,
this component would be separated from
the block to leave a silicon rubber mold,
or ?negative,? of the weld sample. As
FIGURE 4.2 - WELD REPLICAS
many replicas as required could then be

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weldment has been carried out to


achieve a certain profile.

Arc Monitoring'
While there are some sophisticated arc monitoring equipment packages available,
care must be taken to balance the expense of providing a measurement and the need
for, and usefulness of, the data provided. If the tool required is intended as a means
for the welding engineer, or supervisor, to ensure that the welders are working within
the specified procedure tolerances, then simple hand-held meters or tong testers may
be all that is needed. If, on the other hand, a detailed record with printout or graphical display is required, then the equipment needed will be considerably more expensive and probably less flexible.
Where detailed monitoring of this nature is
required by specification
(for example, in some
nuclear applications), a
monitoring system can be
included in a purpose-built
power sourcekontrol unit.
Also, a number of suitcaseor briefcase-sized portable
monitoring packages are
capable of printing out current, voltage, and wire feed
speeds, as well as providing
such ancillary functions as
temperature monitoring and
heat input calculations
(Figure 4.4). The availability of such Portable equip- FIGURE 4.4 - PORTABLE ARC MONITORING PACKAGE
ment, although not recom--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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Gauges
Gauges come in many forms, but fall essentially into two categories:
those used by inspection personnel and others for actual measurement, and
those used by the welder to measure progress, check workmanship,
etc.
The first category is to a large extent self-explanatory and will not be discussed in
detail here. These would include items ranging from accurate dimensional survey
tools to simple goho-go gauges. The gauges of more immediate interest here are
those used on the shop floor by the welder. These should ideally have the following
characteristics:
easy to use,
inexpensive, and
no more accurate than necessary.
The types of gauges that fall into this category would be simple fillet-size gauges,
backgouge depth and profile gauges, a steel ruler, root opening gauge, torch flow
meters, etc. A point worth noting is that it seems that some of the best and simplest
gauges in this group have been those supplied as promotional aids by consumable suppliers. It may at first appear that some of the items mentioned (for example, a ruler)
are unworthy of note. However, the situation where welders are asked to produce a
certain size or length of fillet, and are then left to judge this by eye, is probably rather

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--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

mended for full-time recording of data, does provide the welding engineer with something very useful. Now he has a method by which clients can be convinced (by
demonstration) of details about which they may otherwise have been reluctant to
accept, e.g., the consistency in operation of a particular piece of equipment, the ability of welders to work to strict tolerances or weld parameters, etc.
Remember, however, that any such equipment should be calibrated and that the
methods employed to calibrate production equipment and measuring equipment
should be the same, or at least the differences should be understood. A good example
of this last point refers to a well-known suitcase measuring piece of equipment that
records the true mean AC current. This, however, gives an 11 percent lower value than
the RMS (root mean squared) current value displayed in most standard welding plant.
It is obvious that in the wrong hands such equipment identifying an apparent error
could lead to disaster. The importance of understanding what is being measured
should not be underestimated. Also note where the monitoring unit is connected, as
this may not necessarily be the same position as the metered reading on the welding
equipment (especially in relation to welding voltages where voltage drops can affect
readings). Once again, care is required in evaluating any data produced.

54

The Practical Welding Engineer


--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

common. In this case,


the welder is likely to
err on the safe side
by producing more
weld (and hence more
cost) than required. It is
thus to everyones benefit if the welder and
other shop floor personnel are provided
with the ancillary tools
necessary for the work
at hand. This does not
mean that every welder
should be issued an
expensive gauge that
measures everything
(usually slowly); it is
usually better to only
FIGURE 4.5 GOOD GAUGES AT A SMALL COST
use a tool made for a
specific required task.
Such gauges can usually be made with even limited machining facilities; and,
although best made in metal, in some situations a wooden gauge would suffice (particularly if intended only for short-term use). A few typical examples are shown in
Figure 4.5.As can be seen, the unit cost of some of the items shown is minimal.

Use of Stub Lengths


The use of electrode stub lengths to assist in shop floor monitoring of the shielded
metal arc welding (SMAW) process is a somewhat arbitrary, yet very useful technique. It is a simple process for which the rules can be quickly derived during the
qualification of procedure tests.
Study of SMAW procedure qualification test data will show that there is a very
strong inverse relationship between current and melt-off time, and that these two will
compensate for each other almost perfectly for any given electrode size (for example,
if heat input was calculated using an arbitrary constant voltage, then a constant power
per unit length of electrode will result). Also, any increase in arc voltage will result
from an increased arc length leading to greater heat losses by radiation, so that the
changes in arc voltage do not themselves contribute to changes in melt-off rate.
The consequence of this conclusion is that the only parameter that needs to be measured to detect heat input variations is the pass length.

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55

The Significance of Heat Input


Welding procedure tests, especially on high-strength, high-toughness steels used
for offshore constructions, generally have two main technical objectives: to demonstrate the weldment has adequate toughness, and that the heat-affected zone (HAZ)
has acceptable hardness. Tensile and bend tests are also included in destructive testing requirements, but these are relatively unaffected by variations in heat input.
Since hardness in the HAZ is governed by cooling rate, the two key factors in the
procedure test are the preheat or interpass temperature and the heat input. A low heat
input will increase HAZ hardness but will rarely have any other adverse effect on the
mechanical properties of the weldment. The minimum acceptable heat input for the
level of preheat selected is, therefore, a key parameter and, for SMA welding, is
reflected in the maximum acceptable electrode pass length.
Weld microstructure, and therefore toughness, is also governed by cooling rate; but
in this case, the adverse changes tend to result from slow cooling. Procedure tests can
again be used to determine the maximum acceptable heat input for the preheat selected, which defines the minimum acceptable SMAW electrode pass length.
Establishing Pass Length Limits [3]
Historically, it has been common for SMA welding procedure tests to be run almost
independently of the proposed welding procedure specification (WPS). The welder
was presented with the test joint in the prescribed position and told to weld it. If all of
the tests passed, then everyone was happy; and, although the way in which the test
weld was made was often scrupulously recorded, no one seriously believed that all
other welders making production welds to that procedure number would actually weld
exactly the same way.
This approach has a variety of unfortunate consequences. Since the heat input may
vary significantly from one pass to another, no one can be quite sure of the properties
developed by any given heat input, so it is not clear how essential variables limiting
changes in heat input (whether directly, or in terms of the number of passes to complete a given weld groove area) should be implemented. And if someone does establish a technically justifiable way of defining pass length ranges, any determined
inspector will be able to find welders depositing passes outside these limits.
A change of approach was recently introduced on some offshore fabrications in the
United Kingdom where the welding procedure test was used to establish and justify
pass length limits, rather than being some token point of reference that bears no obvious relationship to the limits applied. To achieve this, it is essential to explain to the
welder performing the test that this is not intended to represent a way a production
weld would be made. Consequently, test welders should be told that the entire plate
has to be completed using pass lengths within 10 percent of the figure defined in the
WPS; if it is not, it will be discarded and a new one will be welded by someone more
skilled.
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The choice of pass length selected by the welding engineer becomes critically
important, since a whole series of tests would normally be run using the same parameters. The minimum pass length is chosen to represent a value slightly shorter
than any production welder is likely to use. Again, because of the number of test
plates, it is essential that the weld metal be suitable for this heat input, so it is important to establish this fact -by changing consumable if necessary -before any major
testing program begins. Similarly, the maximum pass length is chosen to represent
a value slightly longer than any production welder is likely to use. Since the property
at risk here is the HAZ hardness level, the critical parameter is the preheat level for
this pass length.
To avoid undue difficulties for the test welder, the selection of pass length limits is
combined with the selection of welding position, so that the long pass length tests are
performed 2G and the short pass length tests 3G. It is assumed that all welds in either
1G or 4G (or indeed, 5G or
350
6G) will use pass lengths
within these limits, and so
there is no justification for
separate tests in these posi300
tions. This approach has
been condensed in some
specifications
into
a
250
requirement simply to qualify standard procedures in
,
the 2G and 3G positions to
200
cover all other positions.
One concession to
Diameter
normal production welding
150
is permitted - variable
stub lengths. Again, asking
the welder to work to a con1O0
stant 50-mm stub length
could put an unnecessary
additional strain on his concentration, so the stub ends
50
should instead be collected
for each pass. Knowing the
total length of the pass, the
number of electrodes used,
50
1O0
150
their
original lengths, and
Stub Length (mm)
the total length of the stub
ends, it is possible to calcuFIGURE 4.6 - MONITORING CHART FOR A TYPICAL
late
the length of electrode
80166 TYPE 4-MM-DIAMETER ELECTRODE
used per unit length of weld.

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l-7

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From this figure, the pass length to be expected with a nominal 50-mm stub is established. Applying the 10 percent tolerance to this full pass value also avoids the risk
of a single minor aberration producing a rejected plate. (Note that in monitoring procedure tests, reporting the results relating to only one electrode in each pass is now
common practice.)
If the welding engineer has done his job correctly, all of the mechanical tests will
pass, and these limits on pass length will have been validated. More importantly for
production welding, all of the production welders will naturally work within these
limits.
This welding procedure test will normally provide data for more than one diameter of electrode, and a series of graphdelectrode size can be produced.

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350

300

250

E
E

200

al

1
c

150

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Production Weld Monitoring


by Pass Length
If the pass length is the only
parameter to be measured, the
supervisor/inspector can choose
his welder after the arc has been
struck, and can then approach
the welder on completion of the
electrode. Only two measurements are necessary: the length
of the pass, and the length of the
stub end remaining. Because the
pass length limits have been
established on the basis of length
of electrode per unit length of
weld, it is possible to construct
monitoring charts that define
these limits for any length of
stub.
Different charts, one from
each electrode diameter, can be
developed, as shown in Figures
4.6 and 4.7. In these diagrams,
the dotted lines represent the
normal range that would result
from the parameters quoted on a
WPS. The bands labeled
Caution Welder cover the 10
percent tolerance permitted on
these limits to both the welder

1O0

50

50

1O0

150

Stub Length (mm)

FIGURE 4.7 - COMBINED MONITORING CHARTS


FOR TYPICAL 8016G TYPE 3.25-MM AND 5.0-MM
DIAMETER ELECTRODES

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The Prucficu/ Welding Engineer

being assessed and procedure welder. Although welding within these bands will produce acceptable results, any welder found welding within the Caution zone should
be appropriately advised, and the welding engineer should also be warned that his
chosen limits may prove to be non-conservative. If a production welder is discovered
welding within the Quarantine zone, then the resultant weld will require either
removal or qualified acceptance subject to a review by the welding engineerklient,
etc. This is because the properties of these more extreme welding parameters have not
been established. Figure 4.7 shows that two electrode sizes can be conveniently displayed on a single chart if the limits do not overlap.
This approach has the added advantage that, if the welder is aware of the supervisorhspectors presence and breaks his arc early to avoid monitoring, the weld length
he has already completed can still be assessed. This may sound as if the object of the
exercise is to catch welders doing the wrong thing, but it is not. If the welding engineer has chosen his test parameters correctly, all welders will be working within them
as a result of their natural techniques. The production monitoring exercise then
becomes a far more convincing way of demonstrating to the client that the procedure
test results really do represent the properties of production welds.

Limitations of Approach
It is unlikely that a welder will use a single electrode diameter, either in production
or in a procedure test, so separate limits (and separate charts) will need to be established for each size in use. The welding engineer may be ill-advised enough to believe
that he should specify different pass-length limits in different parts of the weld; this
causes complications. This is definitely not recommended in the root pass, since pass
length here is heavily dependent on fitup. As such there is likely to be significant variation - even for a single welding position. This is not considered a major drawback
as the root pass of a single-sided weld is unlikely to affect the mechanical properties
measured in the procedure test and a root pass in a double-sided weld is likely to be
removed by gouging.

4.5 Consumable Control


To achieve good welds, the consumables used must be both correctly issued (identifiable and traceable) and in the correct condition (clean, baked, free of rust, etc., as
applicable). The responsibility for consumable control will lie predominately with
production supervision and welders themselves. However, the welding engineer
should always ensure that the controls being exercised are sufficient and that the
supervisors and welders are made fully aware of the importance of such control.
Identification and traceability of consumables, of course, are not a major problem
while the consumables are in the suppliers packaging. It is when smaller quantities
are issued to the shop floor that problems may arise. Packaging may be damaged and
identification lost, especially if any unused consumable is not returned to correct stor--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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age immediately. The only acceptable rule in such situations is: i f i n doubt, throw it
out.

Depending on the industry involved, the traceability of consumables may or may


not be a significant requirement. Where traceability is required, then the stores system
must be designed to accommodate this, with all issues and returns of consumables
requiring close control. It is also important that, where required, all necessary consumable certification is checked prior to issue of materials to the shop floor. Most consumable manufacturers will have an adequate system for identifying consumables,
such as the typical systems that follow:
Submerged arcfluxes: Every bag or container marked with type and
batch.
Solid wires and flux cored wires: External packaging and individual
coils of cored wire (spooled) marked with type and batch.
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAw) electrodes: External packaging
marked with type and batch. Individual electrodes should be marked
with type as a minimum.
Solid wire (straight lengths) for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAV:
External packaging marked with type and batch. Some manufacturers
also roll mark individual wire lengths with batch number.

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If due care is taken, the use of the wrong consumable should be easily avoided.
Mix-ups do occur, however, and this could lead to major problems in a mixed fabrication area. Use a color coding system as an additional precaution by paint-marking
the ends of electrodes or wires in a readily identifiable manner. This ideally should not
be required, but conditions are seldom ideal. This and other small expenditures may
save considerably more if serious problems are avoided.
Equally important is the condition of the consumable. It is only through correct
storage and treatment that consumables can be delivered to the welder in the correct
condition. The manner of handling the consumables will obviously depend on the type
of product in question. For solid wire products, the main requirement is simply to keep
the product clean and dry to avoid contamination with dust, rusting, etc. More control
is required on flux-containing products such as submerged arc fluxes, manual electrodes and flux cored wires.
While some products require only storage under clean, dry conditions, there are
others, such as basic low-hydrogen electrodes and fluxes, that require additional
treatments to ensure the product reaches the welder in its correct low-hydrogen con-

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The Practico1 Welding Engineer

dition. For electrodes, this would normally involve a regime of electrode baking (typically 300-35O0C), electrode holding (typically 120-15OoC), and direct issue to
welders in heated quivers (approximately 70C). Most importantly, recognize that
once a practice has been established, it must be strictly enforced; again, some form of
audit on the operation of the system should be regularly carried out. In some situations, it is also sensible to carry out hydrogen determinations on product samples
taken from shop floor level on a random basis.
The introduction (c. 1990) of EMR (extra moisture resistant) fluxes, electrodes,
and packaging is a fairly recent, but now well established, development in terms of
low-hydrogen consumables. For SMAW electrodes, this offers the possibility of issuing electrodes directly to the welder in the suppliers packaging with a guarantee of
achieving very low weld metal hydrogen (-4mL/lOO g) values over fairly prolonged
shop floor periods, typically 10 hours. Note that any electrodes returned to the issue
store after the 10 hours must be baked and handled as per the regime noted above to
ensure weld metal hydrogen values are kept low.
This is achievable through the use of improved binders, and also through the introduction of specialized packaging systems. These systems are designed to eliminate
moisture pickup, thereby maintaining the electrode in the condition it was manufactured. Such systems can be based on either vacuum packing or the use of atmospheric control within the packaging.
The treatment of submerged arc fluxes, particularly the fully basic agglomerated
types, requires special attention. This is necessitated by the often rapid deterioration,
in terms of moisture pickup, which can occur if conditions are not correct. These types
of flux are usually either used straight from the newly opened packaging, preheated,
or baked before use. In each case, problems can occur. If used straight from bag or tin,
establish that the manufacturers packaging is both intact and designed to deliver the
product in a usable condition. If preheated or baked, the control over this operation
must ensure that both the temperatures used and the times at temperature are adequately monitored. Otherwise, it is possible to increase the moisture content of a flux
while in the oven if the flux is handled incorrectly. It is beneficial to ensure that the
consumable supplier has been made aware of and has approved the handling techniques employed; also, have this recorded for the purpose of informing your clients.

4.6 Production Weld Test Pieces


It may be surprising to find this section relegated to that of least importance in
terms of production welding control. This is because such tests are after the event,
whereas the preceding notes refer to actions that should help ensure that production
tests do not become a problem area - or, indeed, justify their avoidance.
In many industries, it will be a specification requirement to provide production test
pieces for mechanical testing. The frequency of such tests is usually based on either
time (e.g., one test per day/week) or by production quantities (e.g., one per 50 m of
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weld, per vessel). The principal objective of production tests is usually to demonstrate
that specified mechanical properties are being consistently achieved in the production
environment. In either case, the most important points for the engineer are that the test
is correctly identified, traceable to a known production quantity or unit, and correctly
carried out. The last point may seem strange considering that by definition a production test should be fully representative of production performance. However, while
achieving this is simple in the case of a longitudinal joint weld where the production
test piece can be an extension of the actual production component, this cannot always
be assumed in cases where a separate test piece must be set up. Here, two extremes
are possible, both of which are wrong:
The test piece is given a level of detailed attention far beyond normal production and as such is not representative.
The test piece represents a nuisance to production. As a result it
is not completed correctly, leading to potential failures, again not
representative of production.
A production test encompasses both a check on the welder and on the welding consumables. However, periodically such tests can also highlight problems with base
materials that previously may have been missed. An example will be given later.
It is important to be able to identify the production quantity against which the production test can be referenced. This should be straightforward, but it has been known
for production departments to produce a run of test pieces. Beware; if one of these
fails, the acceptability of a much larger production quantity may be cast in doubt.

Dealing with Production Weld Test Failures


The failure of a production weld test is (we hope) a rare occurrence, but one which
will place the welding engineer in the limelight - or, more likely, at the whipping
post. The first reactions from production could be something like:
Why did you choose that consumable?
Why did you change the weld parameters?
What are you going to do about the problem?
There are many more typical comments usually in more descriptive, colorful language, but probably the only valid question is: What can be done?
The first thing to establish is the nature of the failure (e.g., welding discontinuities,
mechanical properties, etc.) and identify and arrange associated production welds to
be quarantined pending investigation. All relevant information must be generated
quickly, and it is important that a strategy is established regarding the approach both
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to the technical investigation and to satisfy the client as to the acceptability of the
overall production run. Identification of the problem may not always be straightforward, and a few examples of problems that have occurred in the past are given later
in this section. Satisfying the client organization can depend upon their perception of
the problem, the urgency of their need for the component in question, and the relationship and trust previously established with the client on prior work. Obviously,
there will be occasions where a production test failure must result in materials being
scrapped - but this should always be a last resort.
The following are typical cases of production test failures highlighting three different causes.

Example 1: Performance-Related Failure

Was the wire batch satisfactory and was the wire feeding
problem in any way related?
Was the equipment operating properly?
Was the production test welded within production parameters?
What could be done to convince the client of the acceptability of associated production components?
It was quickly established by trial that both items 1 and 2 were
noncontributory. The wire feeding problem had been related to tests
on new equipment, and the equipment used for the production test
had been fully checked and found to be working satisfactorily.This
was important since, although any problem found may have helped
to explain the problems occumng, it would also call into question
all similar production equipment. The indications were, therefore,
that the problem was related to the actual weld procedure used.
Given that the weld exhibited no immediately obvious indications
of poor practice, and the usual assurances from production personnel were obtained, it seemed unlikely that positive proof of any poor
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In this example, a semiautomatic self-shielded flux cored arc


welding procedure had been subjected to a routine production test
and failed due to low weld metal impact properties. The procedure
used was well known to be sensitive to parameter variations. A
minor complication was that the particular batch of consumable
used had been reported as giving wire feed problems during the
period preceding the failure. The questions to be addressed are,
therefore, the following:

Production Welding Control

63

practice could be obtained. However, despite that at first glance the


macroscopic examination of this weld appeared normal, close
examination and comparison with a previous good weld yielded
interesting results.
It was noted that the average layer of thickness was higher in the
weld giving the low impacts; this corresponded to a reduced amount
of inter-layer refinement. By using a simple technique, the macroscopic examination can also provide confirmation of incorrect practice via a calculated actual deposition or fill rate and the corresponding theoretical rate.
From Macroscopic Examination (see Figure 4.8)

1.

By direct estimate, estimate area A, Le., area of original


weld preparation excluding root face and reinforcement

(DI.
3.
4.

Convert unit A to a volume per unit length of weld


(cmVm).
Count number of passes corresponding to area A.
Calculate average volume of weld deposited per bead per
unit weld length (cmVm).

FIGURE 4.8 - MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION

From Manufacturers and/or Previous Data

5.
6.

Predict deposition rate at nominal current used (kgh).


Convert this to a volume deposition rate via density relationship (cmVmin).
Based on specified procedure travel speed, calculate range
of arc time per bead per unit weld length (min/m).

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2.

64

The Practical Welding Engineer

7.

From the above, calculate predicted range of volume of


weld deposited per bead per unit weld length (cmVm).

Now, if the weld from which the macroscopic examination was


sampled was completed within parameters given in the weld procedure, the value derived in Step 4 should fall within the range predicted by Step 7. Obviously the above technique is not precise, but
where a large error is found, it would provide a reasonable pointer to the problem encountered. In the particular case involved here,
such a technique was used to establish that the travel speed was
about 20 percent below the minimum of the range specified. The
fault, therefore, lay with the welder in this case, but it remained a
problem to convince the client of the acceptability of the associated
product. This was done by performing crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests on the failed production test plate and demonstrating that, even in this condition, the weld metal was fit for purpose on a fracture toughness basis.

Example 2: Material-Related Failure


This case relates to a major base material problem discovered
purely by chance due to a production weld test. On testing the particular weld involved between a pipe and flange, it was found that
the flange HAZ impact properties were very poor. Immediate investigation of the problem showed it was unrelated to welding, but
caused by the incorrect heat treatment of externally supplied (and
certified) flange materials. Further investigation of other flanges
highlighted this to be a widespread problem. Resolution of this
problem involved on-site metallography on previously welded
spool pieces with many subsequent complete rejections, or repeat
heat treatments required at considerable expense and inconvenience. Although not a feature that could be easily controlled or predicted by the fabricator or welding engineer, this example serves as
a useful warning: Do not place too much trust in cert$cation, especially i f problems become apparent.

Example 3: Consumable-Related Problems


In the previous pages of this chapter, an emphasis was placed on
checking consumable certification prior to issue to the shop floor.
This, however, does not guarantee elimination of consumable-relat--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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Production Welding Control 6 5

ed problems. An example of this is the submerged arc welding of


offshore structural steels using a basic agglomerated flux. There is
evidence available that for a given wire chemistry, different process
applications can give significant differences in results. It has been
known that residual elements can play a major role in the optimization of weld metal toughness. Among these elements, nitrogen is
detrimental and, for that reason, has been limited to around 100ppm
or less in consumable specifications. However, whereas using a
wire with 100 ppm nitrogen has yielded acceptable results when
using conventional single or tandem submerged arc procedures with
and without iron powder additions, the same wire has resulted in
poor impact properties when employed with a narrow-groove welding technique. The mechanisms involved in such a case are complex
and this example is included merely as a warning. When employing
any new practices, it should never be assumed that all the old
rules apply. Be ready for surprises.
These examples highlight typical production failures. They also reinforce the fact
that such results do not always reflect poor production practice, as only the first such
example proved to be the case. Having investigated a problem, the client must be fully
satisfied as to the acceptability of the product to avoid scrapping valuable production
components. Some investigative approaches have already been examined. In addition,
the following can be considered:
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

Assess the production batch on a fitness-for-purpose basis (eg.,


in offshore construction, the design may permit a different impact
or crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) test temperature for
components below the waterline; fabrication specifications often
specify the more stringent above-waterline conditions as a general
requirement).
Can the properties be recovered by heat treatment?
Can the property requirements be relaxed? (See 1 above)
Can additional test pieces be produced to demonstrate a potential
one off effect in relation to failure? Often previous data can be
used to support such an argument.
Can test pieces be taken from an actual production component to
satisfy the acceptability of that production run?
In the case of impact test failures, can fracture toughness tests be
utilized? (See 1 above.)

This list represents common approaches. However, every problem tends to have its
own individual solution that may be a combination of approaches covering more than
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The Practical Welding Engineer

one of the above. In addition, the cost element must always be considered. It may be
cheaper to scrap a number of components rather than to recover them. While this will
not always be an acceptable option, it must always be considered. This is especially
true where any additional required testing is likely to be extensive.

References
[i] Rodgers, K.J. and Lochhead, J. C. 1987. Self-shielded flux cored arc welding the route to good toughness. Welding Journal 66(7): 49-59.
[2] Lochhead, J. C., and Rodgers, K. J. 1997. The Welding Paradigm. London:
International Conference on Joining and Welding for the Oil and Gas Industry, The
Welding InstituteDBC U. K. Conferences, Ltd.
[3] Based on an original methodology by Dr. W. Welland.

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Chapter 5

Estimating and Reducing Welding Costs


I

There are many reasons for requiring an estimate or evaluation of welding costs,
e.g., in bidding for work, or the evaluation of new or alternative methods. It is also
clear that to reduce welding costs you must fist identify and understand them.

5.1 Estimating Welding Costs


There are several approaches to the estimation of welding costs, some specific to
the company methods involved, some making a detailed assessment, others only a
rough estimate. Regardless of the particular methods used, remember that the accuracy of the result is dependent on the accuracy of the input data. Where a rough estimate
is all that is necessary, it may be possible to utilize published non-company data; but
where a more accurate estimate is required, some measurement of achievable, or previously achieved, performance particular to your company is essential. In all cases,
the following factors should be considered in the most convenient unit:
labor cost, including overhead (unit cost/unit time);
operating factor (OF), where OF = arc timehotal time;
joint completion rate, i.e., unit weldunit time;
consumable cost per unit weld (deposited); and
total weld quantity.
From these, the total weld cost can be obtained as follows:
total weld cost =

labor cost x total weld quantity


+ total consumable cost
operating factor x joint completion rate

Labor Costs
Labor cost is the unit cost per unit time (e.g., $/hour) for a welder. It should include
all the overhead costs associated with the operation as determined by the normal
accountancy practices of the organization involved.

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Operating Factor
The operating factor is the ratio between the arc time and the total time spent by a
welder in completing a joint. This factor is crucial to the costing exercise, since any
change in the factor used has a proportional effect on the costs predicted. By definition, the operating factor will always be less than 1.O, since a value of 1.O would imply
continuous welding. The operating factor is higher on automated or semiautomated
processes and lower on manual processes. The range [ 11 of typical operating factors
for various processes is shown in Figure 5.1. When considering operating factors,
understand that different fabrication shops may achieve vastly different operating factors for essentially similar work. In Figure 5.1, a higher operating factor indicates a
well-organized andor better-equipped shop. Site construction applications will, by
their nature, produce lower operating factors than, say, an equivalent (in welding
terms) shop application. For example, the shop welder should spend considerably less
time getting to the workstation; fixturing may be better, more automatic welding
equipment may be available, and handling facilities are normally better.
Joint Completion Rate
This factor can be expressed in a number of ways, the choice of which may best be
made by the individual fabricator. Any of the following data can be used, provided the
same unit quantity is used when estimating total job content.
Deposition rate (lbhour, kghour, etc.) - The quantity of weld
metal deposited per unit arc time.
Volume $11 rate (in.3/hour,cm3/hour, etc.) - The volume of weld
metal deposited per unit
Mechanization Raises Operating Factor
arc time.
Linear completion rate (inhour,
ftlhour, d o u r , etc.) The length of weld completed per unit arc time.
This method is most suited
to single-pass welds such
as simple fillets, because
other weld types such as
butt joints are influenced
O IO 20 30 40 50 80 70 80 DO 100 by joint thickness.

FIGURE 5.1

- EFFECT OF MECHANIZATION ON
OPERATOR FACTOR
~-

From Welding Handbwk,Vol. 1, th Ed., American Welding Society, Miami,


Fla.

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Ost

The consumable cost should be


calculated to the same unit quantity
as used in the above example, i.e.,

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Estimating and Reducing Welding Costs

69

consumable cost per unit weld weight, volume, or length. There are essentially two
components of consumable cost to consider:
1. cost of consumable as purchased (e.g., per unit weight of electrode), and
2. cost of consumable as deposited ( e g , per unit weight of deposit).
The first of these two items is identifiable from purchase invoice data, but the second must either be estimated by trials, or, more commonly, by using a deposition efficiency factor from the consumable supplier. The deposition efficiency factor is
defined as follows and gives a measure of spatter loss, slag loss, stub losses, etc.:
deposition efficiency factor =

weight of weld metal deposited unit time


weight of consumable used unit time

Typical values [i]for the various arc welding processes are given in Table 5.1, but
it is usually better to obtain specific product data from the supplier. For gas shielded
processes, the cost of supplying the shielding gas should be considered separately; the
same goes for the cost of the flux for the submerged arc process. For the submerged
arc process, the amount of flux consumed to produce the welding slag is typically near
the same weight as the electrode consumed. However, this 1:1 ratio is never likely to
be achieved in actual flux usage records, due to spillage losses, etc. As an approximate
guide, a ratio of between 1.5:l and 2: 1 should be used for estimating purposes (assum-

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Filler Metal Form and Process

Deposition Efficiency (%)*

Covered electrodes
SMAW - 14 in. long
SMAW - 18 in. long
SMAW - 28 in. long

55 to 65
60 to 70
65 to 75

Bare solid wire


SAW
GMAW

95 to 99
90 to 97

Flux cored electrodes


FCAW

80 to 90

* Includes slub Ias.


SMAW = Shielded Metal Arc Welding; SAW = Submerged Arc Welding; GMAW = Gas Metal Arc Welding; FCAW = Flux
Cored Arc Welding

TABLE 5.1
DEPOSITION EFFICIENCY FOR WELDING PROCESSES AND FILLER
METALS
From Table 8.10, Welding Handbook, Vol. I, 8th Ed., American Welding Society, Miami, Fla.

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The Practical Welding Engineer

ing a fairly good flux recycling regime is in operation). If no flux recycling is carried
out, the flux consumption is more likely to be between 3: 1 and 4: 1.

Total Weld Quantity


This is the total amount of weld for which the cost estimate is being made. This can
be calculated in various forms as listed below. The unit used to measure total weld
quantity should have the same basis as that used for the joint completion rate.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Weld Volume - Calculate the total weld volume by measuring the


weld length and multiplying the cross-sectional area of the joint
preparation, making allowances for reinforcement, root openings,
backgouging, etc., where applicable.
We2d Weight -As above, converting to the weld weight by multiplying by the density of the weld metal.
Weld Length - Measured from drawings (see note under linear
completion rates made under joint completion rates).

Related Costs
None of the above items specifically deals with related costs, such as equipment
investment costs, costs of repairs and rework, etc. These must always be considered,
and it may depend on the individual fabricators accountancy practices as to how these
costs are identified within the above general methods. Equipment costs can be built
into the labor cost as part of the overhead cost; an allowance for repairs, etc., may also
be dealt with in this way. Another method used is the combination of the operating
factor, repair cost, etc., into an overall joint completion rate based on welder hours
(not arc time). This combined rate would be based on similar previously measured
work. The important point to note is that, regardless of how the estimate is made,
recognition of the various points indicated must be included in some form.

ExampIe
Estimate the welding cost for a 1-m-long, 50-rnm-thick mild steel
test plate using a single-V (45-degree groove angle) joint preparation. All welding to be completed using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process.

Item 1 Item 2 -

Labor cost: $30/hour


Operating factor: 0.35 (measured from previous
work)

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Estimating and RedUChQ Welding Costs

Item 3 Item 4 -

Item 5 -

Joint completion rate: 1.7 kghour (from manufacturers data)


Consumable cost: $lO/kg (from purchase data);
deposition efficiency = 0.65 (from consumable
manufacturers data)
Total weld quantity (see estimated weld deposit
weight below)

weld length = 1,000 mm


(1)
estimated cross section of weld = [area of weld body]+ [area of weld reinforcement]

= t x t x tan:]

+3t

= (50)2x (tan;)]

+ [(3)x (50)]

= 1,186 mm2

(2)

where t = plate thickness and x = groove angle. The allowance for reinforcement
assumes a nominal bead height of 3 mm and a final layer width equal to plate
thickness - accurate enough for this type of estimate.
estimated weld volume = [Eq. 11x [Eq. 21
= 1,000 mmx 1,186 m2
= 1,186 cm3
densiy of steel = 7.85 g I cm3
estimated weld deposit weight = [Eq. 31 x [Eq. 41
= 9,3 10 g or 9.3 1 kg

(3)
(4)

Therefore, for the weld weight of 9.310 kg above, the consumable cost is
9.31 kgx $15.381 kg= $143.19

labor cost x total weld quantity


+ total consumable cost
operating factor x joint completion rate
- $30/hx9.31 kg
-

0.35x1.7 kgl h

= $469.41 $143.19

= $612.60

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total weld cost =

72

The Practical Welding Engineer

5.2 Reducing Welding Costs

Direct Methods (i.e,, via the weld procedure)


Change from a manual process to a semiautomatic or automatic
process.
Introduce mechanization, robotics, etc.
Change type of consumable used, e.g., to a higher recovery version.
Use high deposition techniques, e.g., multi-wire submerged arc
andor addition of metal powders to submerged arc welds.
Use of reduced angle or narrow-groove weld joint preparations.
Reduce defect levels.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

There are many ways of reducing welding costs. These fall into three main categories that, for the purpose of this section, will be termed direct, indirect, and design.
A direct method is one that is either controlled by the welding procedure or is closely associated with the weld procedure. An indirect method is any other method influencing the overall welding performance and, hence, cost. A design method is simply
one through which the designer can introduce useful cost savings using intelligent
design. A few examples of methods falling into these definitions are listed below.

Indirect Methods fie., via services, etc.)


Improve fixturing.
Improve work environment.
Improve consumable issue practice.
Better utilization of facilities ( e g , availability of lifting equipment).
Train personnel (refer to Chapter 4).
Design Methods (i.e., at the design stage or with designers consent)
Joint type - make optimum choice in terms of service requirements and costs.
Build method and welding access - ensure that practical constraints are recognized.

All three methods are capable of yielding considerable cost reductions. The direct
methods are more often those associated with the welding engineer whose detailed
metallurgical and welding process knowledge is needed to evaluate these features.
Compare these to the indirect methods where there is often little need for specialized
welding knowledge; many of the problems can be more closely identified with pro-

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Estimating and Reducing Welding Costs

73

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

duction engineering. For all indirect methods, there is essentially one common aim to maximize the arc time recovered from a welder or welding station.
It would be a mistake to ignore the indirect route to reduced welding costs based
on a possible lack of detailed knowledge. Even if the welding engineer is not capable
of providing a detailed solution, he should at least be capable of highlighting the need
for a solution. The best solution will normally be achieved by close cooperation
between production engineers and welding engineers, both contributing their own
specialized knowledge.
Remember that while the indirect methods are too often ignored, they are capable
of producing significant benefits. As shown in the previous section, any change that
improves the operating factor produces a proportional change in costs.
Cost reduction by changes to the detailed design generally improves with, and
results from, previous experience. Familiarity with production methods and shop floor
practices is essential to appreciate how relatively minor changes in design can have
major effects on costs. However, discussions to achieve this aim must take place as
early as possible, preferably during preproduction activities. Design engineers require
time to check calculations and change drawings (and overcome prejudices). Time may
also be required to convince clients and inspecting authorities as to the merit of such
proposed changes.
Some of the methods noted above will be expanded slightly, highlighting some of
the potential pitfalls of cost reduction exercises rather than providing specific recommendations.

5.2.1 Direct Methods


Change from a Manual Process to a Semiautomatic or Automatic Processes
A change of this type would normally be expected to yield significant benefits.
These benefits would come as a result of two main features:
There is often (but not always) an associated increase in deposition
rate with a change in process.
There is usually a significant increase in the operating factor associated with increased mechanization.
The above factors, although usually very persuasive regarding the potential for
change, must not, however, be taken in isolation. There are other points to consider
before assuming that any predicted benefits are indeed achievable. For example, if the
process change proposed forms only a minor part of the overall workload or relates

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The Practical Welding Engineer

only to sporadic business, then the additional costs in buying equipment and qualifying procedures and personnel, etc., may not be justifiable.
The degree of automation available will be a major factor regarding the potential
for improvement, as discussed in more detail below. The introduction of semiautomatic methods, while achieving a less dramatic increase in the operating factor (refer
to Figure 5.1), is normally within the reach of all fabricators given that the capital
expenditure required is usually modest in comparison with more extensive mechanization or automation proposals.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Introduction of Robotics
In many respects, this is a natural extension of the above discussion, and there is
again a need for a careful approach to such proposed changes. The potential gains
identified by comparing the operating factors such as those given in Table 5.1 are
only achievable if a higher operating factor can indeed be realized. There would be
little point in committing considerable amounts of capital to the introduction of mechanized SAW (e.g., column and boom or tractor machines) to replace manual welding
if, for the particular application, this involved an additional setup time, thus vastly
reducing any other benefits achieved. In general, the more organized and consistent
the throughput of work, the more scope there is to achieve benefits via increased
mechanization of automation. The simple diagram in Figure 5.2 illustrates this idea.
The intended message is simple. Utilize the potential of increased automation to
its full extent, but always judge each case in detail (on its own merits), since there are
undoubtedly benefits in retaining what may seem to be dated manual practices in
some situations.
Change of Consumable
As a welding engineer, you will be continually offered alternative consumables as
direct replacements within existing practices. These may be offered on the basis of
reduced cost, better properties, higher productivity, etc. Guidance has been given in
Chapter 2 on how to assess such offers. The most important factor when considering
a change is that the welding engineer knows exactly what he requires and does not

Type of Work

Production Line
Repetitive

Robotic -Automatic

FIGURE 5.2

-Mechanized

-SemiauIomatic

Manual

- DEGREE OF MECHANIZATION

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Production Welding Control

75

allow a short-term price gain, or the availability of enhanced (but possibly over-specified) properties, to dictate the change. The main factor to remember is that reduced
consumable costs, and any gain obtained through reduced consumable costs, could be
quickly erased by higher defect rates, increased weld cleaning, procedure requalification costs, etc. The main reason for changing consumables within existing practices
are listed below.
Problems with an existing consumable (either technical or supply
problems).
Improved productivity (via better finish, improved deposition rate,
etc.) - A particularly good example of this is that the requirements
for consumables to be used for fillet welding should not necessarily be confused with those chosen for butt joints. Weld bead contour
and toe profiles are often the most significant features with respect
to fillet welds; here, rutile consumables may be preferred to basic
low-hydrogen kinds. In many cases, a higher deposition rate electrode or process may also be worthy of consideration.
Improved properties required, e.g., to meet increased specification
demands.
Consumable cost - As with all cost-related questions, all aspects
of a proposed consumable change should be considered carefully
prior to making a change. Only overall quality and production costs
should be of importance in the final analysis.

The previous sections referred to the use of mechanization and automation mainly
as a means of achieving higher operating factors and hence improved productivity.
Productivity improvements can alsobe achieved by utilizing a higher deposition rate
process, causing little or no change to the operating factor. For example, in submerged
arc welding, it may be possible to introduce a double- or triple-wire method to replace
a single-wire application and, in doing so, reap considerable productivity improvements. However, simply multiplying by the number of wires used would not give an
accurate view of the productivity improvements achievable. There is often some
trade-off in terms of operating factor or procedure restrictions that would not be
reflected in such a simple assessment.
Remaining with submerged arc welding, it is also possible to utilize equipment
delivering a metered quantity of metal powder to the weld. By doing so, it is possible
to achieve a higher deposition rate with no significant increase in heat input or major
change to working practice (Le., almost consumable cost weld metal). This method
has been widely used for offshore structural fabrication [2,3] but obviously depends
on the availability of suitable metal powder consumables. Similarly, the use of flux or
metal cored submerged arc wires and process options, such as long stickout welding,
can enhance the deposition rates of submerged arc welding [4,5].

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The Use of High Deposition Rate Techniques

76

The Practical Welding Engineer

Other high-deposition-rate methods worthy of consideration include electroslag


welding (both in its conventional form for welding in a butt joint and as a strip
cladding technique), submerged arc strip cladding methods, hot wire gas tungsten arc
welding (GTAW), etc.
Plate Thickness

Single-V-groove weld, 50 degrees groove angle


Single-V-groove weld, 45 degrees groove angle
Double-V-groove weld, 50 degrees groove angle
Narrow-groove weld (1 9 mm) (e.g., SAW)
Narrow-groove weld (1 O mm) (e.g., GTAW, GMAW)

TABLE 5.2

25 mm
1O0
89
50
124

76

75mm 150mm
100
100
89
89
50
50
50
26
27

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(percentages)

14

- COMPARATIVE WELD VOLUMES

Reduced Weld Volume


This mainly applies to butt joint welding applications and introduces the concept
of narrow-groove welding. Narrow-groove techniques, however, are not the only
method to reduce weld volumes. A change in joint preparation to a reduced bevel or
groove angle, an increased root face or a change from a single-V to a double-V preparation can all have significant effects on weld volume. Table 5.2 shows the comparative weld volumes of a number of different joint preparations at three thickness levels.
In each case tabulated, the comparison is made with a single-V-groove, 50 degrees
groove angle preparation and should be regarded as a rough approximation only.
Clearly, major reductions in weld volumes are achievable by using a narrow-groove
joint preparation on thicker sections, and, in addition, the 11 percent reduction in volume for a very simple 5 degrees reduction in weld groove angle is highlighted. This
last point identifies the benefits of good workmanship in all applications showing that
accurate bevel cutting to the lower end of a tolerance range can effect a useful savings
with little or no additional expenditure. Although the measured volumes indicate
apparently massive benefits for narrow-groove processes on thick sections, these
should be treated with some caution since weld volumes should not be examined in
isolation. The respective deposition rates and equipment costs must also be considered
before any final judgment. For example, if narrow-groove submerged arc welding
(SAW-NG) (single-wire, approx. 6-8 kghour deposition rate) is compared with tandem wire submerged arc welding with iron powder additions on a conventional V
preparation (deposition rate approx. 20-22 kghour), then the material thickness at

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77

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

which a break-even point is reached in terms of welding time between 80-100 mm


(assuming single unit operation).
Therefore, unless the introduction of such a process also provides some other overriding benefit, it would not be economical to employ SAW-NG in the above comparison unless the thicknesses involved were in excess of 100 m.Obviously, the thicker the section the more favorable the SAW-NG route would become. In addition, the
use of narrow-groove practices often involves major capital expenditure on both
welding equipment and machining facilities. Again, the emphasis must be placed on
thoroughly examining each particular case. In fact, SAW-NG equipment is in use
where one welder operates three welding stations simultaneously - a feature dramatically reducing this break-even point above. Hence, there are undoubtedly many
situations where narrow-groove processes provide an appropriate avenue to reduced
costs; in some situations, however, such a change would result in few, if any, benefits
and could in fact be uneconomical when overall costs are considered.

Reducing Defect Levels

Areduction in defect levels is an obvious route to reduce welding costs and is mentioned here merely to reinforce this point. Rectification and rework cost several times
more per unit weld volume than the original work, and even a small reduction in
defect levels can achieve useful savings [ 6 ] .This topic is discussed in more detail in
Chapter 4.

5.2.2 Indirect Methods


As noted earlier, an indirect method of reducing welding costs is one not directly
related to, or applied via, the welding procedure. Indirect methods could vary from
items totally removed from the workstation, e.g., improved coffee-making facilities
(reducing welder downtime), to items crucial to the working practice but not specific
to welding, e.g., availability of cranes. In fact, anything that will enable or encourage
the welder to produce more arc time will have beneficial effect on the operating factor (and hence costs), provided of course that the expense of making this improvement
is not prohibitive. A few of these methods are discussed below.

Improved Fixturing
The availability of jigs and fixtures, their suitability for the job, and their ease of
use, among other things, all have major bearing on welding efficiency. All time the
welder spends setting up a workpiece, or assisting in such operations, could be regarded as lost production. Obviously there will always be some time spent on such operations, but the aim should be to minimize this whenever possible. Such problems need

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The Practical Welding Engineer

application. The greater the stanFIGURE 5.3 dardization and the higher the
A NAIL HOLDS A HEATING PAD IN PLACE
volume of work, then the greater
the need for such an approach. Such methods vary from standard (manually fixed)
jigs, through pneumatically operated jigs, to combined jigs and welding equipment
that essentially automate the whole operation. An example of the last-mentioned
would be an automatic machine for the production of I-beams. Here, although the
weld procedure may be similar to that used on, for example, a simple tractor unit, the
overall welding operation will be much more efficient due to the higher operating factor obtained. Again, however, the benefit must be weighed against the capital cost of
such equipment, and this would only be viable for major producers of such beams.

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not involve complex situations. For example, in a general fabrication shop where the
product varies, there will be little opportunity for employing standard jigs or automatic clamping devices. There may, however, be scope for standardizing on a range
of standard strongbacks, pre-cut run-odoff blocks, and the like. While these may not
be obvious ways of improving operating factor, they can prove to be beneficial in
some instances.
Improvement is gained through a better planned operation with such apparently
nonproductive operations carried out either by less costly manpower or, alternatively,
by the welder during periods of slack time. The benefit comes by reducing the time
needed by the skilled operative while productive work is in progress. Other equipment worth considering include positioners, turning rolls, indeed, anything that
reduces time spent on repositioning workpieces.
Another simple example can be found in the attachment of electrical preheating
bands. These are often attached using magnetic clamps - a very sensible approach in
many situations. However, consider a very large component that requires preheat to
be maintained over a wide area for a prolonged period. Here, clamps would necessitate a considerable equipment investment due to the numbers involved. A simple solution could be the use of nails (2-3 mm diameter) attached by a capacitor discharge
method and bent to hold the heat-

Esfimofing and Reducing Welding Costs

79

Working Environment
There are two ways of looking at working environment:
1.

2.

meeting regulatory requirements regarding health and safety; and


maximizing the comfort of the work force.

While there can be no disputing health and safety requirements, all too often little
regard is placed on matters beyond these requirements, Le., the comfort-level of the
work force. Surveys [7] indicate that when welders have been asked to rank the most
negative aspect of their work, the list is typically as follows:

3.
4.
5.

Fume/smoke
Dust
Monotony
Heat (generally from high air temperature, not arc radiation)
Physical strain.

Any competent welding engineer should appreciate the factors listed and make
changes to reduce their effect. This can often be achieved with little cost and minimum alteration to working practices.
Obviously the statement maximize the comfort of the work force must be taken
in the context of a working environment, since real comfort should be reserved for the
home. However, simple steps like providing a chair for operations that can be performed from a sitting position would reduce operator fatigue and should produce benefits.
There are some foremen who would be horrified by the above suggestion, but if
that same chair is not provided, the welder will most likely waste time arranging the
work and/or adjacent planks and scaffolding to improve his lot. Similarly, in many
welding operations, the use of preheat can result in inhospitable welding environments, e.g., working in a confined space within a preheated vessel. Here, any additional ventilation and/or insulation will help.
In an extreme case where the tolerable time the welder can spend at a given location is, say, only 5 min, then even an increase of a minute of two represents a significant improvement. The working environment should not therefore be regarded purely as a set of safety regulations. It should go further than that; all ways of encouraging the welder to safely spend more time doing the job he is paid for should be
explored. Often, necessq improvements come at little cost, while also (though infrequently recognized) improving the operating factor. Reject rates may also be reduced,
thus giving additional cost savings.

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1.
2.

80

The Practical Welding Engineer

The availability of tools will, for the purpose of this discussion, be included in
working environment. If items such as grinders, hammers, etc., are not readily available and close to the work, then considerable time can be lost in either fetching such
items from a store or waiting for someone else to finish using them. Restricted tool
issue can be a false economy and should be addressed carefully. Often, the hidden cost
of lost production can outweigh the visible cost of tool purchase.

Consumable Issue Practice

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The consumable issue practices used in the fabrication industry will vary from site
to site depending on the type of work involved, the standards involved, the level of
traceability required, etc. Again it may not be an obvious area for improved operability factor, but in a situation where many welders are involved and a large quantity of
correctly processed electrodes must be issued and recorded at the start of a shift, then
any reduction in the time required to achieve this can affect the operability factor significantly. Obviously it is better to employ a single clerk to service many welders than
to have welders spend additional time on this activity. In this particular area, there is
a relatively recent introduction offering the potential for significant improvement.
This involves the introduction of EMR (extra moisture-resistant) electrodes and packaging systems that, by obviating the requirement to bake electrodes (basic types), can
significantly simplify consumable handling and issue practices, leading to savings.
Package bar codes offer the potential for computer-based recording of issues, thus
enhancing both stock control and traceability.
The objective of all consumable handling methods should be to get consumables
in the correct condition to the welder at his place of work with the minimum of fuss
and lost time. Anything that assists in the above should improve the operability factor
and help to reduce welding costs. Every 10 minutes spent by the welder on consumable issue represents approximately 2 percent of a welders standard working day. A
few welders will even spend 30 minutes or more doing this per shift - the consumable storage area is a good place to talk.

5.2.3 Design Methods


Joint Type
It is not the intention here to discuss the detailed design of welded joints, but rather
to highlight how this aspect can influence welding costs, both favorably and
adversely.
A good example of this is the design of fillet welds. Unfortunately, the design engineer will often specify a specific minimum fillet size for no reason other than past
practice. A change from an 8-mm-leg-length fillet to a 10-mm-leg-lengthfillet may
not be crucial or even required in design terms, but it can have significant effects for
the welding engineer in most situations. It is extremely difficult to consistently
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81

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

achieve a 10-mm leg length in a single pass (even using large-gauge electrodes), so a
multipass procedure will be needed. This will often require a minimum three-pass
technique to maintain an acceptable weld profile. In addition, the end result will probably be a vastly overcompensated 10-mm leg length, requiring additional interpass
cleaning. Discussion with the designer to ensure he is aware of such costs can prove
very beneficial.
A separate issue regarding fillet welds, but connected to the above, is the often general requirement of compensating for a root opening resulting from a poor ftup. In
general fabrication, a zero root opening cannot be guaranteed unless machined surfaces are specified or a fixture is utilized. For example, code requirements often
require that a 2-mm root opening must be compensated for with a 2-mm addition to
the leg length. Thus, a minimum 6-mm specified leg length becomes an 8-mm leg
length in practice. Similarly specifying an 8-mm leg length can lead to the need for
multipass welding as an actual 10-mm leg may be required. The design engineer must

Tested in shear
Tested in tension

3 mm Root ODening*
252 : 272

339 : 384

Zero Root ODening*


240 : 227
300 : 341

*Maximum load to failure (kN)

Note:Shielded metal arc fillet weld: Self-shielded flux cored arc fillet weld (using
E701 8-6and E61T8-K6consumables, respectively). The results of these tests
indicate that, despite similar (uncompensated) leg lengths, the strengths of the
open root fillets were higher than those from a closed root in this example.

TABLE 5.3
WELD STRENGTHS OF 100-MM FILLET WELD WITH 6-MM LEG
LENGTH.
again be made aware of this point and asked to pay particular attention to the specification of fillet welds around these sizes.
From the welding engineers viewpoint, it is sometimes permissible to use weld
penetration to compensate for leg length. It also may be possible in some circumstances to demonstrate that adequate fillet weld strength has been achieved without
weld leg length compensationby performing a simple test program. The results shown
in Table 5.3 were obtained in a simple test of this type based on a 100-mm length of
fillet weld in each case. This is a particularly useful exercise where the amount of fillet welding is high and a change from single- to multipass welding would have major
cost implications.
Other important aspects of weld joint design are the specification of partial penetration welds rather than full penetration welds and designing for buildability, e.g.,

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taking access and fabrication sequences into consideration. Although many of the
aspects may not be under the direct control of the welding engineer, it is important that
you, as a welding engineer, make every effort to inform the designer of such problems
and of the advantages obtained by considering all of these factors.

Build Methomelding Access


As mentioned previously, your familiarity with your company?s procedures, techniques, equipment, and skill availability can lead to productive design changes.
Design can (and should) be altered to suit manufacturing methods provided you are in
early communication with the design engineer. The design engineer generally would
not be familiar with such details and consequently will (or should) rely on your guidance and assistance in assessing any such situations. Intimate knowledge of these
resources and a willingness to challenge historical or conventional wisdom to benefit
your company?s profitability are the best requisites pertaining to design changes.
The above examples represent only a few of the areas where welding costs can be
reduced. The intended message of this chapter as a whole is to encourage a broad view
of welding costs, not simply of deposition rates, etc., which can often be misleading.
The only cost that is important is the overall cost, which can be affected in many different ways. Therefore, as a welding engineer, you must always be conscious of costs
and the cost implications of your decisions. Always try to look at the overall operation costs - not just at welding procedures in isolation.

[i] Connor, L. P. (ed.). 1987. Welding Handbook. Vol. 1, 8th Ed. American Welding
Society, Miami, Na.
[2] Rodgers, K. J. and Lochhead, J. C. 1987. Submerged arc welding metal powder
additions, productivity and properties. Welding Journal 66 (10): 21-27.
[3] Fraser, R., et al. 1982. High deposition rate submerged arc welding for critical
applications. Int. Con$ Offshore Welded Structures. London, U.K.
[4] Lochhead, J. C., and Rodgers, K. J. 1997. The Welding Paradigm. London:
International Conference on Joining and Welding for the Oil and Gas Industry, The
Welding InstituteABC U.K. Conferences, Ltd.
[ 5 ] Lochhead, J. C., and Bews, R. O. 1998. The use of mechanised and latest cored
wire technology in the construction of a 32,000-ton production jack up. International
Conference, Exploiting Advances in Arc Welding Technology.
[6] Lochhead, J. C., and Rodgers, K. J. 1999. Weld Defects - Considering the Big
Picture. Welding Journal 78( 10): 49-54.
161 Sundin, J. 1990. Work environment for welders. Svetsen. Special issue.

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References

Practical Problem Solving


Problem solving is perhaps the welding engineers most interesting task. Here, he
is called upon to be the Columbo of his company. The solution of welding problems
requires a combination of theoretical knowledge, practical experience, and, on occasion, intuition. Problem solving can be both most rewarding and extremely frustrating.

6.1 What is a Problem?


A typical dictionary definition states that a problem is a matter which is difficult
to deal with or solve or is a question set for solution. Welding problems certainly
fit the above general definitions, but numerous alternative views pop up from time to
time.
A good reason for a vacation.
Time to find a scapegoat.
Time to change the specification.
While any of the above (or other similar views) may well come to mind, it is much
more productive and interesting to regard welding problems as opportunities.
An opportunity to learn.
An opportunity to improve practices.
An opportunity to display your worth to your employer.

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The last item above leads to the question: Would your employer need a welding
engineer if no welding problems were likely? Welding problems, in this sense, are the
lifeblood of the welding engineers profession, and although your main function
should always be aimed at preventing problems, there will always be a need for
prompt and efficient reaction to welding problems as they arise.
This chapter outlines five specific examples of welding-related problems and also
introduces a general fitness for purpose concept that offers an alternative solution
to many problems. It is hoped these will provide an insight into problem-solving in
general, as well as providing some specific guidance on the topics discussed.

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The Practical Welding Engineer

The following will be examined:


chevron cracking in submerged arc welds,
low toughness in self-shielded flux cored arc welds (FCAW-S),
magnetic arc blow.
postweld heat treatment (PWHT) avoidance, and
cast-to-cast variability,

6.2 Chevron Cracking in Submerged Arc Welds

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Chevron cracking in submerged arc welds (SAW) in carbon, medium- and lowalloy steels is a kind of weld metal cracking generally recognized as being a form of
hydrogen cracking [i],although other mechanisms have been proposed [2]. The name
chevron cracking relates to the typical appearance of this kind of crack - roughly Vshape (further information on this point is given in Chapter 7). While regarded as a
problem mainly in submerged arc weld metals, it is also possible to encounter this
general form of discontinuity in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Chevron cracking, once found, is often difficult to deal with because of its several potential causes.
However, treating this discontinuity simply as weld metal hydrogen cracking identifies the main causal features (similar to heat-affected zone [HAZ] hydrogen cracking).
Presence of hydrogen.
Presence of stress, i.e., restraint.
Time.

Note that the technique employed for the nondestructive examination (NDE) of
welds - particularly of submerged arc welds - should be designed with chevron
cracking in mind. Due to the orientation of chevron cracks in submerged arc welds,
they could be missed unless an ultrasonic testing (UT) scan, designed for their detection, is incorporated. Chevron cracking has mainly been associated with welds in
materiais more than 50 mm thick, but cases are known in thicknesses as low as 22
mm. Additionally, chevron cracking is a delayed form of cracking, normally not
appearing until 12 hours after cessation of welding. Allow at least 24 (or, more commonly, 48) hours prior to the required nondestructive examination.

Detection
The ultrasonic technique for detection of chevron cracking involves the use of a
45-degree probe, scanning longitudinally along the surface of submerged arc welds or,
alternatively, along the finished surface of manual or semiautomatic welds. As it is

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most unlikely that chevron cracking will occur in processes other than SAW, the
requirement for additional NDE is normally ignored for these procedures.
This scan is carried out as a supplement to other scans, specifically to locate discontinuities lying in the transverse plane of the weld. The 45-degree probe is utilized
because chevron cracks present a reflecting face within the range of 30-50 degrees to
normal. Conventional scans from either side of the weld surface will not resolve such
discontinuities for two reasons:

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1. A transverse planar discontinuity will not present a reflecting


surface of sufficient magnitude to produce a signal response.
2. The major dimensions of such discontinuities lie in a different
plane to the ultrasonic beam and will not reflect a signal response
to the transducer, even if the probe is angled in such a way that
a proportion of the sound energy impinges upon this dimension.

Hydrogen
The presence of hydrogen cannot be treated in precise quantitative terms since
there is no specific value that will result in chevron cracking. The problem of chevron
cracking is usually associated with basic agglomerated submerged arc fluxes that, due
to their mode of manufacture, are hygroscopic and will increase in moisture content
unless stored and handled properly. This, therefore, presents one main area of investigation if chevron cracking is found, i.e., consumable handling practices. One difficulty is that, because you will be investigating a problem that occurred some days (or
even weeks) previously, it may not be possible to assess the state of consumable handling at the time of welding with any confidence.
Here, it is necessary to rely on your judgment of the normal practices involved. Are
consumables routinely abused? Are they always rigorously applied? Are they adequate? These questions identify the extremes possible and can often provide useful
guidance. Regardless of what handling practice was actually specified, the following
points are worth considering:
Is the chevron cracking an isolated occurrence or have many different welds been affected over a period of time? If the latter,
then the chance of the problem being consumable related (and
perhaps batch related) is greater. If the cracking is an isolated
occurrence, then although the consumable may still be a causal
factor, this will be difficult to establish; other factors may well be
the cause.
Is the flux used straight from the bag or is it preheated or baked?
If preheated or baked, the procedure must be carried out carefully to proven and established practices. It is possible to achieve an
even higher moisture content in a flux after heating if the baking

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86

ovens are not well designed and properly used. Baking ovens
should have heating elements passing through the charge, not
just enveloping the charge. The time in the oven should also be
carefully controlled to ensure all flux charged is brought to the
temperature specified. Remember that flux is a good insulating
medium and does not allow rapid heat flow.

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If flux is used from the bag and a problem occurs, check the as-supplied moisture
level. It helps if you can relate the figures obtained to previous data since the acceptable value will vary from application to application. An ideal moisture value is zero,
and for guidance, a O. 1 percent moisture level could be considered high and possibly
problematic in some situations.
Flux handling and flux condition are possibly the most likely potential sources of
a chevron cracking problem, but do not assume it is the only cause. In a high-volume
fabrication area using the same flux in a number of differing situations, it is difficult
to blame the flux if only a limited proportion of the work is affected, Le., if the problem occurs only on one thickness or at one welding station. Although the flux could
still be the main contributory factor, other aspects should be examined, such as preheat or local flux storage problems (e.g., roof leaks). Flux recycling can also result in
a local (or, indeed, general) pattern. A number of commercially available units use
compressed air for transporting the flux within a recycling system. Should this air
become contaminated in any way, either by oil or water, then potential carry-over into
the flux is likely.
In terms of the effect of hydrogen, another significant aspect is preheat. Again, this
is via the effect of preheat not only on weld microstructure (via the cooling rate), but
more importantly on the rate at which hydrogen will diffuse from the weld.
Production personnel will seldom admit to using low preheat, but rest assured it
can be a common occurrence. Remember that in SAW preheat plays an important role
with respect to weld metal cracking; in some cases weld metal cracking - not HAZ
requirements - will dictate preheat levels. Experience shows that attempts to reduce
preheat levels for SAW have resulted in chevron cracking. This doesnt mean established levels cannot be reduced. It only indicates a need to take extreme caution.

Restraint
As with the effect of hydrogen, the degree of restraint necessary for chevron cracking to occur has never been accurately established. With chevron cracking, most
cracks are often located within the top one-third of the thickness. This would indicate
that tensile loading is a very relevant feature; it also indicates that, in general, the
greater the thickness, the greater the chance of chevron cracking. There is very little
that the welding engineer can do to alter these particular parameters. However, the following example illustrates that, occasionally, beneficial changes to existing practices
can be arranged.

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.
Weld
location

u
FIGURE 6.1 -ANNULAR STIFFENER WELD

The can was modeled as an infinitely long, thin elastic cylinder with an
axisymmetric radial line load acting outward on the cylinder at the weld
interface. The external stiffener was modeled as an annular plate with a radial load acting on the inner radius. The thermal description of the setup is that
after the two components had been welded together, the cylinder cooled by
a stated amount relative to the disc. If the two components had not been
welded, this would have resulted in a radial gap at the weld interface, calculable from the free contraction of the cylinder.
The radial force required, therefore, was that which was sufficient to
close the gap by outward deformation of the can and inward deformation of
the plate. The circumferential stress in the weld was found from analysis of
the disc.
In essence, this indicated that when the can preheat was withdrawn, after
welding or at some intermediate stage, the shell would tend to shrink in

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This particular example, illustrating the combined effect of restraint and preheat,
relates to an occasion when radially oriented chevron cracking was experienced in
joints between cylindrical cans and external annular plate stiffeners, as shown in
Figure 6.1. In the initial manufacturing procedure, the cylindrical shell was preheated
from the outside, but the stiffener plate was not directly heated. The resultant stress
pattern was analyzed as follows:

Te Practical Welding Engineer

88
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

diameter during cooling, but the external plate would remain at the original
diameter. The resulting strain discontinuity across the weld would develop
radial stress in the joint leading to a circumferential stress along the weld
interface.
The calculated radial and circumferential stresses were shown to be significant in relation to the yield strength of the material. From the analysis, it
was obvious that any temperature differential at the beginning of the cooling
phase from the preheat temperature would lead to significant stress. This
would be alleviated if the external stiffener was preheated to match the can
temperature. In addition, if the stiffener preheat was removed first, then compressive strain would be produced in the weld joint during cooling.
A revised preheating method based on the above analysis was developed
and no further cases of chevron cracking occurred on this particular item.

Summary
To summarize (and oversimplify), regarding the problem of chevron cracking, the
following actions are advised:
Examine the ultrasonic examination report and agree with the
NDE operator on the location of the representative and typical
discontinuity signals.
If in any doubt, take a sample for macroscopic examination check that you are indeed dealing with chevron cracks.
Check the condition of the flux - has it been storeaandled
properly? Take samples and analyze for moisture.
Is the problem associated with one batch of flux or one storage
site? If so, isolate the source immediately pending further investigation.
If the flux is heated, ensure the thoroughness and correctness of
the practice used.
Check the preheat utilized. Was specified preheat adequate?
Compare with past practices. Contact the consumable manufacturer. If the consumables appear correctly supplied and utilized,
increase the preheat for subsequent work.
Check that correct welding procedure and consumables were
indeed used.
If SMAW consumables were used, obtain samples of the same
batch number and carry out hydrogen tests. Check consumable
handling procedure.
As a general rule: Reduce hydrogen
reduce the problem.

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89

6.3 low Toughness in Self-Shielded Flux Cored Arc Welds


This example relates to a specific problem faced by the offshore fabrication industry in the early 1980s. With increasing demands on low temperature toughness properties (typically 36 J at 4 0 C or F), it soon became apparent that the existing practice
of using self-shielded flux
cored (E61-T8-K6 type) I
I
wires in the uphill mode
was extremely inconsistent
when examining impact
data at -4O"CF. The
details of one major investigation into this problem
are presented elsewhere
[3]; for the purpose of this
discussion, only the salient
features will be highlighted. The macroscopic specimen shown in Figure 6.2
shows a satisfactory weld
made with the consumable
in the vertical position
using an uphill technique
with a weave.
This technique is perfectly satisfactory in most
situations and would probably be regarded as the
preferred method of apply- FIGURE 6.2 - A SELF-SHIELDED FCAW UPHILL WELD
ing such consumables.
Unfortunately the low temperature toughness of this weld, as shown in Table 6.1, was
not sufficient to satisfy the needs of the industry. Given the particular benefits of the
process in terms of adaptability and productivity, other procedural methods were
examined in effort to retain the technique's use. Two main possibilities existed given
that the lower toughness could be related to the relatively high proportion of unrefined
weld metal resulting from an uphill weave technique.
Test Temp.
(OC)

Heat Treatment
Condition

As-welded

-40

TABLE 6.1

Position

cap-pass weld, centerline


Mid-weld, centerline
Root weld, centerline

Absorbed Energy
(Jouies)
29, 14, 1 18: Ave 54
92,114, 18: Ave 75
8, 14, 12: Ave 11

- CHARPY V-NOTCH IMPACT TESTS ON AN UPHILL FCAW-S PLATE

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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The Practical Welding Engineer

Use stringer beads - downhill, no weave.


Use a wide weave - uphill with controlled layer thickness.
Both methods are successful in improving toughness. With production welding,
however, only one of the above techniques could be easily controlled; this, in many
ways, was the key to the problem. If the wide-weave method was introduced into a
production situation, it would be very difficult to control given that a wide-weave
bead can be produced with very thick layers using a block weave; this would be contrary to what is required (i.e., thin layers with a high degree of refinement). On the
other hand, a stringer-bead technique is by its nature self-limiting and results in a weld
metal microstructure providing more consistent and better impact properties. The
need for the strict control resulting from a stringer bead technique was necessary in
this case.
It is worth noting that weld metal refinement is often a factor when investigating
low toughness results with other processes and consumables.

6.4 Cast-to-Cast Variability


The generally recognized use of the term cast-to-cast variability relates to the
variable penetration behavior exhibited (Figure 6.3) by different casts of nominally
identical materiais under a constant set of welding conditions - that is, the variability is due to the material. It is a problem most commonly associated with stainless
steels, although not necessarily limited to them.
Cast-to-cast variability is one of the few welding-related problems the welding
engineer has little control over, especially at the point of occurrence. It is a problem
that has been widely recognized during the last 20 to 30 years [4] and about which
many wide and varied hypotheses have been promoted.
It is not the intention of this book
to discuss the merits of the various
proposed causes other than the general cornent that in the authors
experience, the only one to date that
could be confirmed [5] at a practical
level was that proposed by Heiple
and Roper [6]. They related this
variability to convection currents in
the weld pool generated by the
effect of temperature on surface tension. This effect was influenced by
FIGURE 6.3 the presence of surface-active
CAST-TO-CAST VARIABILITY
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solutes, such as oxygen and sulfur, the levels of which were important. In the particular example referenced above [ 5 ] , it was found that casts of 316-type stainless steel
with a sulfur content of 0.001-0.002 percent (Figure 6.3, left) behaved drastically different from one with a sulfur content of 0.010 percent (Figure 6.3, right). The transition in behavior between the two levels was predicted as being around the 0.005 percent level.

The following general observations are relevant:


Cast-to-cast variability should be recognized as a potential problem, especially with stainless steels.
The problem is usually more prevalent (or more likely to be recognized) in automatic welding applications and, in particular,
automatic gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) equipment.
Other than by either cast-matching or by allowing procedure
variations, little can be done in a practical sense to alleviate castto-cast problems. In other words, do not expect a cure - concentrate on managing the problem.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

It is important, however, to correctly diagnose cast-to-cast variability -often high


on the list of abused excuses. If cast-to-cast problems are thought to be a problem,
consider the following checks:
Perform bead-on-pipe/plate tests using standardized welding
conditions over a number of casts of material. If no difference in
penetration or width-to-depth ratio is noted, then cast variability
is not the problem.
Repeat the above exercise on a single cast of material. If differences in penetration are noted, cast-to-cast variability is not the
problem (or not the only problem).

In considering the possibility that the problem under investigation may be cast-tocast variability, you must also consider other causes of variable penetration, such as
variable power output,
variable shielding gas supply,
variable arc length, and
inconsistent tungsten sharpening.

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The Practical Welding Engineer

The above and other factors must be ruled out prior to diagnosing cast- to-cast variability, if for no other reason than that most of the other causes are curable. Having
established that cast-to-cast variability exists, consider the following possible problem
management methods:
Match components to be welded within a cast or within a group
of casts of similar behavior.
Agree to a relaxation of procedure tolerances to allow some variation in parameters. Note that in extreme cases exhibiting a high
width-to-depth ratio (i.e., very low penetration), increasing the
current level can often have little effect on penetration depth.
Gather as much evidence of the problem as practicable to present to your client. Only by doing so can you expect the cooperation that you need.
If the methods noted in the first two items prove unsuccessful,
consider more drastic changes to the weld procedure, such as
shielding gas, pulsing, etc., although in severe cases the likelihood of success is limited.
Consider the use of activated fluxes. These have been shown to
influence the degree of penetration during gas tungsten arc
welding.
If all else fails, consider either re-sourcing the materials giving
the problem, or, if feasible, carrying out a manual weld to
replace an automatic weld. If either option is used, there will be
obvious and significant commercial implications; these options
should be used only as a last resort.

6.5 Magnetic Arc Blow


In many cases, this problem
may not even be brought to the
welding engineers attention.
Unless it is severe, the welder
may persevere with the problem
until, either by luck or by creating a bridge within the weld
preparation, the phenomenon
decreases to a more acceptable
level.
The phenomenon of magnetic
arc blow occurs [ll, 121 when a
welding process involving an
electric arc (generally direct cur-

Icurrent

FIGURE 6.4
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93

rent) is carried out in the presence of a magnetic field and disruption or distortion of
the arc results. The disruption can be a consequence of the magnetic field produced
by the arc itself or by the interaction with any magnetism persisting in the steel. The
magnetic field causes the arc to be deflected, as shown in Figure 6.4, and behave in
an often unpredictable and erratic manner. In some very severe cases, the arc may be
completely extinguished. Typical discontinuities resulting from such arc instabilities
include slag inclusions, porosity, and incomplete fusion.
Magnetism, of a level to cause arc blow when welding, can result from two separate sources that may be additive. The steel, as supplied, may possess its own residual
magnetism; also, the welding current will induce a magnetic field surrounding the
component during welding.
Considering the former source - residual magnetism - this may have a number
of possible origins.
The steel has solidified in a magnetic field at the steel mill.
The component has been lifted with a magnetic clamp.
Magnetic particle inspection has been performed.
The component has been stored near a magnetic field or left in a
north/south direction sufficiently long for magnetism to build up
from the earths magnetic field. The latter point may be particularly relevant to pipelines.
The component has been exposed to a magnetic field during manufacture, e.g., from welding.
The second source of magnetism leading to arc blow is where it arises during welding. Here, no magnetic field can be measured on an unwelded section, but during the
welding process, the current causes the resultant magnetic field. This effect will
increase with higher currents and can be influenced by the shape of the component
and earthing arrangements.
As a guide, there are few problems with low magnetic fields of 20 gauss or less.
Between 20-40 gauss, arc instability can be observed, whereas fields greater that 40
gauss can create definite arc blow. These values assume a facility to measure, but
this is often not available. A simple test uses iron filings that, if attracted, indicate a
magnetic field and, therefore, a potential for trouble. A severe collection of filings is
obviously an indication of a severe problem. The shape and depth of the weld preparation influences the magnetic effect on the arc. It will be more pronounced in deep
and narrow preparations; root runs will also be more affected until a bridging
affects, minimizes, or alters the magnetic effect.
Having identified arc blow as the problem, the welding engineer has a number of
options in order to eliminate, or at least reduce, the problem to acceptable limits.
These are indicated below in order of severity, available resources, and expense.
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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94

1.
2.

3.

5.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.

Use an AC power source in preference to DC.


Alter the electrode angle or use a backstep welding sequence as
shown in Figure 6.5.
Reposition the current cable and earth return points or use two
workpiece leads connected between the power source and different
positions on the component.
Demagnetize the component by using an alternating magnetic field
generated by an alternating current (AC): Utilize the largest available AC power source, wrap the welding cable around the workpiece, apply a high current for a short time (say, 30 seconds), then
reduce the current to zero. This should be repeated, increasing the
number of wrapping turns and reducing current levels for each further sequence.
Use a proprietary demagnetizing unit comprised of a gaussmeter
feeding all relevant data to a power unit into which is connected a
heavy-duty demagnetizing cable, arranged on the workpiece.

6.6 Elimination of Postweld Heat Treatment


Postweld heat treatments (PWHT) to reduce residual stress levels have been a common practice in many industries for years. A suitable heat treatment operation can
sometimes have additional benefits, such as a reduction in peak hardness values, an
improvement in weld metal
properties, or a lowering of
A
any adverse effect of a welding
process on the mechanical
properties of the heat-affected
zone (HAZ).
I
However beneficial these
effects may be, there are situaWeld
tions where PWHT can, and
Progression
Direction
should, be avoided wherever
possible, especially where the
practicality of performing the
operation is virtually insurmountable. Note that the use
of heat treatment avoidance
techniques are dictated by an
overall assessment of the situation; for example, should
stress corrosion be an influFIGURE 6.5 - BACKSTEP WELDING TECHNIQUE
encing factor, then a heat treat-

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ment to provide stress relief and to reduce maximum hardness levels may be a compulsory requirement.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Normalizing of Electroslag Welds


In most cases, electroslag welds are refined by a normalizing treatment (see Figure
6.6[a] and 6.5[b] illustrating welds in the as-welded and normalized conditions,
respectively). This treatment enables the weld to be ultrasonically examined to a
greater sensitivity; it also greatly improves the notch ductility of the weld metal.
However, the welding engineer, when examining the potential techniques available for
the welding of thick sections, should not dism i s s electroslag welding simply because of
this normalizing treatment. Extremely fast,
this technique is ideally suited for the welding
of thick sections. Unless a problem occurs
during the welding operation (e.g., wire feed
problems or loss of slag pool), the weld
integrity is virtually guaranteed. The welding
engineers main question should be: What are
the property requirements? If notch ductility
is not an essential feature, then normalizing of
the electroslag weld is probably not required.
Such a principle has been adopted in the conAs-Welded Condition
struction of winding barrels for the turbine
indusry.
(A)
Conversely, should the fabrication require
enhanced notch ductility values (at, say,--lO
to -2OC), a double normalizing treatment
can be examined. This generally causes further improvement of the impact properties of
the weld.
Buttering
Buttering is a surfacing variation in
which one or more layers of weld metal are
deposited on the groove face of one member
that is to be welded to a dissimilar base metal.
The buttering provides a suitable transition
Normalized Condition
weld deposit for subsequent completion of the
butt joint. [7]
(BI
The use of buttering to avoid postweld heat
treatment in steel structures relates to the abil- FIGURE 6.6 ELECTROSLAGWELDS

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Tite Practical Welding Engineer

ity to avoid high HAZ hardness in the subsequent butt joint. This is achieved via the
use of a buttering consumable that will not transform in the final HAZ to produce
martensitic constituents. The HAZ from the buttering operation must itself be controlled by PWHT, but this can be done piece meal, and ail final assembly welds can
be carried out and left as welded. The technique can also be applied to situations
where, for example, one side of a transition weld was in a material that could suffer
deterioration during any subsequent PWHT. For example, certain stainless steels containing high femte levels could, under some circumstances, sigmatize with consequent serious impairment to properties.
The use of previously stress-relieved, buttered weld preparations is perhaps the
most common technique to avoid subsequent PWHT. A number of weld metal types
may be used for the buttering material. One type frequently applied is the InconelB
family of consumables. Here, the buttering layer is welded to the fabrication requiring PWHT at a thickness
sufficient to contain a new
Component Requiring
weld preparation and subPostweld Heat
sequent HAZ. The butTreatment
tered section is nondestructively examined, heat
treated, then prepared for
the final butt joint welds,
which are not subject to
Weld Buildup Buttering
PWHT (Figure 6.7 illustrates the sequence of
events).
Inspect, then Postweld Heat Treat
The requirement to
examine volumetrically
the buttering before
PWHT may itself pose
problems. If this is done
by radiography, considerable difficulty can be
I
experienced in the subseI
quent interpretation of the
films caused by the Xrays scattering at the edge
of the preparation. One
solution to this problem is
to make a complete butt
(
Final As-Welded
joint weld between pairs
Assembly Weld
of components using the
buttering
consumable,
FIGURE 6.7 -WORKING WITH BUTTERED SECTIONS
nondestnictively examine,

kL

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repair if necessary, and finally PWHT the subassembly. The butt joint weld can then
be parted and a new preparation made for the final assembly weld. Figure 6.8 illustrates this sequence.
Buttering with ferritic electrodes can also be a potential solution to overcome the
problem of high HAZ hardness. In this instance, the component could be of a hardenable alloy or high-carbon steel; the buttering deposit would use low-hydrogen electrodes of a composition giving the desired levels of strength within the final butt joint
after PWHT, but not producing a high hardness in the final HAZ. The buttered component would be subjected to PWHT, then the closing weld would be carried out using
the same low-carbon ferritic electrodes. To overcome any potential discontinuity
problems in the buttered layer prior to the PWHT, sufficient buttering must again be
applied to allow, in this case, for an ultrasonic test.

Temper Bead
The temper bead technique is
I
I
a fairly well known method for
Components
Requiring
Postweld
Heat
Treatment
controlling HAZ properties. It
can sometimes mean that
PWHT, when conducted to
achieve hardness criteria, can be
avoided. Only a brief summary
Set Up for Butt Joint Weld
of the method is given here (see
also Figure 3.2, page 29).
It is essential that the HAZ
L
- 1
caused by the first weld bead is
Make Butt Joint Weld Using Buttering Consumable
tempered by the subsequent
bead. Trials must be conducted
Inspect
by the welding engineer on his
particular consumables and
welding practices to ascertain
the degree of bead overlap
Postweld Heat Treat Butt Joint Welds
required and the tolerances for
this overlap.
Generally, this tolerance is
not great. So, the control
Split Butt to Produce Buttered Components
required during production
welding to ensure correct overlap is such that the technique
should only be used as a last
resort, not on a large scale. It is
Final As-Welded Assembly
also important not to confuse
this technique with a simple cap- FIGURE 6.8 - USING A BUTTERING CONSUMABLE

J-

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J-

JJ-

JJ-

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The Practical Welding Engineer

Vibratory Stress Relief


A technique to avoid PWHT - seldom occurring to the welding engineer - is
vibratory stress relief (VSR), or vibrational conditioning [9, 101. VSR uses high force
exciters to induce localized plastic flow into a component at room temperature.
Although the nominal applied strains are elastic, local regions of high residual stress
are elevated above the yield strength of the material, and the consequential plastic
flow causes redistribution and concomitant reduction in these internal stresses.
In practice, a vibrator is attached to the structure, energized, then scanned very
slowly from zero through the entire range of the vibrator. The structure is monitored
during the operation. When a resonant frequency is indicated, the vibration continues
at that level for several thousand cycles. After each dwell period, the frequency is
increased until some other natural resonant level is noted. Two or three repeats are
generally required to achieve satisfactory stress redistribution.
Take care, however, when considering the use of this technique. Where metallurgical improvements are necessary (e.g., relating to brittle fracture or stress corrosion
cracking), then thermal treatments will most likely be necessary. Nevertheless, a general improvement in dimensional stability is usually observed, and, for this reason, the
process is particularly applicable to large welded components or castings that require
machining to very close tolerances.
Fracture Toughness Justification
The use of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) data to justify the avoidance of
stress relief is increasingly apparent in the offshore fabrication industry, relating to the
production of jacket and deck structures for the oil industry. The basis of this permitted route to as-welded fabrication lies in the ability to demonstrate that the welded
structure has sufficient fracture toughness in the as-welded condition to accommodate the design loading and residual stresses locked into the structure during fabrication. It is normally required that such demonstration of good as-welded fracture
toughness is demonstrated both for the weld metal and for the HAZ at the thickest section employed in the fabrication.

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pass sequence control that, while offering scope for reduced HAZ hardnesses, cannot
be relied upon unless strictly controlled and therefore definable as a true temper bead.
The use noted above relates mainly to reducing HAZ hardness levels, but the principle can also be applied in butt joint welds to produce a maximum tempering effect
throughout the weld [SI by combining controlled layer grinding and/or bead placement. This approach eliminates the need for PWHT and has particular relevance to inservice repairs where PWHT may be impractical.

Practical Problem Solving

99

6.6 Fitness for Purpose

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The majority of modem fabrication codes, such as those from the American
Welding Society (AWS) or American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),
specify nondestructive examination acceptance levels. These codes, defining acceptable weld flaw defect sizes, have been derived from a combination of good engineering and working practices, and experience. They are therefore arbitrary and do not
relate to the joints fitness-for-purpose condition; in other words, these codes do not
tell whether a specific location of a particularly sized and particular kind of defect
affects the service integrity of a welded joint.
For this reason, an alternative based on the fitness-for-purpose approach, which
involves a fracture mechanics assessment, is now used. Essentially, the approach provides a basis for stating that a weld defect may be acceptable and, therefore, does not
need to be removed, provided that conditions causing failure are not attained within
the design and service life of the component.
Fracture mechanics assessment, which has been incorporated into some recent
standards (e.g., British Standard 7910 [replacing PD 64931, available from the
American National Standards Institute), can now be calculated on computer.
Commercially available packages, such as Crackwise from The Welding Institute,
now can calculate critical flaw dimensions with varied geometries, such as surfacebreaking, embedded or through thickness.
Fracture mechanics assessment is now accepted engineering practice and has been
utilized in offshore construction, power generation, pipelines, pressure vessels,
bridges, and in many other structures. It has been used to assess the significance of
defects, define life extension and change-of-service applications, and determine if
postweld heat treatment is required. (See section on fracture toughness justification,
page 98.)
The practical welding engineer should be aware of the potential behind fracture
mechanics and be prepared to utilize it wherever possible - either proactively (for
example, to encourage designers to relax existing requirements), or reactively (as a
solution to an existing defective condition or problem). Removing defects from welds
is expensive; postweld heat treatment is also expensive; therefore, time spent using a
computer program -possibly eliminating PWHT and possible defects -is time well
spent.

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References
[ i ] Wright, V. S . 1978. Chevron cracking in submerged arc welds. The Welding
Institute Int. Con$ Trends in Steels and Consumables for Welding, Nov., 581-602.
Paper 38.
[2] Tuliani, S . S . 1976. A metallographic study of chevron cracks in submerged arc
weld metals. Welding Research Znt. 6 (6): 1 9 4 6 .
[3] Rodgers, K. J. and Lochhead J. C. 1987. Self-shielded flux cored arc welding
-the route to good toughness. Welding Journal 66 (7):49-59.

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[4] Lucas, W. and Eardley, J. A. 1981. Effect of cast to cast material variations in
TIG welding literature review. Welding Inst. Report 168.
[5] Rodgers, K. J. 1983. A study of penetration variability using mechanized TIG
welding. The Welding Institute Int. Conf. Effects of Residual Impurity and Microalloying Elements on Weldability and Weld Properties. Paper 2: 2-1 to 2-8.
[6] Heiple, C. R. and Roper, J. R. 1982. Mechanism for minor element effect on
GTA fusion zone geometry. Welding Journal 61 (4): 97-s to 102-s.
[7] Metals Handbook, 9th Ed.: Vol. 6, Glossary 3. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM
International, 1983.
[SI Albeny, P. J. 1981. Simple test reveals level of two layer refinement. Welding
and Metal Fabricator 49 (9): 543-547.
[9] Parlane, A. J. A. 1977. Vibrational stress relief. The Welding Institute Research
Bulletin. pp, 339-342.
[lo] Claxton, R. A., and Saunders, G. G. 1976. Vibratory stress relief. Metallurgist
and Mat. Technol. 8(12): 651-656.
[ i 11 Blakely, P. 1988. Magnetic arc blow -causes, effects and cures. Metal Constr.
20(2):58-6 1.
U21 Anon. 1990. What a blow. Welding Inst. Oct., p. 7.

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Chapter 7

Common Defects and Remedial Actions

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It is both a
boon and a bane
to the practical
welding engineer
that a relatively
large number of
defect types can
be observed in a
welded structure.
No matter how
good the engineers procedure
may be, there are
too many variables, e g , equipment, consumables, and, most
of
all,
the
A - Incomplete groove-face fusion; B - lamellar tearing;
welder, to conC - poor profile; D - slag inclusions; E - undercut
struct the perfect
fabrication. The
FIGURE 7.1 -WELD DEFECTS
most that the
competent welding engineer can hope to achieve is to minimize the occurrence of
such defects and, once discovered, rapidly diagnose and correct them with remedial
actions.
This chapter identifies the more common types of defects that can occur in a welded steel structure, how they may be recognized, and typical remedial actions. The list
is not all inclusive, but it has been many years since any new phenomena have been
discovered (e.g., lamellar tearing and chevron cracking). The problems that follow are
not new but are generally the old favorites, albeit recycled under a new guise.
Figure 7.1 is an exceptional illustration of five individual defect types, the nature
of which are described below. It is an example of what poor technique, poor material
choice, and poor control can produce.
The faults illustrated in Figure 7.1 are identified as follows:
A. Incomplete groove-face fusion (see section 7.4)

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The Practical Welding Engineer

B. Lamellar tearhg (see section 7.1.2)


C. Poor profile (see section 7.2.8)
D. Slag inclusions (see section 7.3.5)
E. Undercut (see section 7.2.11)
The defects discussed are identified within four main headings: cracks, profile, volumetric, and incomplete fusion.
To assist the welding engineer in dealing with these defects, they have been
defined, their causes identified, and remedial actions proposed. Whenever possible
macro/micro-photographs of physical samples, or sketches thereof, have been used to
illustrate the individual defect.

7.1 Cracks
Five types of cracking can be found
in steel weldments.
Hydrogen cracks - chevron.
Heat-affected zone hydrogen
cracks.
Lamellar tearing.
Reheat cracks.
Solidification cracks (including crater cracks).
The f i s t was discussed in the previous chapter. The next four are discussed
below.

xl

7.1.1 Heat-Afected Zone


Hydrogen Cracks
Characteristics
Heat-affected zone (HAZ) hydrogen
cracks (toe or underbead cracks) are discontinuities originating in a heat-affected zone due to high internal stresses
combined with a susceptible microstructure and the presence of hydrogen. This
is shown in Figure 7.1.1.

x 400

FIGURE 7.1.1

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- HYDROGEN TOE CRACK

Identification of Common Defects and Remedial Actions

103

Causes
Hydrogen is diffused into a hardened heat-affected zone.'The level at which cracking can occur is influenced by the following factors:
Increasing section thickness
Too high residual stresses.
Increasing carbon equivalent.
Too low a heat input.
Insufficient preheat.
Poor consumable handling (i.e., contaminated or not dried).
Remedial Actions
The foremost activity is to reduce the hydrogen level retained within the weld
metal by doing the following:
Use low-hydrogen consumables (properly handled).
Remove contaminants.
Increase hydrogen diffusion time by increasing preheat level or
soak time, or both.
Increase heat input.
Postweld heat treat.

7.1.2 lamellar Tearing


Characteristics
These are discontinuities caused by the progressive cracking, under tensile loading,
of inclusions within the base metal. The inclusions are approximately parallel to the
plate surface and not generally associated with the heat-affected zone, although in
some cases the defect may initiate from a HAZ toe crack. Figure 7.1 (page 101) illustrates this type of defect.
Origins
Presence of thin layers of nonmetallic inclusions parallel to the
plate surface. Thermally induced strain causes through-thickness
stresses that result in these inclusions linking up.

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The Practico1 Welding Engineer

Remedial Action
Use of steel grades (usually designated Z quality) with high throughthickness ductility (>35
percent reduction of
area).
Redesign of weld joint
to reduce through-thickness strain.
Longitudinal Section with Cracks Circled (x 1)

(a)

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7.1.3 Reheat Cracking


Characteristics
This defect can be located after a
postweld heat treatment of a lowalloy weldment, e.g., 2.25 percent
Cr, 1 percent Mo. The cracking is
transverse to the weld metal and of
an intergranular nature with respect
to the prior austenite grain structure,
Intergranular Cracking (x 400)
where these prior austenite grain
(Etch SASPAINANSAINITAL)
boundaries
are extremely "decorat(b)
ed" with segregates. Figure 7.1.3(a)
FIGURE 7.1.3 - REHEAT CRACKING
illustrates the general nature of the
cracking, which is relatively small in
size. Figure 7.1.3(b) shows the intergranular nature of the cracking and decoration of
the prior austenite grain boundaries.
Origins
Cracking of this nature is generally associated with relatively high levels of residual elements in the weld metal. Such residuals, and levels likely to cause cracking,
are phosphorus (0.025 percent), copper (0.25 percent), tin (0.30 percent), and arsenic
(0.55 percent).

Remedial Action
Removal of the defective weld metal and tighter control of the
analysis of the welding consumables.

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105

7.1.4 Solidification (Centerline) Cracks


Characteristics
These are cracks created when the weld material, while still hot, yields plastically
due to high internal stresses. This usually occurs along the centerline.
Figure 7.1.4(a) shows a typical example occumng on the fist side of a doublesided weld that has propagated from the unfused root face at the weld root up through
the center plane of the columnar grains of the as-deposited bead.
Figure 7.1.4(b) clearly illustrates that the cracks had originated at the weld root and
propagated along the center plane of the as-deposited columnar bead. Figure 7.1.4(c)
illustrates the inter-columnar nature of the crack. This was etched in the SASPANANSA (a saturated solution of picric acid with a wetting agent) etchant to reveal the
solidification pattern rather than the transformation structure. (See Figure 3.3,
page 32).

approx. x 6.5

x 60

(b)

(cl

FIGURE 7.1.4 - SOLIDIFICATION CRACK


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106

Origins

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High bead depth to width ratios (>2: 1).


High carbon, sulfur (hot shortness) and phosphorus contents.
Decreasing Mn/S ratios.
Contaminants.
Inadequate filling of craters at the end of the weld runs (in this
instant, the defect is more commonly known as crater cracks,
although these can propagate to zones outside of the filled crater).
For additional information on solidification cracking, see section 7.5 (page 122).

Remedial Actions
Identify the pertinent cause, then apply the appropriate remedial action. For example,
adjust parameters to obtain better depth-to-width ratios (aim for
l:l),
use lower residual element base materials andor consumables,
clean joint faces,
use backstepping technique to eliminate craters, or
use slope-out device.

7.2 Profile Defects


As the name indicates, these are imperfections in which the weldment has failed to
meet some predetermined physical dimension or surface acceptability. Eleven such
imperfections can be identified.
1. Arc strikes (7.2.1).
2. Excess distortion (7.2.2).
3. Excess reinforcement (7.2.3).
4. Incomplete root penetration (7.2.4).
5. Misalignment (7.2.5).
6. Overlap (7.2.6).
7. Overpenetration (7.2.7).
8. Poor profile (7.2.8).
9. Root concavity (7.2.9).
10. Spatter (7.2.10).
11. Undercut (7.2.11).

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107

7.2.1 Arc Strikes


Characteristics
Arc strikes are caused by arcing between the electrode, the electrode holder, or the
workpiece lead clamp, and the workpiece. The results are areas of fused metal with
associated heat-affected zones that may or may not contain cracks. Note that if the arc
strike has been caused by a copper contact tip or cable arcing onto steel, then serious
contamination defects can result (see section 7.3.6, page 119).
Origins
Poor or missing insulation on electrode holder or torch.
Loose current return (workpiece lead) clamp.
Poor access to work.
Careless practice.

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Remedial Actions
Correct insulation.
Maintain current return clamping system.
Improve access.
Train welders.

7.2.2 Excess Distortion


Characteristics
Excess distortion is an imperfection whose occurrence can seldom be predicted
unless the work is of a repetitive nature. It occurs when welded members are physically outside acceptable predetermined dimensions relative to one another, usually at
the end of the welding operation. It is also an imperfection that can be recognized to
be occurring during the welding operation; steps can be taken at this intermediate
stage to minimize or eliminate this problem.
With respect to this imperfection, recommendationsfollow on how to minimize or
rectify the situation:
Methods to Minimize Distortion
Restrain the welded joint either by jigging or the use of strongbacks.
Preset the plates to counter movement.

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The Practical Welding Engineer


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Use balanced welding (equalize weld runs on either side of the weld
joint).
Use special welding sequences
- Backstepping.
- Intermittent backstepping.
Minimize (where possible) number of weld runs.
Keep weld sizes to a minimum - do not over-weld.
Ensure good fitup; avoid large root openings and misalignment.

Rectification of Distortion
Use of force -Force usually is permitted (without the simultaneous
application of heat) provided that a preset level of strain is not
exceeded.
Use of heat treatment -If used at an intermediate fabrication stage,
this reduces the peak stress levels (i.e., produces more even disbibution of stress) and hence reduces distortion caused by these
stresses.
Use of heat line bending - This is permitted in some cases, but
often only where the method has been qualified by destructive testing. The workpiece temperature is usually controlled to a preset
maximum using temperature-indicating crayons or infrared pyrometers. Particular attention needs to be taken with steels, such as
quench and tempered steels, where the temperature reached may
have a significant effect on properties.

7.2.3 Excess Reinforcement


Characteristics
Most welding codes, whether of national or client origin, will specify a maximum
cap-pass height for a weldment, e.g., 3 mm. This allows both an aesthetically pleas-

1
FIGURE 7.2.3 - EXCESS REINFORCEMENT

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EXCESS

Identification of Common Defects and Remedial Actions

1O9

ing and a better designed transition between the base metals being welded (a sudden
joining and stress-raising hump is avoided). In addition, this restriction assists in
producing more economic weldments by eliminating additional man-hours adding
unnecessary weld metal.
The difference between an acceptable cap-pass height and excess reinforcement is
sketched in Figure 7.2.3.

7.2.4 Incomplete Root Penetration


Characteristics
Incomplete penetration of weld metal into the
root of a joint. Figure 7.2.4 illustrates its features.
Origins
Current too lowhigh.
Irregular wire feed.
Preparation too narrow.
Too large electrode for joint preparation.
FIGURE 7.2.4 Root face too thick.
INCOMPLETE ROOT PENETRATION
Root opening too small.
Wrong polarity.
Mismatched joint.
Incorrect electrode angle for joint configuration.
Arc length too high.
Poor techniques.
Stickout too long.
Insufficient cleaning on second side.

Remedial Action
The necessary corrective action(s) follows the identification of the cause, e.g., correction of parameters, re-preparation of joint configuration, etc.

7.2.5 Misalignment

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Characteristics
This profile imperfection occurs when the abutting members of a weld joint relative to one another are outside a specified maximum permissible level. Figure 7.2.5
illustrates this imperfection.

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FIGURE 7.2.5

- MISALIGNMENT

Origins
Poor fitup/assembly.
Out-of-roundness/flatness of the base metal.

Remedial Action
Prevent by using better preparation, fabrication, and assembly techniques.
Pre-survey of base metal.
Rectify via localized dressinglmachiningif permissible.
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7.2.6 Overlap
Characteristics
Overlap is basically a lack of surface fusion at the toe, or root, of the weld. It is
caused by the weld metal fowing onto the base material surface without fusing to it.
Figure 7.2.6 illustrates this imperfection.
Origins
Poor manipulative technique.
Excessive weaving.
Too low arc energy.
Too low travel speed.
Incorrect positioning of
workpiece.
Remedial Actions
Identification of the pertinent cause and subsequent
correction.

FIGURE 7.2.6

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-OVERLAP

Identification of Common Defects and Remedial Actions

111

7.2.7 Overpenetration
Characteristics
The penetration of the root bead is excessive, resulting in unacceptable protrusion.
Figure 7.2.7 illustrates this feature.

FIGURE 7.2.7 - OVERPENETRATION


Origins
Excessive root opening.
Welding current too high.
Travel speed too low.
Poor welder technique.
Root nose too thin.

Remedial Actions
Use of correct parameters.
Improvement of welding technique.
Improvement of joint configuration.
Can sometimes be reduced by changing the welding position.

7.2.8 Poor Profile


In most instances, poor profile has a bumpy or ragged appearance; the weld surface does not flow in an aesthetically pleasing manner. This feature is evident in
Figure 7.1.

Origins
Poor technique.
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Poor positional behavior of electrode.


Incorrect parameters, particularly current/voltage/speed.

Remedial Actions
Improve welder training.
Consumable with better positional characteristics.
Optimize parameters.

7.2.9 Root Concavity


Also known as underwashing, this imperfection occurs as a shallow groove at the
root of a weld in a butt joint. Figure 7.2.9 illustrates this feature.

Origins

Remedial Actions
Restriction of back-purging gas pressure.
Optimize parameters to improve weld root shape.
Change from V to J preparation (automatic gas tungsten arc welds).

7.2.10 Spatier
Characteristics
Spatter is defined as small droplets of weld metal thrown clear of the weld pool that
may or may not be fused to the adjacent base metal. While not a ?defect? in the sense
of affecting weld integrity, spatter produces a poor appearance and increases subse-

FIGURE 7.2.9

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Excess back-purging gas pressure.


Effect of gravity on a ?wide? root bead.
Can be influenced by weld preparation, especially with automatic
gas tungsten arc welds.

Identification of Common Defects and Remedial Actions

1 13

quent cleaning costs - particularly on items requiring finishing treatments such as


painting, plating etc.

Origins
Arc length too long.
Current range too high.
Incorrect polarity.
Magnetic arc blow.
Contaminated, damp, or poor-operability consumables.
Incorrect electrode angle.
Poor gas shielding.

Remedial Actions
Use of correct parameters.
Elimination of arc blow.
Improvement of technique.
Use better consumables and/or improve consumable storage
practice.

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7.2.1 1 Undercut
Characteristics
This defect is an irregular groove usually found at the weld toe in the base metal
or in previously deposited weld metal. An example of the latter is illustrated in Figure
7.1, and typical forms of this defect are sketched in Figure 7.2.11.

Origins
Excessive weaving.
Too high current, travel speed, or electrode size.
Incorrect electrode angle.
Incorrect shielding gas.

Remedial Actions
Identification of pertinent cause, then corrective action, e.g., correct
parameters, better manipulative techniques, etc.

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FIGURE 7.2.1 1

- UNDERCUT

Characteristics
Seven types of defects have been identified within this category. These imperfections are usually not surface breaking. With respect to copper inclusionskontamination (7.3.6), this can also be manifested as a crack defect, but it is included here as this
is not always the case.
1. Crater pipes (7.3.1).
2. Restart porosity (7.3.2).
3. Uniformsurface porosity (7.3.3).
4, Elongated Porosity (7.3.4).
5. Slag inclusions (linear and isolated) (7.3.5).
6. Copper inclusionskontamination (7.3.6).
7. Tungsten inclusions (7.3.7).

7.3.1 Crater Pipes


Characteristics
These are depressions due to shrinkage at the end of a weld run where the heat
source was removed. Figure 7.3.1. illustrates this feature.
Origins
Combination of interrupted deoxidation reactions and the liquid-tosolid volume change.
Often associated with porosity.

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7.3 Volumetric

Identification of Common Defects and Remedial Actions

1 15

FIGURE 7.3.1 - CRATER PIPES


Remedial Actions
Improve weld termination techniques.
Use slope-idslope-out current decay devices.
Use runoff blocks.

7.3.2 Restart Porosity

Origins
Ineffective filling of weld craters.
Poor technique.

FIGURE 7.3.2 - RESTART POROSITY


Remedial Actions
Use run-odrunoff blocks to contain the defect.
Pay greater attention to starthestart manipulative techniques.

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Characteristics
This is a very localized defect normally occurring in manual or automatic arc welding at the start of the weld run. It happens as a result of delay in the establishment of
suitable fluxing and shielding reactions at the start of the weld run due to nonequilibnum temperature conditions. Figure 7.3.2 illustrates this feature as it would appear on
a radiograph.

The Practical Welding Engineer

1 16

7.3.3UnifornVSurface Porosity

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Characteristics
These are voids, or pores, distributed fairly uniformly throughout a weld run. They
are generally equiaxed and result from gases formed during reactions in the weld pool
being trapped as the weld metal solidifies. In surface porosity, these pores break the
weld metal surface. The extent of porosity is generally defined by the number of pores
noted per 10 cm of a radiograph (weld only).
Extensive > 100 t
Scattered < 100 t to > 25 t
Sparse < 25 t to 3 t
Very sparse < 3 t
where t is the weld thickness in cm.

Figure 7.3.3 illustrates the pattern of extensive uniform porosity as it would appear
on a radiograph.

Origins
Porosity can generally result from one or more of the following. The more obvious
causes marked (*) should be eliminated first.
Damp flux or electrode coating. *
Contaminated surfaces. *
Welding current too lowhigh. *
Insufficient flux/gas coverage. *
Drafty conditions. *
Damaged electrode coating.
Loss of, or contaminated, gas shielding.
Gas flow too high.
Water leakage (in water-cooled unit).
Contaminated consumables.

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Identification of Common Defects and Remedial Actions

7 17

Arc too long.


Incorrect weaving technique.
Incorrect or insufficient deoxidant in consumable or base
metal.
Excessive travel speed.
Excessive sulfur in consumable or base metal (surface
porosity).

Remedial Actions
The necessary corrective action(s) follows the identification of the cause, e.g., degreasing, correcting of gas shield, replacement or drying of consumables, improvement of technique, etc.

7.3.4 Elongated Porosity


Characteristics
Elongated porosity (or tunneling) defects are elongated, or tubular, voids with circular cross sections typically running along the axis of the weld. They are formed by
gas entrapment that occurs as the weld metal solidifies; they may appear as a single
entity or in groups. Figure 7.3.4 below illustrates the cross section of such elongated
porosity (length around, 7 cm) in a narrow-groove gas tungsten arc weldment.
Elongated porosity can sometimes appear in an extensive chevron pattern.
Origins
Incorrect welding variables,
particularly travel speed.
Surface contaminants.
Joint geometry (e.g., opening
between the vertical member
of a T-joint welded from both
sides).

Remedial Actions
Ensure pre-weld cleanliness.
Eliminate susceptible joint
configurations.
Correct travel speed.
FIGURE 7.3.4
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- ELONGATED POROSITY

1 18

The Practical Welding Engineer

7.3.5 Slag Inclusions (linear and Isolated)


Characteristics
These are slag particles, or other foreign matter, trapped during welding. The irregular nature of the defect differentiates it from a gas pore when examined radiographically. Slag inclusions can often be associated with, and have related causes, to incomplete fusion defects. A linear slag inclusion is generally considered a more serious
defect than isolated inclusions, which are often disregarded within acceptance criteria
unless multiple. Figure 7.1 (page 101) illustrates typical slag defects.
Origins
Slag inclusions generally result mainly from one or more of the following causes.
Those marked (*) should be eliminated first.
Poor manipulative technique causing loss of slag control (shielded
metal arc welding, self-shielded flux cored arc welding).*
Inadequate cleaning between runs (shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, self-shielded flux cored arc welding, gas
shielded flux cored arc welding).*
Electrode too large (shielded metal arc welding).*
Presence of mill scale andor rust.*
Slag flooding in front of arc caused by work position (shielded
metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, self-shielded flux cored
arc welding).
Travei speed too low (shielded metal arc welding).
Arc too long (shielded metal arc welding).
Variation in welding speed (shielded metal arc welding).
Welding over irregular profile (shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding).
Voltage too low (submerged arc welding).
Poor bead positioning (shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc
welding).
Poor joint configuration (shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc
welding).
Remedial Actions
The necessary corrective action is dependent on the identification of the cause, e.g.,
better inter-run cleaning, better manipulative technique or positioning, etc.

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Identiication of Common Defects and Remedial Actions

1 19

7.3.6 Copper
Inclusions/Contamination
Characteristics
This particular defect occurs
when copper has been accidentally introduced to the weld pool.
The resultant effect is weld metal
cracking or penetration of the copper into the grain boundaries of
the steel. Figure 7.3.6 illustrates
copper contamination due to the
brazing of anode attachments
directly onto a C-Mn pipe.
Origins

Remedial Actions
Avoid contactlarcing.
Complete removal of contaminated area. This must be excavated to
a depth ensuring removal of any zone affected by grain boundary
penetration. In severe cases, metallurgical examination by local
etching may be required to establish this.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

touching9and FIGURE 7.3.6 - COPPER CONTAMINATION (X 5)


especially arcing, of the
contact tip on the weld
preparation groove faces.
Loss of, or the melting of, copper contact tips.
Transfer by abrasion andor arcing from clamps, cable etc.

7.3.7 Tungsten Inclusions


Characteristics
Tungsten inclusions occur when tungsten has been accidentally introduced into the
weld pool. As this can only result from the use of the gas tungsten arc welding process
- inherently free from slag inclusions - assume that any inclusions found are tungsten residue. In addition, tungsten is a denser material than steel and most other commonly welded materials and thus shows as light areas on radiographs, often having an
angular shape.

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The Practical Welding Engineer

Origins
Poor technique allowing electrode to touch.
Incorrect polarity.
Disintegration of electrode during welding.
Using thoriated electrode for AC.
Current too high for electrode diameter.

Remedial Action
Avoid accidental contact between tungsten electrode and pool.
Use correct polarity, grade, and size of electrode to suit application.
Tungsten inclusions are often disregarded if small and are treated
similarly to porosity in terms of defect acceptance.

7.4 Incomplete Fusion


Characteristics
This type of defect, although planar in nature, has been separated from the cracking category as this defect generally relates to procedural or technique problems, Le.,
it is not of a metallurgical nature. Incomplete fusion occurs in these typical locations:
between adjacent runs in a multipass weld (incomplete inter-run
fusion);
between the weld and base metal and at either (or both) side(s) of
the joint configuration (incomplete groove-face fusion); and
at the root of the weld configuration (incomplete weld root fusion).
Figure 7.4 illustrates these defects.

Origins
Poor manipulative techniques.
Contamination of weld surface.
Arc length too short.
Travel speed too fast.
Current too low.
Incorrect electrode angle.
Incorrect inductance setting.
Incorrect work position resulting in molten metal flooding ahead of
arc.
Incorrect weld preparation.
In addition to the above, the following are particular to the root condition:
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/dentifieation of Common Defects and Remedial Actions

Incomplete Inter-Run Fusion

Incomplete
Groove-Face
Fusion
(See Figure 7.1)

121

Incomplete
Weld Root
Fusion

FIGURE 7.4 - INCOMPLETE FUSION


Too large an electrode diameter.
Excessive root face.
Undersized root opening.

Remedial Actions
Identification of cause(s) and application of specific corrective action(s) improvement of parameters, joint setup, etc.

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The Prucficul Welding Engineer

7.5 Some Additional Information


on Solidification Cracking
The tendency for weld metal solidification cracking is critically dependent on the
weld metal composition. Several probability formulae have been included in the literature.
For example,

c (s+P + S A 5 +
HCS =

Ng0)

x 1000

3 M n + C r + 2 (Mo+V)

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

UCS = 230C* + 190s + 75P + 45Nb - 12.3Si - 5.4Mn - 1 [2]


(* C values below 0.08 percent should be taken as equal to 0.08 percent)
where HCS (hot cracking susceptibility) and UCS (units of crack susceptibility) are
indices of crack susceptibility.
The effect of C levels and M d S ratios is illustrated graphically in Figure 7.5 [3].

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

Carbon Content

FIGURE 7.5 - EFFECT OF C LEVEL AND Mn/S RATIO

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Identification of Common Defects and Remedial Actions

123

References
[il Bonomo, E 1972. Sulfur-induced solidification cracking in low alloy steel weld
metal deposited from basic low hydrogen electrodes. Welding Research International
2(4): 1-28.
[2] Bailey, N., and Jones, S.B. 1978. Solidification cracking of ferritic steels during
submerged arc welding. Welding Journal 57(8) 217-s to 231-s.
[31 Lancaster, J. E 1992. Handbook of Structural Welding, Cambridge, U.K.:
Abington, p. 207.

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Chapter 8

Oxyfuel Cutting, Arc Air, and Electrode Gouging


The practical welding engineer should have at least a working knowledge of three
other processes: oxyfuel (oxygen fuel gas) cutting, arc air gouging/cutting, and electrode gougingkutting. They are obviously the opposite of welding or joining processes. However, they are crucial to the welding industiy, often going hand-in-hand with
a welding process. Despite their close association with welding, they are processes
that the welding engineer tends to learn by accident.
The following is intended to assist the welding engineer to gain a working knowledge of the processes, and to be able to offer practical advice regarding their application.

8.1 Oxyfuel Cutting


This process, popularly known as burning or flame cutting, is widely used to cut
straight lines and shapes, and to produce a variety of edge profiles on plates, pipes,
and sections. Figure 8.1 illustrates the components of two typical torches. The process
operates via the removal of metal by a chemical reaction between oxygen and hot
material. The preheat flame is used to raise the surface temperature of the metal to the
temperature at which this chemical reaction can take place. The heat from the resultant reaction melts the material, which is blown from the cut by the oxygen jet. By
moving the torch across the workpiece, a continuous cutting action can be achieved.
The cutting responses of the process is very dependent on the material being sectioned. It is very good in mild, low-carbon, and low-alloy steels. If used to cut stainless steels, it is necessary to add a flux, or metal powder, to the cutting oxygen stream;
even then, a relatively poor quality cut is achieved. The process is not at all suitable
for any nonferrous material.
Two terms used in the process, kerf and drug, are illustrated in Figure 8.2; their
relative significance in the process is outlined below.

8.1.1 Kerf
Kerf, defined as the width of the cut, is a function of the oxygen jet dimensions,
type of tip, speed of cutting, and the flow rates of both the cutting oxygen and preheat
gases. Because of these factors, the width of the kerf increases as the material thickness being cut increases.

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The Practical Welding Engineer

CUTTING

TIP NUT,

nD

~ E E - T U B E

/CUTTING
OXIGEN

FIGURE 8.1 - TYPICAL PREMIXING-TYPE CUTTING TORCH (LEFT), AND TYPICAL TIP
MIX CUTTING TORCH (RIGHT).
From Welding Handbook, Vol. 2 , American Welding Society. Miami, Fla.

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DESIGN

Oxyfuel Cutting, Arc Air and Electrode Gouging 127

8.1.2 Drag

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The drug is the distance of the lag


between the most distant part of the cutting
stream and the position nearest to the torch
tip. Zero drag occurs when the oxygen
stream enters and exits the kerf along the
axis of the tip. As the drag width increases,
or moves into reverse, there is generally a
loss in quality.

FIGURE 8.2 - KERF AND DRAG

8.1.3 Problem Solving

From Welding Handbook, Vol. 2, American Welding


Society, Miami, Fia.

The following sketches, together with


the relevant conditions and descriptions, are intended to assist the welding engineer in
assessing the quality of any cuts produced by the oxyfuel process when used in a
machine mode. Recommendations to
rectify the various faults follow.

Correct Cutting
In a correct cut (Figure 8.3), the
top of the cut is sharp and clean, and
the drag lines are almost invisible,
producing a smooth side. Oxide is
easily removed, the cut is
square, and the bottom edge is
clean and sharply defined. Drag
lines should be vertical for profiles. A small amount of drag is
allowed on straight cuts.
Cutting Speed Too Slow
Because of melting, the top
edge has become rounded
(Figure 8.4). Gouging is pronounced at the bottom edge,
which is also rough. Scale on
the cut face is difficult to
remove. To rectify, traverse at
recommended speed; increase
the oxygen pressure.

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FIGURE 8.3

-CORRECT CUTTING

FIGURE 8.4 - CUTTING SPEED TOO SLOW

Top and bottom

FIGURE 8.5 - CUTTING SPEED TOO FAST


Figures 8.3-8.5 from Module Manual FIO of the General Welding and
Cutting for Engineering Craffsmen. Training Publications, Ltd., Watford.
England. Reprinted with permission.

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The Practical Welding Engineer

128

Cutting Speed Too Fast


The top edge may not be
sharp; there is a possibility of
beading (Figure 8.5). To rectify, slow down the traverse to
the recommended speed; leave
the oxygen pressure as set.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

above Work
Excessive rounding and
melting of the top edge (Figure
8.6). Undercut has been caused
by the oxygen stream opening
out. To rectify, adjust the
standoff distance between the
nozzle and the plate.
Preheat Flames Too Close to
Work
Heavily beaded and rounded top edge, otherwise of good
appearance (Figure 8.7). To
rectify, correct the standoff distance by raising the nozzle to
the recommended height.

FIGURE 8.6 - PREHEAT FLAMES TOO HIGH

FIGURE 8.7 - PREHEAT FLAMES TOO CLOSE


Rounded edge,

slag

FIGURE 8.8 - PREHEAT FLAMES TOO LARGE

Preheat Flames Too Large


Due to excessive heat, the
preheat flame has caused the
top edge to melt and become
FIGURE 8.9 CUTTING OXYGEN
rounded (Figure 8.8). The kerf
PRESSURE TOO HIGH
tapers from just below the top
Figures 8.6-8.9 from Module Manual FIO of the General Welding and
edge to the bottom of the cut
Cutting for Engineering Craftsmen. Training Publications, Ltd., Watlord.
England. Reprinted with permission.
face. To rectify, set a preheat
flame as recommended; use the correct nozzle at the recommended gas pressures.

Cutting Oxygen Pressure Too High


The edge has a regular bead. The kerf is wider at the top with undercutting just
beneath it (Figure 8.9). To rectify, set the oxygen at the recommended pressure. Note

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Oxyfuel Cutting, Arc Air and Electrode Gouging

129

that on thinner steel, high oxygen pressure can cause a taper cut likely to give the
impression that the cutting machine is set incorrectly in relation to the plate.

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process is dependent upon


a number of variables,
including the following.

Correct Gouging
In a correct gouge
(Figure 8.11), the groove
is
of uniform width
and depth;
free of oxide and
scale, both in the
groove and
surrounding plate;
and

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The Practical Welding Engineer

Gouging Nozzle Held at Incorrect Angle


A groove of varying width and depth caused by holding the gouging nozzle at the
wrong angle (Figure 8.12):
Too steep an angle increases depth and removes too much metal.
Too shallow an angle gives a superficial gouge.
Incorrect Nozzle Alignment
A shallow groove with heavy oxide deposits (Figure 8.13) is caused by failing to
present the gouging nozzle axially in line with the direction of gouging, due to
working too quickly,
using incorrect gas pressures, and
using incorrect nozzle.

8.3 Electrode Gouging/Culting

'

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Special-purpose manual metal arc electrodes are available for the arc grooving,
cutting, and piercing of ferrous and nonferrous metals.
Metal-arc cutting with such electrodes occurs as a result of melting and removal of
metal along a desired line of travel using an electric arc struck between the workpiece
and a special covered electrode. The electrode coating is specifically designed to
concentrate a forceful and penetrating arc;
stabilize the arc and
prevent its extinction; and
blow the molten
metal and dross
away with a positive jet of gases.
The above criteria are
carefully balanced to enable
the operator to maintain a
high degree of control. The
physical properties of the
coating ensure it decomposes
more slowly than the melting
rate of the core wire, which
results in the formation of a
I
deep cup 3-5 mm deep at the
FIGURE 8.12 GOUGING NOZZLE HELD
tip of the electrode. This
AT WRONG ANGLE
ensures the Operation Of the From Module Manual FtO of the General Welding end Cutting for Engineering
Craftsmen, Training Publications. Ltd., Watford. England.
arc within that space without
Reprinted with permission.

Oxyfuel Cutting, Arc Air and Electrode Gouging 13 1

causing any short circuits, even


when the electrode is inserted
into holes during piercing, or in
tight openings and grooves. The
insulating properties of the coating prevent side arcing.
For situations with difficult
access, a cutting and gouging
flux-covered electrode has distinct advantages over the carbon-arc and oxygen-cutting
processes because it can be
manipulated in very confined
spaces.

Cutting
Metal sheet and plate up to I
10 mm thick can be metal-arc FIGURE 8.13 - INCORRECT NOZZLE ALIGNMENT
cut with ease* The
From Module Manual F10 of the General Weldmg and Cutting for
should be held at a shallow
Engineering Craftsmen. Training Publications, Ltd , Watford, England
Reprinted with permission
angle of about 15 degrees to the
surface of the plate, as shown in Figure 8.14.
With thicker plates, an up-and-down motion should be made in the direction of
thickness so that the molten metal and slag may run clear of the cut, as shown in
Figure 8.15.

FIGURE 8.14 -CUTTING

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The Practical Welding Engineer

Direction of Travel

FIGURE 8.15 CUTTING THICKER PLATES


GroovingIGouging
The force of the arc removes the molten metal by pushing it out in front of the
groove while a forward-and-backwardmotion is applied, as shown in Figure 8.16.
Where possible, the workpiece should be inclined so that the molten metal can run
free under the force of gravity. Such electrodes can be used to gouge out any faulty
weld metal deposit without the need for special cutting and grinding tools.
Metal-arc cutting is
widely used for cutting
holes into piping for subsequent welding of branches
and connections. The
process is particularly
effective in cutting, gouging, and piercing metals
and alloys that are difficult
to machine, such as armor
steel, air and deep hardening steels, stainless steels,
cast irons and hard, or
work hardening, deposits.

f -\

Direction of Travel

FIGURE 8.16
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-GOUGING

Recommended Reading
Journals
Welding Journal, Miami, Ha.: American Welding Society.
Welding and Metal Fabrication, Redhill, U.K.: Argus Business Media, Ltd.
Welding in the World, International Institute of Welding, New York, N.Y.: Pergamon Press.

Books
Anderson, T. L. Fracture Mechanics: Fundementals & Applications. 2nd. Ed. Boca Raton,
Na.: CRC Press, Inc., 1995.

ASM Handbook, Vol. 6, Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International, 1993.


Boniszewski, T., Self Shielded Arc, cambridge, U.K.: Abington Publishing, 1992.
Castro, R., and deladenet, J. J., Welding Metallurgy of Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steels,
New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 1975. (Out of Print)
Colangelo, V.J. and Heiser EA., Analysis of Metallurgical Failures, 2nd. Ed. New York, N.Y.:
John Wiley and Sons, 1987.
Davies, A.C., The Science and Practice of Welding, 10th Ed. 2 vols. New York, N.Y.:
Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Gray, T. G. E , and Spence, J, Rational Welding Design, London, U.K.: Butterworths 1982.
Kou, &Welding Metallurgy, New York, N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons, 1987.
Lancaster, J. E, Handbook of Structural Welding, Cambridge, U.K.: Abington Publishing,
1992.

Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, 2 vols. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM
International, 1992-93.
Pickering, E B., Physical Metallurgy and the Design of Steels, 4th Ed. New York, N.Y.:
Applied Science Publishers, 1996.

The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding, 13th Ed., Cleveland, Ohio: The Lincoln Electric
Company, 1995.

Welding Handbook, Vol. 2: Welding Processes, 8th Ed. Miami, Fla.: The American Welding
Society, 1991.

Welding Handbook, Vol. 5: Engineering Costs, Quality, and Safety, 7th Ed., Miami, Fia.:
American Welding Society, 1984.

Welding Handbook, Vol. 1: Welding Technology, 8th Ed. Miami, Fla.: American Welding
Society, 1987.
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Appendix II

Useful Tables, Formulas, and Diagrams


A. Useful Tables

Page

1. Hardness Equivalent
2. Stress Conversion
3. Temperature Conversion

136
137
148

B. Formulas
140
140
140
141
141

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l a & b. Carbon Equivalents


2. Electrode Basicity
3. Electrode Consumption
4. Heat Input
5. Thickness vs. Yield Stress

C. Diagrams
142
143
144
145
146

1. Iron Carbon
2. Nelson Curves
3. Schaeffler and DeLong Diagrams
4. WRC-1992 Diagram
5. Electrode Classification

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736

The Placiical Welding Engineer

A. Useful Tables
1. Hardness Equivalent
~~

2.50
2.55
2.60
2.65
2.70
2.75
2.80
2.85
2.90
2.95
3.00
3.05
3.10
3.15
3.20
3.25
3.30
3.35
3.40
3.45
3.50
3.55
3.60
3.65
3.70
3.75
3.80
3.85
3.90
3.95
4.00
4.05
4.10
4.15
4.20
4.30
4.40
4.50
4.60
4.70
4.80
4.90
5.00
5.10
5.20
5.30
5.40
5.50
5.60
5.70
5.80

(601)
(578)
(555)
(534)
(51 4)
(495)
(477)
);!;(
429
415
40 1
388
375
363
352
34 1
33 1
32 1
31 1
302
293
285
277
269
262
255
248
241
235
229
223
217
212
207
197
187
179
170
163
156
149
143
137
131
126
121
116
111
107
103

Vickers
Hardness
Number
HV

Rockwell
C Scale
Hardness
Number

640
615
591
569
547
528
508
491
474
455
440
425
41 O
396
383
372
360
350
339
328
319
309
301
292
284
276
269
261
253
247
241
235
228
223
218
208
197
189
179
172
165
157
150
144
138
133
127
122
117
113
108

57
56
54.5
53.5
52
51
49.5
48.5
47
45.5
44.5
43
42
40.5
39
38
36.5
35.5
34.5
33
32
31
30
29
27.5
26.5
25.5
24
23
22
20.5

Equiv.
R

Equiv.
R

Equiv.
Rm

Ton%?

k
g
f
k
n
f

Wmm2

1o1
98
95
92
88
85
82
80
77
75
73
71
68
66
64
63
61
59
58
56
55
53
51
50
49
48
46
45
43
41
39
36
35
34
32
31
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24

160
155
150
145
139
134
129
126
121
118
114
111
107
104
101
99
96
93
91
89
87
84
81
79
77
76
73
71
68
65
62
57
55
54
51
49
49
47
46
44
43
41
39
38

1569
1520
1471
1422
1363
1314
1265
1236
1187
1157
1118
1089
1049
1020
990
97 1
94 1
912
892
873
853
824
794
775
755
745
716
696
667
637
608
559
539
530
500
481
481
461
45 1
431
422
402
382
373

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Brinell
Brinell
,Hardness
Dia
Impression Number
HB
mrn

The figures in parenthesis require a "modified" Brinell test, .e., a tungsten carbide ball is required where the
Brinell hardness value exceeds 450,
HB to HV and HV to HRC conversions are based on E.140, by the American Society for Testing and Materials.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

Appendix II - Useful Tables and Diagrams

137

tonvln.'

kgVmnP

Wmnf

IMn.'

tonMn.'

kgVmnf

Illrmm'

IMn:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

1.6
3.2
4.7
6.3
7.9
9.5
11.0
12.6
14.2
15.7
17.3
18.9
20.5
22.0
23.6
25.2
26.8
28.3
29.9
31.5
33.1
34.6
36.2
37.8
39.4
40.9
42.5
44.1
45.7
47.2
48.8
50.4
52.0
53.5
55.1
56.7
58.3
59.8
61.4
63.0
64.6
66.1
67.7
69.3
70.9
72.4
74.0
75.6
77.2

15.4
30.9
46.3
61.8
77.2
92.7
108.1
123.6
139.0
154.4
169.9
185.3
200.8
216.2
231.7
247.1
262.6
278.0
293.4
308.9
324.3
339.8
355.2
370.7
386.1
401.6
417.0
432.4
447.9
463.3
478.8
494.2
509.7
525.1
540.5
556.0
571.4
586.9
602.3
617.8
633.2
648.7
664.1
679.5
695.0
710.4
725.9
741.3
756.8

2240
4480
6720
8960
11200
13440
15680
17920
20160
22400
24640
26880
29120
31360
33600
35840
38080
40320
42560
44800
47040
49280
51520
53760
56000
58240
60480
62720
64960
67200
69440
7 1680
73920
76160
78400
80640
82880
85120
87360
89600
91840
94080
96320
98560
100800
103040
105280
107520
109760

50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
1O0

78.7
80.3
81.9
83.5
85.0
86.6
88.2
89.8
91.3
92.9
94.5
96.1
97.6
99.2
100.8
102.4
103.9
105.5
107.1
108.7
110.2
111.8
115.0
116.5
118.1
119.7
121.3
122.8
124.4
126.0
127.6
129.1
130.7
132.3
133.9
135.4
137.0
138.6
140.2
141.7
143.3
144.9
146.5
148.0
149.6
151.2
152.8
154.3
155.9
157.5

772.2
787.7
803.1
818.5
834.0
849.4
864.9
880.3
895.7
91 1.2
926.7
942.1
957.5
973.0
988.4
1004
1019
1034
1050
1066
1081
1097
1127
1143
1158
1174
1189
1205
1220
1236
1251
1266
1282
1297
1313
1328
1344
1359
1375
1390
1405
1421
1436
1452
1467
1483
1498
1514
1529
1544

112000
114240
116480
118720
120960
123200
125440
127680
129920
132160
134400
136640
138880
141120
143360
145600
147840
150080
152320
154560
156800
159040
163520
165760
168000
170240
172480
174720
176960
179200
181440
183680
185920
188160
190400
192640
194880
197120
199360
201600
203840
206080
208320
2 10560
2 12800
2 15040
2 17280
2 19520
22 1760
224000

For 101 or greater, add 100 measurements to number adding up to desired measurement (e.g., for 111, add measurements for 100 and l l ) .

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2. Stress Conversion

138

The Practical Welding Engineer

-17.8
-1 7.2
-16.7
-16.1
-15.6
-1 5
-14.4
-1 3.9
-1 3.3
-12.8
-12.2
-1 1.7
-11.1
-1 0.6
-1 o
-9.4
-8.9
-8.3
-7.8
-7.2
-6.7
-6.1
-5.6
-5
-4.4
-3.9
-3.3
-2.8
-2.2
-1.7
-1.1
-0.6

O
0.6
1.1
1.7
2.2
2.8
3.3
3.9
4.4
5
5.6
6.1
6.7
7.2
7.8
8.3
8.9
9.4
10
10.6
11.1
11.7
12.2
12.8
13.3

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3. Temperature Conversion Table


Numbers in the center (bold) column are those to be converted. Refer to the left
column (under "'Cy')to convert to Celsius, the right (under
to convert to
Fahrenheit. "C = %("F-32),"F
= %"C+ 32.
O
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
50

"OF')

32
33.8
35.6
37.4
39.2
41
42.8
44.6
46.4
48.2
50
51.8
53.6
55.4
57.2
59
60.8
62.6
64.4
66.2
68
69.8
71.6
73.4
75.2
77
78.8
80.6
82.4
84.2
86
87.8
89.6
91.4
93.2
95
96.8
98.6
100.4
102.2
1 04
105.8
107.6
109.4
111.2
113
114.8
116.6
118.4
120.2
122
123.8
125.6
127.4
129.2
131
132.8

i3.9
14.4
15
15.6
16.1
16.7
17.2
17.8
18.3
18.9
19.4
20
20.6
21.1
21.7
22.2
22.8
23.3
23.9
24.4
25
25.6
26.1
26.7
27.2
27.8
28.3
28.9
29.4
30
30.6
31.1
31.7
32.2
32.8
33.3
33.9
34.4
35
35.6
36.1
36.7
37.2
37.8
43.3
48.9
54.4
60
65.6
71.1
76.7
82.2
87.8
93.3
98.9
104.4
110

Copyright American Welding Society


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

57
58
59
00
61
62
03
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94

95
96
97
98
99
1O0
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230

i34.6
136.4
138.2
140
141.8
143.6
145.4
147.2
149
150.8
152.6
154.4
156.2
158
159.8
161.6
163.4
165.2
167
168.8
170.6
172.4
174.2
176
177.8
179.6
181.4
183.2
185
186.8
188.6
190.4
192.2
194
195.8
197.6
199.4
201.2
203
204.8
206.6
208.4
21 0.2
212
230
248
266
284
302
320
338
356
374
392
41 O
428
446

Not for Resale

1 1 5.6
121.1
126.7
132.2
137.8
143.3
148.9
154.4
160
165.6
171.1
176.7
182.2
187.8
193.3
198.9
204.4
210
21 5.6
221,l
226.7
232.2
237.8
243.3
248.9
254.4
260
265.6
271.1
276.7
282.2
287.8
293.3
298.9
304.4
31 O
31 5.6
321.1
326.7
332.2
337.8
343.3
348.9
354.4
360
365.6
371.1
376.7
382.2
387.8
393.3
398.9
404.4
41 O
41 5.6
421.1
426.7

240
250
260
270
280
290
300
31O
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
51O
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
01O
620
630
640
050
660
670
680
690
700
710
120
730
740
750
760
770
780
790
800

464
482
500
51 8
536
554
572
590
608
626
644
662
680
698
716
734
752
770
788
806
824
842
860
878
896
914
932
950
968
986
1004
1022
1040
1058
1076
1094
1112
1130
1148
1166
1184
1202
1220
1238
1256
1274
1292
1310
1328
1346
1364
1382
1400
1418
1436
1454
1472

Appendix II - Useful Tables and Diagrams 139

3. Temperature Conversion Table (Cont.)


432.2
437.8
443.3
448.9
454.4
460
465.6
471.1
476.7
482.2
487.8
493.3
498.9
504.4
51 O
51 5.6
521.1
526.7
532.2
537.8
543.3
548.9
554.4
560
565.6
571.1
576.7
582.2
587.8
593.3
598.9
604.4
61O
615.6
621.1
626.7
632.2
637.8
643.3
648.9
654.4
660
665.6
671.1
676.7
682.2
687.8
693.3
698.9
704.4
710
715.6
721.1
726.7
732.2
737.8
743.3
748.9
754.4
760
765.6

81o
820
830
840
850
860
870
880
890
900
910
920
930
940
950
960
970
980
990
1O00
1010
1020
1030
1040
1050
1060
1070
1080
1O90
1100
1110
1120
1130
1140
1150
1160
1170
1180
1190
1200
1210
1220
1230
1240
1250
1260
1270
1280
1290
1300
1310
1320
1330
1340
1350
1360
1370
1380
1390
1400
1410

'F

'C

1490
1508
1526
1544
1562
1580
1598
1616
1634
1652
1670
1688
1706
1724
1742
1760
1778
1796
1814
1832
1850
1868
1886
1904
1922
1940
1958
1976
1994
2012
2030
2048
2066
2084
2102
21 20
2138
2156
2174
21 92
2210
2228
2246
2264
2282
2300
231 8
2336
2354
2372
2390
2408
2426
2444
2462
2480
2498
251 6
2534
2552
2570

771.1
776.7
782.2
787.8
793.3
798.9
804.4
81O
815.6
821.1
826.7
832.2
837.8
843.3
848.9
854.4
860
865.6
871.1
876.7
882.2
887.8
893.3
898.9
904.4
910
915.6
921.1
926.7
932.2
937.8
943.3
948.9
954.4
960
965.6
971.1
976.7
982.2
987.8
993.3
998.9
1004.4
1010
1 O1 5.6
1021.1
1026.7
1032.2
1037.8
1043.3
1048.9
1054.4
1060
1065.6
1071.1
1076.7
1082.2
1087.8
1093.3
1098.9
1104.4

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

1420
1430
1440
1450
1460
1470
1480
1490
1500
1510
1520
1530
1540
1550
1560
1570
1580
1590
1600
1610
1620
1630
1640
1650
1660
1670
1680
1690
1700
1710
1720
1730
1740
1750
1760
1770
1780
1790
1800
1810
1820
1830
1840
1850
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020

'F

'C

2588
2606
2624
2642
2660
2678
2696
271 4
2732
2750
2768
2786
2804
2822
2840
2858
2876
2894
291 2
2930
2948
2966
2984
3002
3020
3038
3056
3074
3092
3110
3128
31 46
3164
31 82
3200
3218
3236
3254
3272
3290
3308
3326
3344
3362
3380
3398
3416
3434
3452
3470
3488
3506
3524
3542
3560
3578
3596
3614
3632
3650
3668

fil0
1115.6
1121.1
1126.7
1132.2
1137.8
1143.3
1148.9
1154.4
1160
1165.6
1171.1
1176.7
1182.2
1187.8
1193.3
1198.9
1204.4
1210
1215.6
1221.1
1226.7
1232.2
1237.8
1243.3
1248.9
1254.4
1260
1265.6
1271.1
1276.7
1282.2
1287.8
1293.3
1298.9
1304.4
1310
1315.6
1321.1
1326.7
1332.2
1337.8
1343.3
1348.9
1354.4
1360
1365.6
1371.1
1376.7
1382.2
1387.8
1393.3
1398.9
1404.4
1410
1415.6
1421.1
1426.7
1432.2
1437.8
1443.3

Not for Resale

2030
2040
2050
2060
2070
2080
2090
2100
2110
2120
2130
2140
2150
2160
2170
2180
2190
2200
2210
2220
2230
2240
2250
2260
2270
2280
2290
2300
2310
2320
2330
2340
2350
2360
2370
2380
2390
2400
2410
2420
2430
2440
2450
2460
2470
2480
2490
2500
2510
2520
2530
2540
2550
2560
2570
2580
2590
2600
2610
2620
2630

'F

3686
3704
3722
3740
3758
3776
3794
381 2
3830
3848
3866
3884
3902
3920
3938
3956
3974
3992
4010
4028
4046
4064
4082
4100
41 18
4136
4154
4172
4190
4208
4226
4244
4262
4280
4298
4316
4334
4352
4370
4388
4406
4424
4442
4460
4478
4496
4514
4532
4550
4568
4586
4604
4622
4640
4658
4676
4694
4712
4730
4748
4766

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

'C

140

The Practical Welding Engineer

B. Formulas
la. Carbon Equivalent C.E.
Purpose: This value is calculated to estimate the susceptibility of steel to cold cracking in the HAZ.
There are several equations proposed for calculating the carbon equivalents. Two
are identified below.

CE = C+

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

CE=C+-+Mn
6

C r + M o + V +-Ni+Cu%(BS5135)U.K.andEurope
15

Mn Si Ni Cr Mo V
+ -+ -+ ++% (WES 3001) Japan
4
14
5
6

24

40

lb. Carbon Equivalent for Cracking Susceptibility Pcm


Purpose: As for CE, but in combination with other factors, this is used to predict
preheat temperatures.
Si Mn Cu Ni
Pcm=C+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+SB
30 20 20 60

Cr

Mo

20

15

10

% (WES 3002)

2. Electrode Basicity Index


B (Bas. Index) =

Ca0 + MgO + Ba0 + SrO + K,O + Li,O + CaF,


SiO, + 0.5(Alzo, + Tio, + ZrO,)

(MnO+ Feo)
2

3. Electrode Consumption Formulas


W=

DxAxL
Efficiency

where W = Weight of electrode/welding wire required (kg)


D = Density of weld metal (kg/m3).Approximate metal density of a steel (0.06% C
and 0.4% Mn) is 7780 kg/m3at 20C.
A = Cross-sectional area of joint to be filled (mZ)
L = Length of joint (m)
Efficiency = Efficiency factor for various welding processes used,
i.e.,l.O = 100 percent efficient.

Copyright American Welding Society


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Not for Resale

Appendix II - Useful Tables and Diagrams

14 1

Typical efficiency factors are


shielded metal arc welding = 0.65,
gas tungsten arc welding = 1.00,
gas metal arc welding = 0.95,
submerged arc welding = 1.00
metal cored wires = 0.95 .
(see also Chapter 5, Table 5.1, page 69)

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4. Heat Input Formula


ExIx6O
J=
v x 1000
where,
J = Heat input in kJ/in. (or kJ/mm)
E = Arc voltage in volts
I = Welding current in amperes
V = Arc speed, in./min (&min)

5. Thickness vs. Yield Stress


If one grade of steel is replaced with another of a higher yield stress, the change in
plate thickness achieved is expressed by the following relationship:

where,
T, = thickness of higher yield stress plate material
Ti = thickness of original plate material
Rz = minimum yield stress of higher yield stress material
Ri = minimum yield stress of original plate material

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Not for Resale

142

The Practical Welding Engineer

C. Diagrams
1. Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram
Fe-Fe3C SYSTEM

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

OC

CARBON CONTENT, wt. %

2. Nelson Cume Diagram


To improve the resistance of steel to hydrogen attack, the two main alloying elements most commonly added are molybdenum and chromium. The most widely held
theory regarding hydrogen attack is that atomic hydrogen dissolved in the steel reacts
with iron carbides to form methane. If sufficient pressure of methane is generated, fissuring of the steel can result.
Safe operating limits of temperature and pressure for CrMo steels have been established, and these are indicated on the Nelson curve diagram. If the operating temperature and hydrogen partial pressure fall below or to the left of the line for the alloy,
then freedom from hydrogen damage is expected. At high temperatures indicated by
the broken lines, surface decarburization results.

Copyright American Welding Society


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Not for Resale

Appendix Il - Useful Tables and Djagrams

143

Hydrogen partial pressure, MPa abs

3.45
O F

6.90

10.34

13.79

17.24

20.7
800 OC

1500
1400

700
6.OCr-0.5Mo steel

_------I
600

2.OCr-0.5Mo steel

400

Carbon steel

400
300
500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Hydrogen partial pressure, Ib/in.2 abc


Safe Operating Limits of Temperature and
Pressure for Cr-Mo Steels (After Nelson)
Diagram as per American Petroleum Institute standard 941, Steels for Hydrogen Services at Elevated
Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Plants, 5th Edition, January 1997.
Reprinted courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute.

NELSON CURVES

3. Schaeffler, DeLong, and WRC-1992


The Schaeffler and DeLong diagrams both relate the microstructural constitution of
chromium-nickel based stainless steels to composition. Chromium, molybdenum, niobium and silicon are grouped as ferrite formers, while nickel, carbon and manganese
are grouped as those elements that promote austenite formation. In the case of the
DeLong diagram, nitrogen is included in the latter category.
The Schaeffler Diagram is most commonly used to predict the approximate
microstructure and hence resistance to hot cracking in manual metal-arc weld metal.
The diagram can be applied to mixed and dissimilar welding. To apply the diagram,
it is necessary to know
the composition of the undiluted weld metal,
the composition of the base metal(s), and
the dilution and the proportion of base metal in the final weld.

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~~

144

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APPROXIMATE BOUNDARY OF
AUSTENITE REGION FOR

.15c

003% MIN FOR ALL STEELS WRoUGHT MATERIALS

36

EXEFTWHERENOTED

SILIWN:

03W MIN
THROUGHO.10 FOR HK;
Cr STEELS. EQUALTO
CASAUSTENITE

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

Creq = XCr +%Mo+ (1.5 x %Si) + 0.5x %I%)

THE SCHAEFFLER DIAGRAM

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FERRITE NUMBERFN)

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Appendix II - Useful Tables and Diagrams 145

18

22

20

24

26

28

30

Creq=%Cr +%Mo+ (0.7x%Nb)

THE WRC-1992 DIAGRAM

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The following may be used as a guide to the dilutions that can occur with shielded
metal arc welding (SMAW):
30 f40%
Root run or square butt joint with root opening
,MAW{
Single run fillet or normal cladding
20 f30%
Gas tungsten arc welding dilution varies from 30 percent for normal butt joint, and
fillet welds up to 100 percent for autogenous root runs. Gas metal arc welds usually
give 2 0 4 5 percent dilution, while submerged arc gives 30-50 percent. Fill passes of
multi-run welds can range from O to 45 percent, depending upon the process and the
exact position of the run.
The DeLong diagram was developed as a result of the growing use of the gas-shielded welding processes. These are more prone to variable nitrogen pickup by the weld
metal than the shielded metal arc welding process. The diagram is shown with a larger scale focus upon that area in which the majority of austenitic stainless weld metals
lie. It is used specifically to predict the ferrite content of weld metals in which the
nitrogen has been established by analysis. It is applicable to the majority of welding
processes; note, however, that nitrogen content can vary with welding conditions and
gas shielding efficiency.

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More recently, the Welding Research Councils diagram (WRC- 1992) has been
developed and is generally considered more accurate, especially for grades such as
duplex stainless steels.
Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code (NB2433) allows the use of both the DeLong and WRC-1992 diagrams to predict ferrite
content, preferably expressed as the Ferrite Number (FN), which differs from the previously used Ferrite Percent only above about 8 FN. Where nitrogen is not actually
measured, the code permits the use of the following assumed values:
shielded metal arc, gas tungsten arc, and submerged arc welding:
0.06 percent
gas metal arc and gas shielded flux cored welding: 0.08 percent
Self-shielded flux cored welding: 0.12 percent

4. Electrode Classification
Mild Steel Electrodes
The method of classifying electrodes is based on the use of a four-digit number, preceded by the letter E for electrode. The fist two digits designate the minimum
tensile strength of the weld metal (in 1000 lb/in.*) in the as-welded condition. The
third digit indicates the position in which the electrode is capable of making satisfactory welds. The fourth digit indicates the current to be used and the type of flux coating.
For example, the classification of E7018 electrodes is derived as follows:
E7018 = Metal arc welding electrode
Em18 = Weld metal UTS (ultimate tensile strength) 70,000 1b/h2
E7018 = Usable in all positions
E7018 = Basic-type coating with iron powder AC or DC
The detail of the classification is shown below.
First and second digits
E 6xx: As-welded deposit, UTS 60,000 lb/in. minimum, for E
6010, E 6011, E 6012, E 6013, E 6020, E 6027 UTS
E 7xx: As-welded deposit, UTS 70,000 lb/in. min for E 7014,
7015, 7016,7018, E 7024 and E 7028

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Appendix Il - Useful Tables and Diagrams 147

Third and fourth digits

The third and fourth digits indicate positional usability and flux coating types.
Em1 O: High-cellulose coating bonded with sodium silicate; deeply
penetrating, forceful, spray-type arc; thin, friable slag; all-positional; DC electrode positive only.
E m l l : Similar to ExxlO, but bonded with potassium silicate to permit use on AC or DC electrode positive only.
Exxl2: High rutile coating, bonded with sodium silicate; quiet arc,
medium penetration; all-positional; AC or DC electrode negative.
Eml3: Coating similar to Exxl2, but with addition of easily ionized
materials and bonded with potassium silicate to give steady arc on
low voltage supply; slag is fluid and easily removed; all-positional;
AC or DC electrode negative.
E m 1 4 Coating similar to Exxl2 and Exxl3 types with addition of
medium quantity of iron powder; all-positional; AC or DC.
E m 1 5 Lime-fluoride coating (basic, low-hydrogen) type, bonded
with sodium silicate; all-positional; for welding high-tensile steels;
DC electrode positive only.
E m 1 6 Similar coating.to Exxl5, but bonded with potassium silicate; AC or DC electrode positive.
E m 1 8 Coating similar to ExxlS and Exxl, but with addition of
iron powder; all-positional; AC or DC.
E m 2 0 High iron oxide coating bonded with sodium silicate; for
welding in flat or horizontalhertical (HV) positions; good X-ray
quality; AC or DC.

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Index

access to joints, 82
air-jet efficiency, in cutting, 129
all-weld tensile tests, 33
annular stiffener weld, 87-88
arc air gougingkutting, 129-130
arc blow, 92-94, 113
arc monitoring, 52-53
arc stability, 23
arc strikes, 107
arc time, cost of, 68
automated processes, cost of, 68
automatic processes, cost of, 73-74
automation, degree of, 73-74
backgouging, 44
backstep welding technique, 94, 106, 108
baking ovens, 86
bare wire electrode
bead appearance, 23
bead contours, 75
bend testing, 34-35
bevel angle, 76
bid. See tender
block weave, 90
BS 7910,99
budgets, estimating, 25
burning. See oxyfuel cutting
buttering, 95-97
cap-pass sequence control, 97-98
carbon equivalent formulae, 140
cast-to-cast variability, 90-92
centerline cracks, 105-106
Charpy V-notch test, 35-36
chevron cracking, in SAW, 84-88

claims, 1
codes, 108. See also specifications
for fracture toughness, 99
communication, engineer and welder, 47-49
about procedure tests, 55
compensation, 1, 5-6
conflict of interest, 50
consumables. See also electrodes
availability of, 16
changing, for costs, 74-75
coating brittleness, 23
color coding, 59
control of, 58-60
COSt Of, 67,68-70,75
evaluation of, 18-22
in defect analysis, 44
issue of, 80
low hydrogen, storage, 59-60
metal powder, 75
nitrogen in, 65
operability of, 20
organization of, 59-60
problems with, 64
properties of, 20
storage of, 58-60
traceability of, 58
contracts, 1, 2-5
obligations of, 2, 5
planning for, 3
purchasing, 2 , 4
subcontracting, 2, 4
tender, 2, 3
copper inclusions, 114, 119
corrosion resistance testing, 32

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crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), 35, 3739,64,65,98-99


cracking susceptibility formula, 140
cracks, types of, 102-106
crater pipes, i 14-115
craters, 115
cross-weid tensile tests, 33
cutting oxygen pressure, 128
D1.l, 25
defect analysis, 43-46
defects. See weld defects
DeLong diagram, 144
deposition efficiency factor, 69
deposition rate, in calculating costs, 68
discontinuities. See also weld defects
chevron cracking, 84-88
communicating to welder, 49
from arc blow, 93
hydrogen cracking, 31
in micro-examination, 32
transverse planar, 85
distortion, excess, 107-108
drag, 127
electrode basicity index, 140
electrode gouging/cutting, 130-132
electrodes. See also consumables
angle, 94
bare wire, 22
cellulostic/rutile, 34, 75
classification of, 146-147
coating, 23
diameter, charts for, 56, 57
ferritic,buttering with, 97
low-hydrogen, 75
re-striking, 23
SMAW rods, storage of, 59
solid GTAW wire (straight lengths), 59
stub lengths, 54
electroslag welding (ESW), 76
normalizing, 95
equipment assessment, 19-20
etches, dendritic and nital, 31.32
ferrite testing, 32
filler metal. See consumables
fish eyes, 34,35
fitness for purpose, 99
fixturing, 77-78
flame cutting. See oxyfiel cutting
flux cored arc welding (FCAW), 16,31,34, 49,
84, 118
low toughness in, 89-90
test procedures, 62-63
flux recycling, 86
flux-covered electrode, gouging with, 131
fracture mechanics. See fitness for purpose

fracture mechanics tests, 37-39


gas shielded processes, cost of, 69-70
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 19, 145
cast-to-cast variability in, 91
gauges, 53-54
geometry defects, 44
groove angle, 76
grooving. See electrode gouging
hardness equivalent table, 136
hardness survey, 31-32
hardness surveys, 10
heat input formula, 141
heat input, significance of, 55
heat line bending, 108
heat treatment, 108
heat-affected zone (HAZ)
hardness of, 29, 31, 55, 56, 96
hydrogen cracking in, 31
in CTOD, 38-39
in impact testing, 36
in micro-examination, 32
in temper bead technique, 29-30
heating pad. See fixturing
high deposition rate techniques, 75-76
hot cracking susceptibility (HCS), 122
hot-wire gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 76
hydrogen cracking, 31
hydrogen cracks, in HAZ, 102-103
hydrogen, in chevron cracking, 85-86
impact tests, 10, 35-36, 65
incomplete fusion, 46, 120-121
incomplete root penetration, 109
international specifications, 7
iron carbon equilibrium diagram, 142
joint completion rate, 68
joint type, costs, 72, 80-82
kerf. 125
labor, cost of, 67
lamellar tearing, 103-104
linear completion rate, 68
low-alloy steels, cutting, 125
low-carbon steel, cutting, 125
macro-examination, 30-31
macroscopic examination, FCAW, 63
manual processes, cost of, 68,73
material mechanical properties, 16-18
material weldability, 9
mechanical tests, 30-36
bend testing, 34-35
hardness survey, 31-32
impact testing, 10, 35-36

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Index 151

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macro-examination, 30-3 1
micro-examination, 32
tensile testing, 33-34
mechanized processes, cost of. See automated
processes
micro-examination, 32
mild steel, cutting, 125
misalignment, 109-110
M d S ratios, 106, 122
moisture level, in flux, 86
monitoring production, 9-1 1
by pass length, 57-58
multiwire welding, 75
narrow-groove welding, 65, 76-77
nelson curve diagram, 142-143
nickel alloys, 31
nital etch, 31, 32
nondestructive examination (NDE), 13, 16, 18,
28,30,84, 99
nozzle, cutting, 130
offshore fabrication,justifying pass lengths in, 55
overheating, 23
overpenetration, 111
oxyfuel cutting, 125-129
partial penetration welds, costs, 81-82
pass length (SMAW), 55-58
pipe butt joint weld procedure, 28
poor profile, 111-112
porosity, 46
porosity, elongated, 117
porosity, restart, 115
porosity, uniformsurface, 116-117
positioners. See faturing
postweld heat treatment (PWHT)
elimination of, 94-99
power sources, 19
selecting to avoid arc blow, 94
preheat, 49
preheat flames, in cutting, 128
preheating bands, 78
prequalification procedures, 25-26
material costs, 28-29
production monitoring, 9-11
by pass length, 57-58
production time, 17
profile defects, 106-113
profit, 1, 2
purchasing, 2 , 4
qualification test program, 26,28
reheat cracking, 104
reinforcement, excess, 108-109
replicas, weld, 51-52
residual magnetism, arc blow, 93

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rods, storage of, 59


root concavity, 112
SASPA-NANSA, 31,32
schaeffler diagram, 144
shielded m e G arc welding (SMAW), 16, 17, 18,
22, 28, 54,55, 118, 145
costs of, 70-71
procedure tests for, 55
single-pass welds, 32
slag inclusions, 118
slag removal, 23
solidification cracks, 105-106, 122-123
spatter, 23,46, 112-113
specifications, 7-1 1
clarifications to, 8
exceptions to, 8
international codes, 7,47
national codes, documentation of, 47
stainless steel alloys, 31
Standard Welding Terms and Definitions, 25
stress conversion, 137
stringer bead technique, 90
stub lengths, 54
variable, 56-57
subcontracting, 2 , 4
submerged arc strip cladding, 76
submerged arc welding (SAW), 16, 28, 38.75,
118
fluxes, storage of, 59
narrow-groove, 77
without iron powder additions, 65
suppliers, data from, 11
temper bead technique, 97-98
temperature conversion table, 138-139
tender, 2, 3
tensile loading, 86
tensile testing, 33-34
fish-eyes in, 34
test failures, 39-42
test plates, 26, 30
test programs, 26-28
test welds, 29-30, 31
material costs, 28-29
techniques, 3 1
yield stress, in test welds, 33
toe profiles, 75
tool issue, restricted, 80
total weld cost, equation, 67
transverse tensile test, 33
tungsten inclusions, 119-120
tunneling. See porosiq, elongated
turning rolls. See f i t u r i n g
ultimate tensile strength (UTS), 33
ultrasonic testing, buttering for, 97
ultrasonic testing, of SAW, 84-85

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undercut, 113-114
units of crack susceptibility (UCS), 122
variation request, 6
vibratory stress relief, 98
volume fill rate, in calculating costs, 68
volumetric defects, 114-120
weave technique, FCAW, 89-90
weid bead appearance, 23
weid porosity, 46
weid cracks, types, 102-106
weld defects. See also discontinuities
analysis of, 43-46
arc strikes, 107
copper inclusions, 114, 119
crater pipes, 114-115
excess distortion, 107-108
geometry-related, 44
hydrogen cracks, in HAZ, 102-103
incomplete fusion, 46, 120-121
incomplete root penetration, 109
lamellar tearing, 103-104
material-related, 46
misalignment, 109-110
overpenetration, 111
poor profile, 111-112
porosity, elongated, 117
porosity, restart, 115
porosity, uniform/surface, 116-117
profile, 106-113
reheat cracking, 104
reinforcement, excess, 108-109
root concavity, 112
slag inclusions, 118
solidification cracks, 105-106
spatter, 46, 112-113
tungsten inclusions, 119-120
undercut, 113-114
volurnehic defects, 114-120
weld cracks, types of, 102-103
weld metal cracking, 86
welder-related, 45-46
weid failure, material related, 64
weld geometry defects, 44
weld iength, 70
weld metal cracking, 86
weid microstructure, 55
weid procedure requirements, 25-30
prequalification procedures, 25-26
test programs, 26-28
weld procedures, 27
pipe butt joint weid qualification, 28
weld replicas, 51-52
weid test failures, dealing with, 61-66
weid test pieces, 60-66
weld volume, 70, 76-77
weld weight, 70

weldability, 9, 16-18
welder access, 44
welders
communicating with, 47-49
supervision of,50
training and qualification of, 47-49
welding costs, estimating, 67-71
welding costs, reducing, 72-82
welding procedure specification (WF'S), 55,57
welding processes
constraints of, 16.17
consumable availability, 16
economic factors, 17-18
electroslag welding (ESW), 76
normalizing, 95
flux cored arc welding (FCAW), 16, 31, 34,
49,84, 118
low toughness in, 89-90
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 19, 145
cast-to-cast variability in, 91
hot-wire gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW),
76
material weldability, 16-18
pass length (SMAW), 55-57
production time with, 17
selection of, 13-18
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 16, 17,
18, 22.28, 54.55, 118, 145
Costs of, 70-71
procedure tests for, $5
submerged arc welding (SAW), 16,28,38,
75, 118
fluxes, storage of, 59
narrow-groove, 77
without iron powder additions, 65
wire, storage of, 59
working environment, 79-80
workmanship example, 5 1
WRC-1992 diagram, 145
yield stress, 33
yield stress formula, 141

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