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UTRAN

UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles


Student Guide
TMO18246_V2.0-SG Edition 1

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Course outline
Welcome
to UTRAN
1. W-CDMA
R99 Radio Principles

4. Topic/Section is Positioned Here

1. 9300
UTRAN
System Description
UA08
W-CDMA
R99 Radio Principles
2. WCDMA for UMTS
1. W-CDMA
R99 Radio
Principles
3. UTRAN
Scenario
1. UTRAN
System
Description
4. MBMS
Radio
Principles
2. WCDMA for UMTS
5. Glossary

5. Topic/Section is Positioned Here


6. Topic/Section is Positioned Here
7. Topic/Section is Positioned Here

3. UTRAN Scenario

4. MBMS Radio Principles


5. Glossary

3
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Course objectives
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:
UTRAN

UA08
9300WCDMA
W-CDMA
R99for
Radio
describe
principles
UMTSPrinciples

describe mobile system standards evolution


describe
UMTS
services,
figures
and service architecture
Upon
completion
of this
course,new
youcapacity
should be
able to:
draw the UTRAN architecture with the protocol stack
define a Radio Resource in 3G and describe WCDMA principles for UMTS
describe
howprinciples
the userfor
canUMTS
access to the network and asks for a 3G service
describe
WCDMA
describe UTRAN functions and state protocols.
describe mobile system standards evolution
describe UMTS services, new capacity figures and service architecture
draw the UTRAN architecture with the protocol stack
define a Radio Resource in 3G and describe WCDMA principles for UMTS
describe how the user can access to the network and asks for a 3G service
describe UTRAN functions and state protocols.

4
@@PRODUCT
@@COURSENAME

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG Edition 1
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Section 1
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
Module 1
UTRAN System Description

TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1

UTRAN
UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
TMO18246_V2.0-SG Edition 1

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent @@YEAR

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 2

Module objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Draw the UTRAN architecture with the protocol stack (radio and Iu) of each
network element and to define the channels generated by these protocols.

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 3

Module objectives [cont.]

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 4

Table of contents
Switch to notes view!
1 Logical Architecture
1.1 UTRAN Situation & Core Network in 3GPP R4
1.2 UTRAN Logical Architecture
1.3 Interfaces
1.4 Network Element Function
2 Network Protocols
2.1 Protocols in UTRAN
2.2 UTRAN Logical Architecture
2.3 Hybrid Iub logical architecture
2.4 Native IP Iub logical architecture
2.5 NodeB synchronisation for all IP
2.6 IP Iur logical architecture
2.7 IP IU-PS logical architecture
2.8 IP Iu-CS logical architecture
2.9 O&M flow architecture
3 Protocol Stacks
3.1 Protocols in UTRAN
3.2 General model
3.3 Iub Protocol Stacks
3.4 I-BTS O&M Plane
3.5 Iur Protocol Stacks
3.6
Iu-PS Protocol Stacks
115
3.7
Protocol
Stacks
W-CDMAIu-CS
R99 Radio Principles
UTRAN System
Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
3.8 IU- CS RTP/RTCP Protocol
4 Radio Channels
4.1 Global Situation
4.2 RAB Presentation
4.3 Radio Channels, Protocols & Network Elements
4.4 Radio Bearers
4.5 Channel Types
4.6 Channels Vs. Interfaces
4.7 Uu Protocol Layers
4.8 Physical Layer Architecture
4.9 Radio Interface Distributed Architecture
4.10 Logical Channels
4.11 Why Transport Channels?
4.12 Structure of a Transport Channel
4.13 Transport Channels: Example
4.14 Transport Channels
4.15 Common Transport Channels
4.16 Dedicated Transport Channels
4.17 Mapping Logical / Transport Channels
4.18 Physical Channels
4.19 Physical Channel List
4.20 Downlink
4.21 Uplink
4.22 Physical Channels: Structure
5 UTRAN Radio Protocols
5.1 Radio protocol stack
5.2 Radio Resource Control (RRC)
5.3 PDCP and BMC Protocols
5.4 Radio Link Control (RLC)
5.5 Medium Access Control (MAC)
5.6 The Physical Layer
6 Radio Resource control Layer

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57
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59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

Table of contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!
6.1 RRC Main Functions
6.2 RRC States
7 Exercises
7.1 MAC protocol

Page
68
69
70
71

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1 Logical Architecture

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section @@SECTION Module @@MODULE Page 7

1 Logical Architecture

1.1 UTRAN Situation & Core Network in 3GPP R4


Access Network

MSC Server

Iu-CS

UTRAN

Core Network
CS-CN
MGW

CS Links

External Networks

PS Links

PSTN
GMSC

RNC
IN network

HLR
Node B

Backbone
Iu-PS

BSC Gb

GSM
BSS
BTS

SGSN
iGGS
N

PDN

PCU

PS-CN
118

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is composed of 2 main parts:


The Access Network (AN) provides the radio interface and radio resource management for mobile
communications toward the Core Network (CN).
The Core network is in charge of User Equipment (UE) Mobility (MM) and Session (SM) management. It also
deals with the external networks for voice call establishment or data session establishment.
The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) is the UMTS Access Network; its composed of Node Bs
and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs).
An ATM switch interfaces the UTRAN and the CN:
Iu-CS interface for the Circuit Switched Core Network (CSCN).
Iu-PS interface for the Packet Switched Core Network (PSCN).
The PLMN connects specifically to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) for voice or to the Packet Data
Network (PDN) for data.
The CN includes the Intelligent Network (IN) for value-added services.
Example of services:
For voice:
Voice Call Prepaid Service

SMS service
Call Waiting

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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1 Logical Architecture

1.2 UTRAN Logical Architecture

PS-CN

CS-CN

Core Network

Iu-PS

Iu-CS

RNC

RNC
Iur

Iub

UTRAN

Iub

RNS
Node B

Node B
Uu Interface

UE

UEs

119

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

CN
2

separated domains: Circuit Switched (CS) and Packet Switched (PS) which reuse the infrastructure of GSM
and GPRS respectively.

UTRAN
new

radio interface: CDMA

new

transmission technology: ATM

CN independent of AN
The

specificity of the access network due to mobile system should be transparent to the core network, which
may potentially use any access technique.

Radio
UE

specificity of the access network is hidden to the core network.

radio mobility is fully controlled by UTRAN.

Some correspondences with GSM:


CN

NSS

Uu

Um

UTRAN

BSS

Iub

A-bis

RNC

BSC

Iur

no equivalent

Node-B

BTS

Iu-CS

UE

MS

Iu-PS

Gb

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 1 Module 1 Page 9

1 Logical Architecture

1.3 Interfaces

Open Interfaces:
The function of the Network Elements have been clearly specified by the
3GPP.
Their internal implementation issues are open for the manufacturer
All the interfaces have been defined in such a detailed level that the
equipment at the endpoints can be from different manufacturers.
Open Interfaces aim at motivating competition between manufacturers.
Physical implementation of Iu interfaces
Each Iu Interface may be implemented on any physical connection using
any transport technology, mainly on E1 (cable), STM1 (Optic fiber) and
micro-waves.
ATM will be provided in the 3GPP R4 release and IP is for the 3GPP R6

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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A manufacturer can produce only the Node-B (and not the RNC). This is not possible in GSM (A-bis is a
proprietary interface)
The Iur physical connection can go through the CN using common physical links with Iu-CS and Iu-PS. However
there is a direct logical connection between the 2 RNCs: the Iur information is not handled by the CN.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 1 Module 1 Page 10

1 Logical Architecture

1.4 Network Element Function

RNC

RNC

Iur

Iub

Iub

RNS
Node B

Node B

RNC: Radio Network Controller


It is the intelligent part of the UTRAN:
- Radio resource management (code allocation, Power Control, congestion
control, admission control)
- Call management for the users
- Connection to CS and PS Core Network
- Radio mobility management

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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An RNS (Radio Network Subsystem) contains one RNC (Radio Network Controller) and at least one
Node-B.
The RNC takes a more important place in UTRAN than the BSC in the GSM BSS. Indeed RNC can perform soft
HO, while in GSM there is no connection between BSCs and only hard HO can be applied.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 11

1 Logical Architecture

1.4 Network Element Function [cont.]

RNC

ATM Transport
Technology

Iub
Node B

Node-B
A Node-B can be considered, as first approximation, like a transcoder
between the data received by antennas and the data in the ATM cell on the
Iub.
- Radio transmission and reception handling
- Involved in the mobility management
- Involved in the power control
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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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An RNS (Radio Network Subsystem) contains one RNC (Radio Network Controller) and at least one
Node-B.
A Node-B is also more complex than the GSM BTS, because it handles softer HO.
Controlling RNC (CRNC): a role an RNC can take with respect to a specific set of Node-Bs (ie those Node-Bs
belonging to the same RNS). There is only one CRNC for any Node-B. The CRNC has the overall control of the
logical resources of its Node-Bs

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 1 Module 1 Page 12

2 Network Protocols

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 13

2 Network Protocols

2.1 Protocols in UTRAN

Used to exchange data (traffic


and signaling) between RNCs,
Node Bs and the Core Network.

Core Network
Iu

The Iu protocols

Iu Protocols

RNC

RNC

The Radio protocols


Used to process the data sent on
the air and for the signaling
between UTRAN and the UEs

Iur
Iub

Radio Protocols

NAS Signaling
Signaling between a UE and
the Core Network.
Typically, the Authentification
and the Location

Node B
Uu Interface

NAS Signaling
1 1 14

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Iu Protocols :
RANAP:

Radio Access Network Application Protocol,

RNSAP:

Radio Network Sub-system Application Protocol,

NBAP:

Node B Application Protocol,

ALCAP

is a generic name for the signalling protocols of the Transport Network Control

Plane

used to establish/release Data Bearers.

It makes establishment/release of Data Bearers on request of the Application Protocol.

Radio Protocols :
RRC:

Radio Resource Control

RLC:

Radio Link Control

MAC:

Medium Access Control

NAS Signaling :
NAS refers to higher layers (3 to 7). Entities of this part will exchange tele-services and bearer services

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 1 Module 1 Page 14

2 Network Protocols

2.2 UTRAN Logical Architecture


SAS
CBC
OMC
Iub
ATM NB

MSC
Itf-R
Itf-R

ATM Backbone

Itf-B
Iub

Itf-B

ATM Backbone

MGW
MGW

Iu-CS
Iur
RNC

Hybrid NB

SGSN

RNC
(SAS)

Iu-PS
Iub

IP Backbone

GGSN

IP Backbone

IP NB

SGSN
Iu-BC

Last Mile

CBC

MSC

MGW

MGW

Core Network

UTRAN
1 1 15

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The scope of IP Transport in UTRAN is intended to replace the ATM transport network (AAL2/ATM or AAL5/ATM) by an IP
transport network to reduce the transmission cost.
The radio network layer remains unchanged in the control plane (RANAP, RNSAP, NBAP), except that the transport layer
information provided in NBAP/RNSAP/RANAP is changed, and in the user plane (Iu / Iur / Iub UP Frame Protocols). ALCAP
disappears in the transport network control plane.
After the introduction in UA06 of an hybrid ATM / IP transport on Iub (iBTS only) and a pure IP transport on Iu-PS, it is added
in UA07:
Full IP transport on Iub: the existing ATM interface is removed and all the traffic (User Plane and Control Plane) is
transported over an IP/Ethernet interface
IP transport on Iu-CS: between the RNC and the MSC, and between the RNC and the MGW in NGN architecture
IP transport on Iur: between two RNC
Pure IP transport on Itf-R and Itf-B : the OMC can be connected only to the IP backbone
IP transport on Iu-BC: between the RNC and the CBC
Moreover, a full mixity between ATM and IP transport is supported in UA07:
A mix of ATM Nodes B, Hybrid Nodes B and Full IP Nodes B are supported on the same RNC
A mix of ATM and IP is supported on Iu/Iur : Iu-PS over IP / Iu-CS over ATM or some Iurs over ATM and other Iurs over IP
A mix of ATM and IP is supported on Iu-CS/Iu-PS in case of Iu-Flex
The OMC can be connected either to the ATM backbone (via an IP over ATM access node) or to the IP backbone,
The O&M flow from RNC to OMC can be In band or Out of Band (using an Ethernet port of a dedicated card).
Note that the Iu-PC interface is not supported over IP in UA07 as the Standalone AssistedGPS SMLC (SAS) is integrated in the
RNC in UA07 (see FRS 34123). That means that Iu-PC over ATM is still supported on a mix ATM/IP RNC but integrated SMLC
server is needed in case of a Full IP RNC.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 1 Module 1 Page 15

2 Network Protocols

2.3 Hybrid Iub logical architecture


Ethernet
Link

IP Network:
Several
DSCP

RNC
GE Link

Hybrid
BTS

IP on VLAN/GE
Ethernet
Link

VR

STM1
Link

E1/T1
Links
ATM Network:
Several ATM VCs

ATM on STM1

OMC

Hybrid
BTS

OAM flow on ATM


Signaling flow on ATM
R99 + Common channels + HSPA Streaming User plane on ATM
HSPA Interactive / Background User plane on IP
1 1 16

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Hybrid Iub means support of hybrid ATM / IP transport on Iub interface:


ATM being used for control plane (NBAP, ALCAP), Node B O&M and R99 user plane. ATM also carries HSDPA
streaming and SRB on HSPA.
IP being used for HSDPA and HSUPA user plane traffic with interactive/background traffic class.
In UA6, VLANs are introduced in the RNC to separate, at ethernet level, different flows on the same physical
Gigabit Ethernet Port : one VLAN is dedicated to Iub user plane.
In UA07, VLAN is introduced in the iBTS.
QoS differentiation is ensured by DiffServ at IP level and, optionally, by Priority Bits at Ethernet level.
Hybrid Iub is supported only on iBTS (from UA06), equipped with xCCM. Hybrid Iub is NOT supported on iBTS
equipped with iCCM, on oneBTS, on micro / pico Node B.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 1 Module 1 Page 16

2 Network Protocols

2.4 Native IP Iub logical architecture


PTP server

OMC

FE/G
E
Link

GE Link

RNC
IP Node

IP Network:
DSCP mandatory
VLAN/pbits optional

User Plane
Control Plane
OAM flow
Synchro flow
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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

0 or 1 VLAN
0 or 1 VLAN
0 or 1 VLAN

0 or 3 VLANs
1 or 3 IP adresses

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Native IP Iub means support of IP transport only on Iub interface both for Control Plane, User Plane and Node B
O&M flows, ATM is no more used.
The Control Plane consists in NBAP signaling messages only, as ALCAP is not needed any more.
The User Plane consists in different traffic types having different QoS requirements.
The Node B O&M flows may go directly from OMC to Node B.
These different data flows (control, user, O&M) may be separated by using different IP addresses and also by
different VLANs at RNC side and at Node B side.
QoS differentiation is ensured by DiffServ at IP level and, optionally, by Priority Bits at Ethernet level.
At Ethernet level, VLANs can be used to separate different flows (User Plane, Control Plane, O&M flows) on the
same physical Ethernet Port.
For synchronization, the Node B needs an interface with an external PTP server.
.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 17

2 Network Protocols

2.5 NodeB synchronisation for all IP

Iub

Synch
frames

IEEE1588v2 server
clock

RNC

Node B
IP Transport
Cell site
gateway
GPS
receiver

E1 link
for synchro

Node B

Node B

1 1 18
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

This feature provides support for synchronisation of


options:

Packet synchronisation based on IEEE1588v2(

all IP

NodeB inplementation by introducing the following

External IEEE1588v2 server for synchronization)

or alternative synch method:

GPS synchronisation

E1/T1 synchronisation

(not used for traffic only synchronisation)

Up until UA7.1, a BTS provides only E1/T1 or E3/T3 or STM1/OC-3 connectivity and therefore uses the
corresponding line timing to extract an 8 kHz signal being used for OMA supervision.
In UA07.1 the native IP IuB feature is introduced, which allows the operator to carry all IuB traffic over Ethernet
transport. With the introduction of this feature BTS systems supporting Ethernet backhaul wont have E1/T1 or
E3/T3 or STM1/OC-3 connectivity and hence no 8 kHz signal can be derived anymore from the network clock.
To recover an 8 kHz signal with sufficient accuracy for OMA supervision the IEEE 1588v2 Precision Timing
Protocol (PTP) is implemented in the BTS to synchronize to a PTP time server thereby allowing an 8 kHz signal
to be generated internal to the BTS.
The 8 kHz clock being generated via an onboard oscillator of +/- 25 ppm frequency accuracy needs frequency
adjustment to get a long-term frequency accuracy with a Maximum Time Interval Error (MTIE) of ~ 400 ppb @
4h. As only frequency adjustment is needed the OneBTS supports only a reduced PTP functionality (e.g. delay
measurement of Sync messages is not needed).
Standards
IEEE P1588 D2.2
Draft Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked
Measurement and Control Systems

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 18

2 Network Protocols

2.6 IP Iur logical architecture

RNC

Peer RNC

GE Link

GE Link

IP Network

VR
UP

CP

Refer to IuB arch.

Control Plane (CP)


UserPlane (UP)

Node B

1 1 19
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

RNCs may be connected to the ATM backbone or to the IP backbone or to both. However:
On Iu-R, Control and User plane stacks must be both either IP or ATM; i.e. no mix and match of ATM Control and
IP User plane or vice versa.
At IP level, DiffServ is used for QoS differentiation.
At Ethernet level, VLANs can be used to separate different flows (User Plane, Control Plane) on a single VR
associated with a physical Gigabit Ethernet Port.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 19

2 Network Protocols

2.7 IP IU-PS logical architecture


1 Iu flex
domain

RNC

IP Network:
Several
DSCP

SGSN

GE Link

IP/VLAN/
G

VR

GGSN

STM1
Link

IP/AT
M

1 1 20
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

GGSN

SGSN
ATM Network:
Several ATM VCs

GGSN

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

In UA06, the RNC can be connected to the SGSN through the CN IP backbone and, optionally, it can be
connected to the GGSN using a direct GTP tunnel for the User Plane without any impact on RNC side nor on
configuration since the SGSN is responsible for providing the User Plane address of the GGSN by Control Plane
signaling.
On Iu-PS, a mix of ATM transport and IP transport is supported, even in the same pool in case of Iu Flexibility
configuration, but both Control Plane and User plane stacks must be either IP or ATM, e.g. no mix and match of
ATM Control Plane and IP User plane or vice versa.
Taken into account also the option to have a direct tunnel between RNC and GGSN, the above RNC connectivity
shall be supported.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 20

2 Network Protocols

2.8 IP Iu-CS logical architecture


1 Iu flex
domain

RNC

IP Network:
Several
DSCP

MSC
server

GE Link

MSC

VR

IP/VLAN/
GE

MGW

STM1
Link

MSC

MGW

ATM Network:
Several ATM VCs

1 1 21
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

In a mixed ATM / IP UTRAN, each network element may be connected either to the ATM backbone or to the IP
backbone.
RNCs may be connected to the ATM backbone or to the IP backbone or to both.
MSC/MGW may be either connected on the ATM backbone or on the IP backbone, even in the same pool in case
of Iu Flexibility configuration.
On Iu-CS, Control and User plane stacks must be both either IP or ATM, e.g. no mix and match of ATM Control
and IP User plane or vice versa.
Taken into account both NGN and non-NGN configurations in CS Core Network the above RNC connectivity with
CN nodes shall be supported.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 21

2 Network Protocols

2.9 O&M flow architecture

RNC

RNC
OMC
Eth. Port

OMC
Eth. Port

Native IP
BTS
Eth. Port

STM1 ports of
STM1 card

STM1 ports of
STM1 card

Ethernet port
of CP card

Ethernet port
of CP card

Ethernet ports
of GE card

Ethernet ports
of GE card

IP
Network

Native IP
BTS
Eth. Port

IP
Network

OAM flow (itfr)


OAM flow (itfb)
Teleco flow over IP
1 1 22
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The O&M topologies supported with Native IP Node B, i.e. the possible paths for the O&M Node B flow (itfb) and
for the RNC O&M flow (itfr) are different.
The supported topologies are the result of the combinations of the following rules:
1. The telecom flow of a Native IP Node B is always getting in the RNC on an Ethernet port of the GigaBit

Ethernet card.

2. The O&M flow of a Native IP Node B (itfb) can either:

Not go through the RNC.

Get in the RNC on an Ethernet port of the GigaBit Ethernet card.


The O&M flow between the RNC and the OMC can either:

3.

Get in the RNC via the Ethernet port of the CP card,

Get in the RNC on an Ethernet port of the GigaBit Ethernet card.

Get in the RNC via a STM1/OC3 port of the STM1/OC3 card (in case of ATM connection).

From OMC-R side a mix of the previous case per RNS is possible.

4. An OMC can be connected to:

an ATM backbone (via a POC) for Itf-r and itf-b;

an IP backbone for Itf-r and itf-b, i.e. the O&M does not go through ATM but by Ethernet,

a mix of the two previous cases per RNS.

The RNC is the bridge from IP/atm/STM1/OC3 to IP/GE ONLY for the O&M itfb flow.
Another transport node can also provide this ATM to IP bridge role.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 22

3 Protocol Stacks

1 1 23
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 23

3 Protocol Stacks

3.1 Protocols in UTRAN

Used to exchange data (traffic


and signaling) between RNCs,
Node Bs and the Core Network.

Core Network
Iu

The Iu protocols

Iu Protocols
RNC

RNC

The Radio protocols


Used to process the data sent on
the air and for the signaling
between UTRAN and the UEs

Iur
Iub

Radio Protocols

NAS Signaling
Signaling between a UE and
the Core Network.
Typically, the Authentification
and the Location

Node B
Uu Interface

NAS Signaling
1 1 24

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Iu Protocols :

RANAP: Radio Access Network Application Protocol,

RNSAP: Radio Network Sub-system Application Protocol,

NBAP: Node B Application Protocol,

ALCAP is a generic name for the signalling protocols of the Transport Network Control

Plane used to establish/release Data Bearers.

It makes establishment/release of Data Bearers on request of the Application Protocol.

Radio Protocols :

RRC: Radio Resource Control

RLC: Radio Link Control

MAC: Medium Access Control

NAS Signaling :

NAS refers to higher layers (3 to 7). Entities of this part will exchange tele-services and bearer services

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 24

3 Protocol Stacks

3.2 General model


The same general protocol model is applied for all Iu interfaces:
Radio Network
Control Plane

Radio
Network
Layer

User Plane

Transport
Network
Control Plane

Data
Stream(s)

Application
Protocol
Transport Network
User Plane

Transport Network
Control Plane

Transport Network
User Plane

1. What is the
purpose of the
separation
between the
Radio Network
Layer and the
Transport
Network Layer?

ALCAP

Transport
Layer

Signaling
Bearer(s)

Signaling
Bearer(s)

Data
Bearer(s)

Physical Layer

1 1 25
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 25

2. Why is
ALCAP
necessary?

3 Protocol Stacks

3.3 Iub Protocol Stacks


Transport
Network
Control Plane

Radio Network
Control Plane

Radio
Network
Layer

Node B
Application Part
(NBAP)

User Plane

Iub FP

ALCAP
Q.2630.2

Q.2150.2

Transport
Layer

SSCF-UNI

SSCF-UNI

SSCOP

SSCOP

SCT

AAL5

IP

AAL5

AAL2

IP

ATM

Data Link Layer

ATM

ATM

Data Link Layer

UD

Physical Layer

1 1 26
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

For IP transport of the Iub user plane over Ethernet, the 3GPP requirements, in TS 25426, are:
UDP over IP shall be supported as the transport for DCH data streams on Iub
The transport bearer is identified by UDP port number and IP address (source UDP port number, destination
UDP port number, source IP address, destination IP address).
The source IP address and destination IP address exchanged via Radio Network Layer on the Iur/Iub interface
shall use the NSAP structure.
IP Differentiated Services code point marking shall be supported. The mapping between traffic categories and
Diffserv code points shall be configurable by O&M. Traffic categories are implementation-specific and may be
determined from the application parameters.
The bearer identifiers (UDP port number and IP address) are exchanged between RNC and Node B at each Radio
Link Setup via NBAP signaling messages.
The DSCP is determined by the RNC and given to the Node B at each Radio Link Setup via NBAP signaling
messages.
For IP transport of the Iub Control plane over Ethernet, the 3GPP requirements, in TS 25432, are:
SCTP over IP shall be supported as the transport for NBAP signaling bearer on Iub Interface
The checksum method specified in RFC 3309 shall be used instead of the method specified in RFC 2960
Each signaling bearer between the RNC and Node B shall correspond to one single SCTP stream in UL and one
single SCTP stream in DL direction, both streams belonging to the same SCTP association.
IP Differentiated Services code point marking shall be supported. The DiffServ Code Point may be determined
from the application parameters.
A RNC equipped with the SCTP stack option shall initiate the INIT procedure for establishing association (new in
Rel 7)
Multi-homing is not required
Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 26

3 Protocol Stacks

3.4 I-BTS O&M Plane

SEPE

FTP

Etc.

Any for site


LAN

TCP

DHCP Radius

Etc.

Any for
site
LAN

RIP V2

UDP

ICMP

ARP

IP

Ethernet

DHCP port numbers: Well Known UDP Port Numbers 67 (client) 68 (server)

The protocols for Native iBTS IP

1 1 27
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The figure above does not intend to describe all the O&M protocols, which are supported for Native IP iBTS,
because the list is open (due to Site Lan support, for example). It intends to list the main O&M protocols, and
also to illustrate that it is not possible to identify an O&M flow, based on the fact that it is over TCP.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 27

3 Protocol Stacks

3.5 Iur Protocol Stacks


Radio
Network
Layer

Iu-R Data
Stream(s)

RNSA
P
Transport Network
User Plane
SCCP
MTP3-3

Transport
Network
Layer

User Plane

Control Plane

SSCF-NNI

M3UA

Transport
Network Control
Plane
Q.2630.2

Transport Network
User Plane

Q.2150.1
MTP3-B

SCTP

SSCOP
AAL5

IP

ATM

Ethernet

Physical Layer

SSCF-NNI

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

UDP
IP

AAL5
ATM

ATM

Ethernet

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Unchanged or refused
1 1 28

AAL2

SSCOP

New or modified

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

For Iur User Plane the transport bearer is identified by the UDP port number and the IP address (source UDP port
number, destination UDP port number, source IP address, destination IP address).
The source and destination IP addresses and the associated UDP port numbers are exchanged via RNSAP and
shall use the NSAP structure.
There may be one or several IP addresses in the RNC. The packet processing function in the RNC sends packets
of a given RAB to the IP address / UDP port which was associated to that particular RAB when establishing the
connection via RNSAP (either by RNC itself or by peer RNC).

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 28

3 Protocol Stacks

3.6 Iu-PS Protocol Stacks


Radio
Network
Layer

User Plane

Control Plane

Iu UP Protocol
Layer

RANA
P
Transport
Network Control
Plane

Transport Network
User Plane

Transport
Network
User Plane

SCCP

Transport
Network
Layer

MTP3-B

M3UA

SSCF-NNI

SCTP

SSCOP

M3UA

UDP

SCTP

IP

GTP-U
UDP

IP

AAL5

ATM

GTP-U

IP

Ethernet

Physical Layer

AAL5

IP

ATM

Ethernet

Physical Layer

Unchanged or refused
1 1 29

New or modified

Not support

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

In this release only IPv4 is supported.


The transport bearer is identified by the GTP TEID and the IP address (source GTP TEID, destination GTP
TEID, source IP address, destination IP address).
The IP addresses and GTP TEID are exchanged between RNC and SGSN by using RANAP protocol.
There may be one or several IP addresses in the RNC and in the CN.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 29

3 Protocol Stacks

3.7 Iu-CS Protocol Stacks


Radio
Network
Layer

Iu UP Protocol
Layer

RANA
P
Transport Network
User Plane
SCCP
MTP3-3

Transport
Network
Layer

User Plane

Control Plane

SSCF-NNI

M3UA

Transport
Network Control
Plane
Q.2630.2

Transport Network
User Plane

Q.2150.1
RTP/
RTCP

MTP3-B
SCTP

SSCOP
AAL5

IP

ATM

Ethernet

Physical Layer

SSCOP

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

UDP
IP

AAL5
ATM

ATM

Physical Layer

Unchanged or refused
1 1 30

AAL2

SSCF-NNI

Ethernet

Physical Layer

New or modified

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The transport bearer is identified by the UDP port number and the IP address (source UDP port number,
destination UDP port number, source IP address, destination IP address).
The source IP address and destination IP address are exchanged via RANAP and shall use the NSAP
structure.
There may be one or several IP addresses in the RNC and in the CN.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 30

3 Protocol Stacks

3.8 IU- CS RTP/RTCP Protocol

Iu/UP
RTP/RTCP
UDP
IP
Ethernet

1 1 31

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

RTP (Real time protocol) provides end-to-end network transport functions suitable for applications
transmitting real-time data, such as audio, video or simulation data, over multicast or unicast network
services. The data transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring
of the data delivery in a manner scalable to large multicast networks, and to provide minimal
control and identification functionality. RTP and RTCP are designed to be independent of the
underlying transport and network layers.
The header structure of RTP includes payload type,sequence number, timestamp and the synchronization
source.
The RTP control protocol (RTCP) is based on the periodic transmission of control packets to all participants in
the session, using the same distribution mechanism as the data packets. RTCP performs four functions:
The primary function is to provide feedback on the quality of the data distribution.This is an integral part of the

RTP's role as a transport protocol and is related to the flow and congestion control functions of other transport
protocols.
RTCP carries a persistent transport-level identifier for an RTP source called the canonical name or CNAME.

Since the SSRC identifier may change if a conflict is discovered or a program is restarted, receivers require
the CNAME to keep track of each participant. Receivers also require the CNAME to associate multiple data
streams from a given participant in a set of related RTP sessions, for example to synchronize audio and video.
The first two functions require that all participants send RTCP packets, therefore the rate must be controlled in

order for RTP to scale up to a large number of participants.


A fourth, optional function is to convey minimal session control information, for example participant

identification to be displayed in the user interface.the primary function is to provide feedback on the quality of
the data distribution.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 31

4 Radio Channels

1 1 32
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 32

4 Radio Channels

4.1 Global Situation

SGSN

UTRAN

UE

GGSN

PDN
Internet

Teleservice
External Bearer
Service

UMTS Bearer Service


Radio Access Bearer Service
(RAB)
Radio Bearer
Service

Iu Bearer
Service

CN Bearer
Service
Backbone
Bearer Service

Logical
Channel
Transport
Channel
Physical
Channel
Uu
1 1 33
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Iu

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

A Radio Bearer is the service provided by a protocol entity (i.e. RLC protocol) for transfer of data between UE
and UTRAN.
Radio bearers are the highest level of bearer services exchanged between UTRAN and UE.
Radio bearers are mapped successively on logical channels, transport channels and physical channels (Radio
Physical Bearer Service on the figure)

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 33

4 Radio Channels

4.2 RAB Presentation


UMTS Bearers
CN-CS

RAB
RAB

UTRAN

UMTS Bearer

RAB
RAB

UMTS Bearer

UE
UMTS bearer
services

CN-PS

Radio Bearers

Iu Bearers

RABs (mapped on Radio & Iu Bearers)


The RAB provides confidential transport of signaling and user data
between UE and CN with the appropriate QoS.
1 1 34

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Example of available RAB in R4


Conversational
(CS)

AMR 12.2/12.2, 64/64

Streaming (CS)

14.4/14.4

Interactive (PS)

R2: 64/128, 64/384 64/144, 128/384, 144/384, 32/32, 64/64, 128/128, 144/144

Background (PS) R2: 64/128, 64/384 64/144, 128/384, 144/384, 32/32, 64/64, 128/128, 144/144

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 34

4 Radio Channels

4.3 Radio Channels, Protocols & Network Elements


Control
Plane
NAS
Signaling

User
Plane
SMS Cell
Voice Web
Browsing Broadcast

RRC
BMC

PDCP

RRC
Sig.

Radio
Bearers

MAC

RLC
Control
Logical Ch.

Physical Channels
Traffic
Logical Ch.

Transport
Channels

MAC

Uu Interface
Transport
Channels

Physical Layer

Node B

RNC
1 1 35
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Physical Layer

UE

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The radio protocols are responsible for exchanges of signalling and user data between the UE and the UTRAN
over the Uu interface:
User plane protocols
These

are the protocols implementing the actual Radio Access Bearer (RAB) service, i.e. carrying user data
through the access stratum.

Control plane protocols


These

are the protocols for controlling the radio access bearers and the connection between the UE and the
network from different aspects including requesting the service, controlling different transmission resources,
handover & streamlining etc...

Also

a mechanism for transparent transfer of Non Access Stratum (NAS) messages is included.

Some principles:
The

Radio Protocols are independent of the applied transport layer technology (ATM in R99): that may be
changed in the future while the Radio Protocols remain intact.

The

main part of radio protocols are located in the RNC (and in the UE).

The

Node-B is mainly a relay between UE and RNC.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 35

4 Radio Channels

4.4 Radio Bearers

Signaling Radio Bearers (SRB)


SRBs can carry:
- layer 3 signaling (e.g. RRC connection establishment)
- NAS signaling (e.g location update)
There can be up to 4 SRBs per RRC connection (one UE has one RRC
connection when connected to the UTRAN).
User Plane Radio Bearers
RABs are mapped on user plane RBs.
One RAB can be divided on RAB sub-flows and each sub-flow is mapped on
one user plane RB.
e.g the AMR codec encodes/decodes speech into/from three sub-flows; each
sub-flow can have its own channel coding.

1 1 36
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Please note that RAB (Radio Access Bearer) are only provided in the user plane.
What is a RRC connection?
When

the UE needs to exchange any information with the network, it must first establish a signalling link
with the UTRAN: it is made through a procedure with the RRC protocol and it is called RRC connection
establishment.

During

this procedure the UE will send an initial access request on CCCH to establish a signalling link which
will be carried on a DCCH.

given UE can have either zero or one RRC connection.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 36

4 Radio Channels

4.5 Channel Types

Signaling

Logical Channel

Transport Channel

Speech

Logical Channel

Transport Channel
Physical Channel

Packet Data

Logical Channel

Information
Type

1 1 37
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Transport Channel

QoS
Requirements

Transmission
Physical
Resource

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

In UMTS, 3 different types of channel are used:


Logical channels
Each logical channel is defined by what type of information is transferred. There are two main
categories of Logical Channels: Traffic channels and Control channels.
Transport channels
Each transport channel is defined by how and with what characteristics data is transmitted over the
radio interface. Transport channels are further subdivided into three categories: Dedicated
channels, Common channels and Shared channels.
Physical channels
Each physical channel is defined by the physical radio resource used to convey information over he
air. Physical channels are defined by a specific carrier frequency, scrambling code, channelization
code (only when spreading is used), time start & stop (giving a duration) and, on the uplink,
relative phase (0 or /2).

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 37

4 Radio Channels

4.6 Channels Vs. Interfaces

Iub Frame Protocol

Transport Channel
Logical
Physical Channel

Channels
Transport Channel

Iub

Uu
1 1 38
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Over

the Iub interface (and Iur interface when in function), all the radio traffic is transmitted using
specific Frame Protocols.

There

is one Frame Protocol type per Transport Channel type.

On

either side of iub interface Frame Protocols entities add header information to form Frame
Protocols PDUs that are transported on the Iub interface over a transport bearer.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 38

4 Radio Channels

4.7 Uu Protocol Layers


Control Plane

User Plane

Management functions: MM, CC

Network layer protocol:


Ipv4, Ipv6, ...

AMR

Non Access
Stratum

Layer 3
Network
RRC
(Radio Resource Control)

PDCP

Layer 2
Data link

BMC

RLC (Radio Link Control)

Access
Stratum

MAC (Medium Access Control)

Layer 1
Physical

PHY (PHYsical)

1 1 39
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The radio interface (Uu) is divided into three protocol layers:


Physical layer (L1)
Layer

1 supports all the functions required for transmission of bit streams on the physical medium.
It is also in charge of measurement function which consists in indicating to higher layers, for
example, FER (Frame Error Rate), SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio), interference power, transmit
power, It is composed of a layer 1 management entity, a transport channel entity, and a
physical channel entity.

Data link layer (L2)


The

layer 2 is responsible for providing functions such as mapping, ciphering, retransmission,


segmentation.

Network layer (L3)


Layer

3 is split into 2 parts:


AS (Access Stratum)
AS is composed of the RRC (Radio Resource Control) entity.

NAS (Non Access Stratum)


NAS is composed of the CC (Call Control) and MM (Mobility Management) parts.

Protocol layers are located in the UE and peer entities are in the nodeB or the RNC.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 39

4 Radio Channels

4.8 Physical Layer Architecture

Layer 2

RLC/MAC
Transport channels

RLC/MAC

Transport
sublayer
Layer 1

RNC

Transport channels

Transport
sublayer

Layer 1
Management

Layer 1
Management
Physical
sublayer

Radio interface
(Uu)

Physical
sublayer

UE
NodeB
1 1 40
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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The

layer 1 is used to transmit information under the form of electrical signals corresponding to
bits, between the network and the mobile user. This information can be voice, circuit or packet
data, and network signaling.

The

UMTS layer 1 offers data transport services to higher layers. The access to these services is
through the use of transport channels via the MAC sublayer.

These

services are provided by radio links which are established by signaling procedures. These
links are managed by the layer 1 management entity. One radio link is made of one or several
transport channels, and one physical channel.

The

UMTS layer 1 is divided into two sublayers: the transport and the physical sublayers. All the
processing (channel coding, interleaving, etc.) is done by the transport sublayer in order to provide
different services and their associated QoS. The physical sublayer is responsible for the
modulation, which corresponds to the association of bits (coming from the transport sublayer) to
electrical signals that can be carried over the air interface. The spreading operation is also done by
the physical sublayer. These sublayers are well described in chapters 6 and 7.

These

two parts of layer 1 are controlled by the layer 1 management (L1M) entity. It is made of
several units located in each equipment, which exchange information through the use of control
channels.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 40

4 Radio Channels

4.9 Radio Interface Distributed Architecture

Uu

Iub

RRC

RRC

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC

PHY

Frame
Protocol

Frame
Protocol

AAL2

AAL2

ATM

ATM

L1

L1

PHY

UE

NodeB

1 1 41
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

RNC

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

In

UMTS the radio protocol stack is split over several physical UTRAN nodes, namely the NodeB
and the Serving RNC.

The

NodeB hosts all the PHYsical layer components and is responsible for the entire Layer 1
processing.

The

RNC hosts all the remaining protocol layers MAC, RLC and RRC and is in charge of the Layer 2
and Layer 3 functions.

Between

Serving RNC and NodeB all the Radio traffic is carried on Iub with the help of specific Iub
Frame Protocols.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 41

4 Radio Channels

4.10 Logical Channels

Logical Channels

UTRAN

Control Channels (CCH)


Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
Common Control Channel (CCCH)
MBMS Control Channel (MCCH)
MBMS Scheduling Channel (MSCH)
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)

Traffic Channels (TCH)


Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
Common Traffic Channel (CTCH)
MBMS Traffic Channel (MTCH)

1 1 42

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The logical channels are divided into:


Control

Traffic

channels for the transfer of control plane information

channels for the transfer of user plane information

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 42

UE

4 Radio Channels

4.10 Logical Channels [cont.]


UL or DL What type of information?
BCCH
PCCH

System control information


e.g cell identity, uplink interference level
Paging information
e.g CN originated call when the network does not know the location
cell of the UE

CCCH

Control information
e.g initial access (RRC connection request), cell update

DCCH

Control information
(but the UE must have an RRC connection)

MCCH

Carries control plane information between network and UEs

MSCH

Carries transmission schedule between network and UEs

DTCH

Traffic information dedicated to one UE e.g speech, fax, web browsing

CTCH

Traffic information to all or a group of UEs e.g SMS-Cell Broadcast

MTCH

Carries user plane traffic

1 1 43
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 43

4 Radio Channels

4.11 Why Transport Channels?

Traffic
Time
Time Interval
Transport
Channel

A transport channel offers a flexible pattern to arrange information on any


service-specific rate, delay or coding before mapping it on a physical
channel:
it provides flexibility in traffic variation
it enables multiplexing of transport channels on the same physical channel
Transport channels provide an efficient and fast flexibility in radio
resource management.
1 1 44
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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The transport channels provides a flexible pattern to exchange data between UTRAN and the UE at a variable bit
rate for the multimedia services.
The logical channels are mapped on the transport channels by the MAC protocols.
By this way the data are processed according to the QoS required before sending them to the Node B by the Iub.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 44

4 Radio Channels

4.12 Structure of a Transport Channel


Transport Block: basic
unit exchanged over
transport channels.

Transport Format (TF): it may be changed every TTI. Each


TF must belong to the Transport Format Set (TFS) of the
transport channel

168
168 bits

168

168

168

168

168

168

168

20 ms

20 ms

Time Transmission
Interval (TTI): periodicity
at which a Transport Block
Set is transferred by the
physical layer on the radio
interface

1 1 45

20 ms

20 ms

>> The system delivers one Transport Block Set to the


physical layer every TTI:
TTI: what is the delivery bit rate of the
transport blocks to the physical layer during the first TTI?

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

A transport channel is defined by a Transport Format (TF) which may change every Time Transmission
Interval (TTI).
The TF is made of a Transport Block Set. The Transport Block size and the number of Transport Block inside
the set are dynamical parameters.
The TTI is a static parameter and is set typically at 10, 20 or 40 ms.
For example,
For a video-call (CS service at 64 kbps)
TTI

= 20 ms

TFS

= (640* 0,2)

Turbo
16

coding (coding rate=1/3)

CRC bits

For a PS 64 kbps service


TTI=20
TFS

= (336* 0,1,2,3,4)

Turbo
16

ms

coding (coding rate=1/3)

CRC bits

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 45

4 Radio Channels

4.12 Structure of a Transport Channel [cont.]

Transport Format (TF)


Semi-static part (can be changed, but long process)
Transmission Time Interval (TTI),
Coding scheme...
Dynamic part (may be changed easily)
Size of transport block,
Number of transport blocks per TTI
Transport Format Set (TFS)
It is the set of allowed Transport Formats for a transport channel, which is
assigned by RRC protocol entity to MAC protocol entity.
MAC chooses TF among TFS.
MAC may choose another TF every TTI without interchanging with RRC
protocol (fast radio resource control).

1 1 46

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

What is TTI (Transmission Time Interval)?


it

is equal to the periodicity at which a Transport Block Set is transferred by the physical layer on the radio
interface

it

is always a multiple of the minimum interleaving period (e.g. 10ms, the length of one Radio Frame)

MAC

delivers one Transport Block Set to the physical layer every TTI.

What does the TFS provide ?


The

selection at each TTI of a number of transport block among the allowed list provides the required
flexibility for the variable traffic and allows to manages the priority.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 46

4 Radio Channels

4.13 Transport Channels: Example

576 bits
576

576
576

576

576

576

576

576

40 ms

Sta tic Pa rt
TTI
Coding scheme
CRC

?
Turbo coding, coding rate= 1/ 3
16 bits

Dyna mic Pa rt
Transport Block Size
Transport Block Size Set

?
576*B (B= 0,1,2,3,4)

1. Complete the table


2. What is the delivery
bit rate of the transport
blocks to the physical
layer during the first
TTI?

3. How many Transport Format(s) may be chosen for this transport channel?
4. Can you imagine why the transfer has been interrupted during the third TTI?

1 1 47
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 47

4 Radio Channels

4.14 Transport Channels

UTRAN

Transport Channels

UE

Common Channels
Broadcast Channel (BCH)
Paging Channel (PCH)
Forward Access Channel (FACH)
Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH)
Random Access Channel (RACH)
Common Packet Channel (CPCH)

Dedicated Channels
Dedicated Channel (DCH)

1 1 48

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The transport channels are divided into:


Common channels: they are divided between all or a group of UEs in a cell. They require in-band identification of
the UEs when addressing particular UEs.
Dedicated channels: it is reserved for a single UE only. In-band identification is not necessary, a given UE is
identified by the physical channel (code and frequency in FDD mode)

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 48

4 Radio Channels

4.15 Common Transport Channels

BCH:

Broadcast Channel

A downlink transport channel that is used to carry BCCH. The BCH is


always transmitted with high power over the entire cell with a low fixed bit
rate.
>> The BCH is the only transport channel with a single transport format (no
flexibility). Can you explain why?

PCH:

Paging Channel

A downlink transport channel that is used to carry PCCH. It is always


transmitted over the entire cell.
>> Is it possible to carry all types of information on the PCH?

1 1 49
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

BCH
high

power to reach all the user and low fixed bit rate so that all terminals can decode the data rate
whatever its ability: only one Transport Format because there is no need for flexibility (fixed bit rate)

PCH
only

two transport channels can NOT carry user information: BCH and PCH.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 49

4 Radio Channels

4.15 Common Transport Channels [cont.]


FACH: Forward Access Channel
A downlink transport channel that is used to carry control information. It may also
carry short users packets. The FACH is transmitted over the entire cell or over only a
part of the cell using beam-forming antennas. The FACH uses open loop power
control (slow power control).
>> In which case is it interesting to use beambeam-forming antennas? would it also be
relevant to implement this feature for PCH?
RACH: Random Access Channel
An uplink transport channel that is used to carry control information from the mobile
especially at the initial access. It may also carry short user packets. The RACH is
always received from the entire cell and is characterized by a limited size data field,
a collision risk and by the use of open loop power control (slow power control).
>> Why is it interesting to carry short user packets on RACH in spite of limited data
field and collision risk (instead of using a dedicated channel)?

1 1 50
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Note: Beam-forming is also called Inherent addressing of users: it is the possibility of transmission to a certain
part of the cell.
RACH and FACH are mainly used to carry signalling (e.g at the initial access), but they can also carry small
amounts of data.
When a UE sends information on the RACH, it will receive information on FACH.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 50

4 Radio Channels

4.15 Common Transport Channels [cont.]

DSCH: Downlink Shared Channel


A downlink transport channel shared by several UEs to carry dedicated
control or user information. When a UE is using the DSCH, it always has
an associated DCH, which provides power control.
CPCH: Common Packet Channel
An uplink transport channel that is used to carry long user data packets
and control packets. It is a contention based random access channel. It is
always associated with a dedicated channel on the downlink, which
provides power control.

Transfer of signalling and traffic on a shared basis

1 1 51
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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DSCH and CCPH seem to be symmetrical, but:


DSCH

is on the DL, so that different user data are synchronised with each other (the information on whether
the UE should receive the DSCH or not is conveyed on the associated DCH)

CPCH

is on the UL, so that different user data can NOT be synchronised (the mobile phones are not
synchronised). It may cause big problem of collisions!

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 51

4 Radio Channels

4.16 Dedicated Transport Channels

DCH:

Dedicated Channel

A downlink or uplink transport channel that is used to carry user or control


information. It is characterized by features such as fast rate change (on a
frame-by-frame basis), fast power control, use of beam-forming and
support of soft HO.

1 1 52
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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DCH
It

is different from GSM where TCH carries user data (e.g speech frames) and ACCH carries higher layer
signalling (e.g HO commands)

User data and signalling are therefore treated in the same way from the physical layer (although set of
parameters may be different between data and signalling)
wide
Fast

range of Transport Format Set permits to be very flexible concerning the bit rate, the interleaving...
Power Control and soft HO are only applied on this transport channel.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 52

4 Radio Channels

4.17 Mapping Logical / Transport Channels


Traffic Logical Channels
Control Logical Channels
BCCH

PCCH

BCH

PCH

CCCH MSCH MCCH DCCH DTCH

RACH

FACH

DSCH

CTCH MTCH

CPCH

Common Transport Channels

1 1 53
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 53

DCH
Dedicated
Transport
Channels

4 Radio Channels

4.17 Mapping Logical / Transport Channels [cont.]

Control Logical Channels


BCCH

BCH

PCCH

PCH

CCCH

RACH

Traffic Logical Channels

DCCH

FACH

DTCH

DSCH

CPCH

Common Transport Channels

1 1 54
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

CTCH

DCH
Dedicated
Transport
Channels

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

According to the slide above and the previous one, we can say state that :
Except BCH and PCH, each type of transport channel can be used for the transfer of either control or traffic
logical channels.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 54

4 Radio Channels

4.18 Physical Channels


For the UE point of view, the network is just the physical channels.
RNC

There are several kinds of physical channels.


Channel associated with transport channel

Transport
Channels

Iub

UTRAN Signaling (mobility management)


Core Network Signaling (authentication)

Node B

User Traffic (voice)


There are common and dedicated channels
Channels not associated with transport channel, the physical
signaling.
Cell Search Selection
System Information Collection
Connection Request and Paging Surveillance
These channels and resources allowing the UE to share these
channels with other users are the radio resources
We will see later how data from transport channel are processed to be
mapped on the physical channels and how a UE uses these channels.

1 1 55
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

On a cell, all the physical channels are sent on the same frequency and on the same time.
It is due to the radio technology, the WCDMA, really different than the one used with the GSM.
Here the physical channels are separated by codes. We will see this point on the next chapter.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 55

4 Radio Channels

4.19 Physical Channel List


Not associated with transport channels
CPICH: Common Pilot Channel
PICH: Page Indicator Channel
MICH: MBMS Indication Channel
P-SCH & S-SCH: Primary & Secondary Synchronization Channel
AICH: Acquisition Indicator Channel
Dedicated Physical Channels, associated with transport channels
DPDCH: Dedicated Physical Data Channel
DPCCH: Dedicated Physical Control Channel
Common Physical Channels, associated with transport channels
P-CCPCH & S-CCPCH: Primary & Secondary Common Control Channel
PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel
PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PCPCH: Physical Common Packet Channel

1 1 56
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 56

4 Radio Channels

4.20 Downlink
DTCH, DCCH

MTCH

MSCH, MCCH

CCCH, CTCH

BCCH

PCCH

Logical Ch
Transport Ch
DCH1

DSCH

DCH2

FACH

PCH

BCH

Not implemented
yet in Alactel-Lucent
Solution

CCTrCH
Physical Ch
DPDCH and DPCCH
multiplexed by time

DPDCH
+
DPCCH

PDSCH

Dedicated
Physical Ch

Not associated with


transport channels

P-CCPCH

S-CCPCH
Common Physical Ch

AICH

PICH

MICH

CPICH

P-SCH

S-SCH

MSCH, MCCH, MTCH map to FACH (only in DL)


1 1 57
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Some common transport channels are multiplexed on the same physical channels. Like the FACH and the PCH on
the S-CCPCH.
The FACH is a downlink common channel to carry the traffic and the control data.
The PCH is the Paging channel.
By

the same principles, several DCH (Dedicated channel) belonging to the same user are mapped on one
physical channel, the DPDCH. The DPCCH is its control channel at the physical level.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 57

4 Radio Channels

4.21 Uplink
DTCH, DCCH

CCCH

Logical Ch
Transport Ch
DCH1

DCH2

RACH

CPCH

CCTrCH
Physical Ch
DPDCH and DPCCH
multiplexed by
modulation

DPDCH
+
DPCCH

Common Physical Ch

Dedicated Physical Ch

1 1 58
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

PCPCH

PRACH

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

There are less channels in uplink. For the physical channels, there are the dedicated channels (DPDCH) and the
common channels (PRACH).
The PCPCH is not implemented in the Alactel-Lucent Solution.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 58

4 Radio Channels

4.22 Physical Channels: Structure

Radio Frame = 10 ms

1 Time slot =
0.666 ms

15 Time
Slots

.
N bits
(according to the bit rate)
A physical channel is defined by:
A carrier
Some codes (see 4.3 and 4.4 part)
A start and stop instant
Physical channels are sent continuously on the air interface between start and stop instants.

1 1 59

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

After channel coding each transport block is split into radio frames of 10 ms.
The bit rate may be changed for each frame.
Each radio frame is also split into 15 time slots.
But all time slots belong to the same user (this slot structure has nothing to do with the TDMA structure in GSM).
All time slots of a same TDMA frame have the same bit rate.
Fast power control may be performed for each time slot (1500 Hz).
The number of chips for one bit M is equivalent to the spreading factor. It can easily be computed with
knowledge of N:
In fact the spreading factor must be equal to 4, 8, 16256.
Consequently it may be necessary to add some padding bits to match the adequate value of spreading factor
(rate matching).

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 59

5 UTRAN Radio Protocols

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COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 60

5 UTRAN Radio Protocols

5.1 Radio protocol stack


Control plane

User plane

Non Access Stratum

Bearers (called
RAB in user plane)

Access Stratum
control

RRC
control
control

Layer 2/PDCP
Layer 2/BMC
control

control

Layer 3

PDCP
PDC
P

SAP
BMC

Radio Bearers

Layer 2/RLC
RLC

RLC
RLC
RLCRLC

RLC
RLC
RLC

Logical Channels
Layer 2/MAC

MAC
Transport Channels

Layer 1

PHY
Physical Channels

1 1 61

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The radio protocols are responsible for exchanges of signalling and user data between the UE and the UTRAN
over the Uu interface
The radio protocols are layered into:
the

RRC protocol located in RNC* and UE

the

RLC protocol located in RNC* and UE

the

MAC protocol located in RNC* and UE

the

physical layer (on the air interface) located in Node-B and UE

Two additional service-dependent protocols exists in the user plane in the layer 2: PDCP and BMC.
Each layer provides services to upper layers at Service Access Points (SAP) on a peer-to-peer communication
basis. The SAP are marked with circles. A service is defined by a set of service primitives.
Radio Interface Protocol Architecture is described in 3GPP 25.301.
(*except a part of protocol used for BCH which is terminated in Node-B)

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
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5 UTRAN Radio Protocols

5.2 Radio Resource Control (RRC)


Call management

Bearers

Radio mobility management


RRC
control

Radio Bearers
(control plane)

Measurement control and reporting


control

control
control
control

Layer 3

Outer loop power control


PDCP
BMC

RLC

MAC
PHY

RRC is the brain of the radio interface protocol stack.

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

RRC is a protocol which belongs to control plane.


The RRC functions are:

Call management

RRC connection establishment/release (initial access)

Radio Bearer establishment/release/reconfiguration (in the control plane and in the user plane)

Transport and Physical Channels reconfiguration

Radio mobility management

Handover (soft and hard)

Cell and URA update (see 5.UTRAN/ Mobility Management)

Paging procedure

Measurements control (UTRAN side) and reporting (UE side)

Outer Loop Power Control

Control of radio channel ciphering and deciphering


RRC can control locally the configuration of the lower layers (RLC, MAC...) through Control SAP. These
Control services are not requiring peer-to-peer communication, one or more sub-layers can be
bypassed.
See 3GPP 25.331 RRC protocol (over 500 pages!)
Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 62

5 UTRAN Radio Protocols

5.3 PDCP and BMC Protocols


PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol)
- in the user plane, only for services from the PS domain
- it contains compression methods
In R99 only a header compression method is mentioned (RFC2507).
Why is header compression valuable?
e.g a combined RTP/UDP/IP headers is at least 60 bytes for IPv6, when IP
voice service header can be about 20 bytes or less.
BMC (Broadcast/Multicast Services)
- in the user plane
- to adapt broadcast and multicast services from NAS on the radio interface
In R99 the only service using this protocol is SMS Cell Broadcast Service
(directly taken from GSM).
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See 3 GPP 25.323 (PDCP protocol) and 25.324 (BMC protocol)

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
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5 UTRAN Radio Protocols

5.4 Radio Link Control (RLC)

Segmentation
Radio Bearers
(user plane)

Radio Bearers
(control plane)
Layer 2/
upper part

RLC

RLC
RLC
RLC

Control
Logical
Channels

RLC
RLC
RLCRLC
Traffic
Logical
Channels

Buffering
Data transfer with 3
configuration modes:
- Transparent (TM)
- Unacknowledged (UM)
- Acknowledged (AM)
Ciphering

RLC provides segmentation and (in AM mode) reliable data transfer.


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There is no difference between RLC instances in Control and User planes. There is a single RLC connection per
Radio Bearer.
RLC main functions:
RLC Connection Establishment/Release in 3 configuration modes:
-

transparent data transfer (TM): without adding any protocol information

unacknowledged data transfer (UM): without guaranteeing delivery to the peer entity (but can detect
transmission errors)

acknowledged

data transfer (AM): with guaranteeing delivery to the peer entity. The AM mode provides
reliable link (error detection and recovery, in-sequence delivery, duplicate detection, flow Control, ARQ
mechanisms)

ARQ=Automatic Repeat Request (it manages retransmissions)


Transmission/Reception buffer
Segmentation and reassembly (to adjust the radio bearer size to the actual set of transport formats)
Mapping between Radio Bearers and Logical Channels (one to one)
Ciphering for non-transparent RLC data (if not performed in MAC), using the UEA1, Kasumi algorithm specified in
R99
Encryption is performed in accordance with TS 33.102 (radio interface), 25.413, 25.331(RRC signaling messages)
and supports the settings of integrity with CN (CS-domain/PS-domain)
3GPP 25.322 RLC protocol
Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
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5 UTRAN Radio Protocols

5.5 Medium Access Control (MAC)

Traffic
Logical
Channels

Control
Logical
Channels
Layer 2/
lower part

Basic data transfer


Multiplexing of logical channels
Priority handling/Scheduling
(TFC selection)

MAC
Transport
Channels
(common and
dedicated)

Reporting of measurements
Ciphering

MAC can switch a common channel into a dedicated channel if higher bit rate
is required (on request of L3-level).
MAC can change dynamically Transport Format (bit rate) of each transport
channel on a frame basis (each 10 ms) without interchanging with L3-level.
MAC provides flexible data transfer.
1 1 65

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

MAC belongs to control plane and to user plane.


MAC main functions:
Data transfer: MAC provides unacknowledged data transfer without segmentation
Multiplexing of logical channels (possible only if they require the same QoS)
Mapping between Logical Channels and Transport Channels
Selection of appropriate Transport Format for each Transport Channel depending on instantaneous source rate.
Priority handling/Scheduling according to priorities given by upper layers:
-

between data flows of one UE

between different UEs

Priority handling/Scheduling is done through Transport Format Combination (TFC) selection


Reporting of monitoring to RRC
Ciphering for RLC transparent data (if not performed in RLC)
3GPP 25.321 MAC protocol

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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5 UTRAN Radio Protocols

5.6 The Physical Layer

Common
Transport
Channels

Dedicated
Transport
Channels

Multiplexing of transport ch.


Spreading/modulation

Physical layer

Layer 1

RF processing
Dedicated
Physical
Channels

Common
Physical
Channels

Power control
Measurements

Air Interface

The physical layer provides multiplexing and radio frequency


processing with a CDMA method.
1 1 66

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN System Description


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The physical layer belongs to control plane and to user plane.


Physical layer main functions:
Multiplexing/de-multiplexing

of transport channels on CCTrCH (Coded Composite Transport Channel) even if


the transport channels require different QoS.

Mapping

of CCTrCH on physical channels

Spreading/de-spreading
RF

and modulation/demodulation of physical channels

processing (3 GPP 25.10x)

Frequency

and time (chip, bit, slot, frame) synchronization

Measurements
Open

and indication to higher layers (e.g. FER, SIR, interference power, transmit power, etc.)

loop and Inner loop power control

Macro-diversity

distribution/combining and soft handover execution

3GPP 25.2xx

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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6 Radio Resource control Layer

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 67

6 Radio Resource control Layer

6.1 RRC Main Functions

RRC connection management


Radio Bearers management
Radio resources management
Paging / Notification
System information broadcast

RRC
Connection

UE

RNC

Measurement reporting management


Outer loop power control management
Ciphering management
Integrity processing
Routing of higher layer PDUs

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Many

The

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functions are managed by the RRC layer. Here is the list of the most important:
Establishment, re-establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between
the UE and UTRAN: it includes an optional cell re-selection, an admission control, and a layer
2 signaling link establishment. When a RNC is in charge of a specific connection towards a
UE, it acts as the Serving RNC.
Establishment, reconfiguration and release of Radio Bearers: a number of Radio Bearers can
be established for a UE at the same time. These bearers are configured depending on the
requested QoS. The RNC is also in charge of ensuring that the requested QoS can be met.
Assignment, reconfiguration and release of radio resources for the RRC connection: it
handles the assignment of radio resources (e.g. codes, shared channels). RRC
communicates with the UE to indicate new resources allocation when handovers are
managed.
Paging/Notification: it broadcasts paging information from network to UEs.
Broadcasting of information provided by the Non-Access Stratum (Core Network) or Access
Stratum. This corresponds to system information regularly repeated.
UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting: RRC indicates what to measure,
when and how to report.
Outer loop power control: controls setting of the target values.
Control of ciphering: provides procedures for setting of ciphering.

RRC layer is defined in the 25.331 3GPP specification.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
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6 Radio Resource control Layer

6.2 RRC States

UTRA RRC CONNECTED MODE


URA_PCH

Cell_PCH

Cell_DCH

Cell_FACH

Camping on a UTRAN cell


Idle Mode

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The

above figure shows the RRC states in UTRA RRC Connected Mode, including transitions
between UTRA RRC connected mode and GSM connected mode for CS domain services, and
between UTRA RRC connected mode and GSM/GPRS packet modes for PS domain services. It also
shows the transitions between Idle Mode and UTRA RRC Connected Mode and furthermore the
transitions within UTRA RRC connected mode.

The

RRC connection is defined as a point-to-point bi-directional connection between RRC peer


entities in the UE and the UTRAN characterized by the allocation of a U-RNTI.

UE has either zero or one RRC connection.

After

power on, UE stays in Idle mode until it transmits a request to establish an RRC connection.
The Connected mode is entered when the RRC connection is established between UE and Serving
RNC. UE leaves the Connected mode and returns to Idle mode when the RRC connection is
released or at RRC connection failure.

Two

modes of operation are defined for the UE: Idle mode and UTRA RRC Connected mode.

The

four RRC states in UTRA RRC Connected Mode are: URA_PCH, CELL_PCH, CELL_DCH,
CELL_FACH.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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7 Exercises

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
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7 Exercises

7.1 MAC protocol


BCCH

MSCH MCCH PCCH BCCH MTCH MTCH CCCH CTCH

DCCH DTCH DTCH

MAC
Control

MAC-d

MAC-b

BCH

MAC-c/sh/m

PCH FACH FACH RACH CPCH DSCH DSCH

DCH DCH

Iur or local

Look at this figure and answer the questions on the following pages.
pages.

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 71

7 Exercises

7.1 MAC protocol [cont.]


1. On which logical/transport channels will be mapped:
system information broadcasting
paging
telephony speech
internet browsing at a high bit rate
internet browsing at a low bit rate
Can you imagine a situation where the UE will use 2 DTCHs (or more) at the same
time?
2. Guess the meaning of MAC-b MAC-c/sh, MAC-m and MAC-d.
3. Why is there one MAC-d entity on the UE side and several MAC-d entities on the
UTRAN side?
4. What is the link between MAC-c/sh and MAC-d for?

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 72

7 Exercises

7.1 MAC protocol [cont.]


5. What are the 4 main functions of MAC protocol?
6. MAC can multiplex logical channels only if they require the
same QoS: true or false?
7. Which entity is responsible for TFS selection? TF allocation?
8. Will the physical channel configuration be changed
(e.g modification of spreading factor) when MAC selects a new TF
inside TFS?
9. MAC makes measurement reports to RRC: why is it necessary?

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 1 Page 73

End of module
UTRAN System Description

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Section 1
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Module 2
WCDMA for UMTS

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UTRAN
UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 2

Module objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Define a Radio Resource in 3G

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
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Module objectives [cont.]

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 4

Table of contents
Switch to notes view!
1 Context
1.1 Historical
1.2 Advantages & Disadvantages
1.3 3GPP
2 Analogy
2.1 WCDMA and Restaurant
3 Spread Spectrum Modulation
3.1 A Code as a Shell against Noise
3.2 Spectrum spreading
3.3 Transmission Chain
3.4 Code & Spreading factor
3.5 Spreading factor & Data Rate
3.6 Spreading factor & Error at reception
3.7 Exercise: Orthogonal Code
3.7 WCDMA, Power Density & Processing Gain
4 Code Division Multiple Access
4.1 One-cell reuse
4.2 Multiple access
4.3 Spreading: Channelization and Scrambling
4.4 Channelization Codes (Spreading Codes)
4.5 Scrambling codes
5 Soft Handover
125
5.1Principles
Introduction
W-CDMA R99 Radio
WCDMA for UMTS
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
5.2 Scenarios: Softer Handover
5.3 Scenarios: Soft Handover intra RNC
5.4 Scenarios: Soft Handover inter RNC
5.5 Scenarios: SRNC Relocation
5.6 Soft Handover & Code Management
5.7 Cost & Benefit
6 Rake Receiver
6.1 Rake Receiver principle
6.2 Rake Receiver and Multi-Service
6.3 Rake Receiver and soft handover
6.4 Rake Receiver and Path Diversity
7 Power Control
7.1 Why ?
7.2 Different kinds of Power Control
7.3 Open Loop Power Control
7.4 Closed Loop Power Control: Principle
7.4 Closed Loop Power Control: Power Density
7.5 UL Closed Loop PC, in case of Soft Handover
7.5 DL Closed Loop PC, in case of Soft Handover
8 Capacity, Coverage & Quality
8.1 Links between Coverage, Capacity and Quality
8.2 Improvement Ways
8.3 Typical Values

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35
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37
38
39
40
42
43
45
46
47
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Table of contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!

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Page

1 Context

127
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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 7

1 Context

1.1 Historical
Early 70s
CDMA developed for military field for its great qualities of privacy (low
probability interception, interference rejection)
1996
CDMA commercial launch in the US
This system called IS-95 or cdmaOne was developed by Qualcomm and
has reached 50 million subscribers worldwide
2000
IMT-2000 has selected three CDMA radio interfaces:
- WCDMA (UTRA FDD)
- TD-CDMA (UTRA TDD)
- CDMA 2000
In the following material we will only refer to WCDMA (UTRA FDD)

128

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles WCDMA for UMTS


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

See http://www.cdg.org for IS-95


In CDMA field, we have experience of IS-95
IS-95 vocabulary:
forward

channel=downlink

reverse

channel=uplink

handoff=handover

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 8

1 Context

1.2 Advantages & Disadvantages


CDMA is very attractive:
Better spectrum efficiency than 2G systems
Suitable for all type of services (circuit, packet) and for multi-services
Enhanced privacy
Evolutionary (linked with progress in signal processing field)
BUT:
Complex system: not easy to configure and to manage
Unstable in case of congestion

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Spectrum efficiency : transmission capacity per spectrum unit (bandwidth), i.e kbit/MHz.
This must not be confused with the traffic capacity.
The spectrum efficiency in UMTS is higher than in GSM (25x200kHz carriers in GSM offering 335 kbps** while a
5 MHz UMTS carrier offers 400 kbps).
If we factor in densification (frequency reuse pattern), the UMTS traffic capacity is dramatically increased.
According to CDMA Development Group:
Capacity

increases by a factor of between 8 to 10 compared to an AMPS

analog system and between 4 to 5 times compared to a GSM system

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
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1 Context

1.3 3GPP
The 3GPP is the organization in charge of the standardization of the UMTS.
It is made of standardization organization (ETSI in Europe, T1 in USA, ARIB
in Japan or CTWS in China ), member of manufacturers and operators.
The UMTS frequency allocations are :

2110

2170

FDD
1900

1920

TDD

MSS
1980

FDD

2200

2010

MSS

FDD: Frequency Division Duplex


TDD: Time Division Duplex
MSS: Mobile Satellite System
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2025

TDD
Uplink

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
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Downlink

2 Analogy

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
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2 Analogy

2.1 WCDMA and Restaurant


Restaurant Room

WCDMA
Cell

Enjoy your
meal !

Restaurant room

Guten
appetite !

UE
People at table

Ues, like people,


send and receive on
the same time and
the same frequency.
They are separeted
by:

Code 1

Code 2

Code
Language
For a table, the conversations of the neighbours
are noise, for a UE it is the same principle:
neighbour conversations are interference

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles WCDMA for UMTS
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Bon
appetit !

Bom
apetite !

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The equivalence are:


Restaurant
Table

room -> Cell

-> UE

Language

-> Code

Here the important point is all the UEs send and receive on the same time and on the same frequency. The
WCDMA is really different because with the GSM, the UEs are separated by the time (TS of TDMA) and the
frequency. Here the UEs are separated with codes applied on the signals.
Another important point is for someone the conversation on a neighbour table is considered like noise. It is the
same principle with the WCDMA, for a user the other UEs generates some noises.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 12

2 Analogy

2.1 WCDMA and Restaurant [cont.]


Restaurant Room

WCDMA
Downlink

Enjoy your
meal !

????

Node B
Steward
Interference level in DL
problem:

COMO
ESTAS ?

If some UE use too


much power
If there are too many
users in the cell

???

Impacts:
Power Control in DL
Control Admission

Who have
order this
cake ?

Very important !

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In downlink,
In

the restaurant, the steward want to ask to every table who have order a cake. If some people speak to
loud, the table at the back of the room cant hear the question. It is the same case, if there are too many
users in the room.

In

the cell, it is the same principle. If there are too many Ues on the cell or if some Ues use too much power,
the interference level for a UE far from the Node B is too high to allow the UE decoding the message.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 13

2 Analogy

2.1 WCDMA and Restaurant [cont.]


WCDMA
Uplink

Restaurant Room
Es ist
meine

It is for
me !

At the Node B level:


If a UE, close to the
NB, speak too loud
If there are too many
users

Cest la
pomme ?

Problem of interference
level too high.
The NB cant decode
any users anymore.
Impacts:
Power Control in UL
Admission Control

Who have
order
this
????
cake ?

QUIERO
LA
TARTA!!

Very important
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In Uplink,
In

the restaurant, a steward can understand all the conversation if he knows all the languages.

But

if on a table, close to him, some one speak to loud the steward cant understand people on the other
tables. It is the same problem if there are too many people it is too noisy to able to understand a
conversation far from him.

With
the

the WCDMA, there is the same problem. That means if the cell is too load,

interference level at the Node B is too high to be able to decode the weakest signal.

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 14

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 15

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.1 A Code as a Shell against Noise

Noise
Spreading

Radio Channel

Transmitter

Despreading

Receiver

The letter A represents the signal to transmit over the radio interface.
At the transmitter the height (ie the power) of A is spread, while a color
(i.e a code) is added to A to identify the message .
At the receiver A can be retrieved with knowledge of the code, even if the
power of the received signal is below the power of noise due to the
radio channel.
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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 16

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.2 Spectrum spreading

Interference Level

Radio channel

Spreading

???

Despreading

At the transmitter the signal is multiplied by a code which spreads the


signal over a wide bandwidth while decreasing the power (per unit of
spectrum).
At the receiver it is possible to retrieve the wanted signal by multiplying
the received signal by the same code: you get a peak of correlation,
while the noise level due to the radio channel remains the same, because
this is not correlated with the code.
But the interference level is too high, it is not possible to decode any
message.
1 2 17

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What is the interference level ?


The interference level is the power received on the UMTS bandwidth used. These interferences are made of:
the

background noise,

the

messages of the other users,

the

traffic on the neighbouring cells.

Because all the users on a cells use the same bandwidth on the same time, and the users on the other cells too,
the decoding and so the error ratio depend on the interference level.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 17

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.3 Transmission Chain


Air Interface
NB-Signal

WB-Signal

WB-Signal

NB-Signal

Data

Data
Modulator

Demodulator

Code sequence

Code Sequence

The narrowband data signal is multiplied bit per bit by a code sequence: it
is known as chipping.
The chip rate (fixed) of this code sequence is much higher than the bit rate
of the data signal: it produces a wideband signal, also called spread
signal.
At the receiver the same code sequence in phase should be used to
retrieve the original data signal.

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Code synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver is crucial for de-spreading the wideband signal
successfully.

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 18

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.4 Code & Spreading factor


The code is applied on each bit of the user data.
The Spreading Factor, called SF, is the length of this code.

Chip rate fixed at 3.84 Mchip/s

Example: Data to transmit: 1 0 , SF=8.


A chip
1
-1

Code

1
-1

Coded data

1
-1

Transmission

Spread data

Code applied

Reception

Received data, 1
without error -1
1
-1
1
-1

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What is the spreading factor?


It

is the number of chips per bit (=chip rate/bit rate).

The

chip rate is linked with the CDMA carrier bandwidth and has a constant value of 3,84 Mcps.

It

is quite easy to match the bit rate of the signal with the CDMA chip rate just by choosing the adequate
spreading factor.

The

higher the spreading factor, the more redundancy you add in the signal and the lower the probability
of bit error is by transmitting the signal.

It

is also traduced by the processing gain (see below).

Code synchronization?
It

is difficult to acquire and to maintain the synchronization of the locally generated code signal and the
received signal.

Indeed

synchronization has to be kept within a fraction of the chip time.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 19

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.5 Spreading factor & Data Rate


The chip rate is fixed, 3.84 Mchip/s.
If the SF is divided by 2, the data rate is multiplied by 2 !

Small SF = High data rate


High SF = Small data rate

Example: Data to transmit: 1 0 , SF=4.

1
-1

Code

1
-1

Coded data

1
-1

Received data,
without error

Received
data

1
-1

Reception

Code applied

Transmission

Spread data

1
-1
1
-1

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The Spreading Factor available are 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 in uplink, plus 512 in downlink for signaling at very
low bit rate.

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 20

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.6 Spreading factor & Error at reception


When an error occurs at the reception, the determination of the bit value is less trivial.
Example: Data to transmit: 1 0 , SF=8.

1
-1

Signal received
with error

1
-1

SF=8

Signal sent on
the air

Code
Decoded data

Here is 6 area
units over 8

Zoom on the decoded


signal

The determination
of the bit value is
based on the area
of the received
signal.

1
0
-1

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 21

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.6 Spreading factor & Error at reception [cont.]

With a small SF, the signal is more sensitive to errors.


So to have the same error ratio you use more power

To keep in mind
1
-1

Signal received
with error

1
-1

SF=4

Signal sent on
the air

Code
Decoded data

Here is 2 area
units over 4

Zoom on the
decoded signal

The determination
of the bit value is
based on the area
of the received
signal.

1
0
-1

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If you need a high data


rate (video downloading),
you will use a small SF. You
will have more errors on your
message. So if you want to
keep the same error ratio,
you will use more power to
transmit your message

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Another way to understand this relation is with the redundancy.

If the SF is small, 4 for example, the useful bit, 0 or 1, is sent just 4 time. The data rate is high.

If the SF is higher, 64 for example, the useful bit is sent 64 time. The data rate is smaller.

So if an error occurs, it is more significant if the SF is 4 than if the SF is 64.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 22

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.7 Exercise: Orthogonal Code


Here, there is a received signal and two orthogonal codes
Could you apply these codes on the received signal and determinate
which code has been used to spread the signal? What could you conclude
about the orthogonality?
1
-1

Received signal

Decoded signal
1

1
-1
1
-1

Received signal

Decoded signal
2

1
-1

Code 2

Code 2

Code 1

Code 1

1
-1
1
-1

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 23

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.7 WCDMA, Power Density & Processing Gain


P

RSSI: Received Signal Strength Indicator

Total received wideband power over 5


MHz including thermal noise

RSSI or Io

ISCP (No): Interference Signal Code


Power

Eb

Interference on the received signal

SIR

RSCP (Ec): Received Signal Code Power

ISCP or No

Unbiaised measurement on the received


signal on one channelization code

PG
RSCP or Ec

Eb : energy per useful bit


PG : Processing Gain = Eb-Ec (in dB)

Power Gain after despreading. PG= 10 log (SF)

Ws
Wss

At Node B reception level


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RSSI: This is the total received wideband (UTRA carrier RSSI) power over 5Mhz
including thermal noise. It is estimating the uplink interference at the Node B, and by difference with the thermal
noise, the rise due to traffic and external interference.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 24

3 Spread Spectrum Modulation

3.7 WCDMA, Power Density & Processing Gain [cont.]


P
SIR: Signal Interference Ratio

SIR

SF .RSCP
No

Depending on the service, more or less


errors are allowed. UTRAN computes
the error ratio and then set the SIR
required for the service.

RSSI or Io

Eb
SIR
ISCP or No
PG

What are the modifications on the


diagram if:

RSCP or Ec

The number of users increases ?


The SF decreases ?

Ws
Wss

At Node B reception level


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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 25

4 Code Division Multiple Access

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 26

4 Code Division Multiple Access

4.1 One-cell reuse

The area is divided into cells, but the entire


bandwidth is reused in each cell (frequency reuse
of one)
> Inter-cell interference
> Cell orthogonality is achieved by codes

The entire bandwidth is used by each user at the


same time
> Intra-cell interference
> User orthogonality is achieved by codes

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The rainbows cells mean that the whole bandwidth (5 MHz) is reused in each cell.
In GSM there is also intra-cell interference when there are 2 (or more) TRXs in the same cell. But it is a small
problem (as each TRX runs on a different frequency)
In CDMA intra-cell interference is an important problem.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 27

4 Code Division Multiple Access

4.2 Multiple access

Spreading 1

Transmitter 1

Spreading 2

Radio Channel

Spreading1

Receiver
The receiver aims at receiving Transmitter 1 only.

Transmitter 2

All the users transmit on the same 5 MHz carrier at the same time and
interfere with each other.
At the receiver the users can be separated by means of (quasi-)orthogonal
codes.

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Quasi-orthogonal: it is not necessary to have primary colors at the receiver to separate the user. Red and orange
for example can also be distinguished.
Orthogonality between the codes is impossible to maintain after transfer over the radio interface (multi-path on
DL, UEs not synchronized on UL )

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 28

4 Code Division Multiple Access

4.2 Multiple access [cont.]

Spreading 1

Transmitter 1

Radio Channel

Spreading 2

Spreading1

Receiver
The receiver aims at receiving Transmitter 1 only.

Transmitter 2

If a user transmits with a very high power, it will be impossible for the
receiver to decode the wanted signal (despite use of quasi-orthogonal
codes)
CDMA is unstable by nature and requires accurate power control.

1 2 29

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CDMA is instable by nature:


one

user may jam a whole cell by transmitting with too high power

need
too

for accurate and fast power control

many users in one cell would have the same effect

need

for congestion control

A CDMA resource has 2 dimensions: the codes and the power. Obviously the power is the limiting factor ; the
better we can control the power usage, the more capacity (users) we can allocate.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 29

4 Code Division Multiple Access

4.3 Spreading: Channelization and Scrambling

cch1

cch 2

cscrambling

Modulator

air
interface

cch 3
The channelization code (or spreading code) is signal-specific: the code
length is chosen according to the bit rate of the signal.
The scrambling code is equipment-specific.

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Spreading consists of two steps:


The

channelization code (also called spreading code) transforms every data symbol into a number of chips,
thus increasing the bandwidth of the signal. The narrowband signal is spread into a wideband signal with a
chip rate of 3.84 Mchips/s.

The system must choose the adequate spreading factor to match the bit rate of the narrowband
signal.
The spreading factor is directly linked with the length of the channelization code.

The scrambling code does not affect the signal bandwidth: it is only a chip-by-chip operation.

The scrambling code is cell-specific on the downlink and terminal-specific on the uplink.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 30

4 Code Division Multiple Access

4.4 Channelization Codes (Spreading Codes)

ch,1,0

ch,2,0

ch,4,0

=(1,1,1,1)

ch,4,1

= (1,1,-1,-1)

ch,4,2

= (1,-1,1,-1)

ch,4,3

= (1,-1,-1,1)

= (1,1)

The code tree is shared by several


users (usually one code tree per
cell)

= (1)

SF = 1

ch,2,1

= (1,-1)

SF = 2

SF = 4

SF = 8

The channelization codes are OVSF (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor)


codes:
their length is equal to the spreading factor of the signal: they can match
variable bit rates on a frame-by-frame basis.
orthogonality enables to separate physical channels:
UL: separation of physical channels from the same terminal
DL: separation of physical channels to different users within one cell
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What is a channelization code?

OVSF (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor)

Length: 4-256 chips according to the spreading factor

(in

downlink also 512 chips is possible to match very low bit rate)

Number of codes:

The
If

channelization codes can be defined in a code tree, which is shared by several users.

one code is used by a physical channel, the codes of underlying branches may not be used.

The

number of codes is consequently variable: the minimum is 4 codes of length 4, the maximum is 256
codes of length 256.

The

channelization code (and consequently the spreading factor) may change on a frame-by-frame basis

How is Code Allocation managed?


The
No

codes within each cell are managed by the RNC.

need to coordinate code tree resource between different base stations or terminals.

Usually

code.

one code tree per cell. If two code trees are used, it is necessary to use the secondary scrambling

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 31

4 Code Division Multiple Access

4.5 Scrambling codes


The scrambling codes provide separation between equipment:
UL: separation of terminals
No need for code planning (millions of codes!)
There are 224 long and 224 short scrambling codes in uplink
DL: separation of cells
Need for code planning between cells (but trivial task)
There are only long scrambling codes in downlink
(512 to limit the code identification during cell search procedure)
The long scrambling codes are truncated to the 10 ms frame length.
Only one DL scrambling code should be used within a cell.
Another scrambling code may be introduced in one cell if necessary
(example : shortage of channelization code), but orthogonality between
users will be degraded.
1 2 32

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In fact, there are two types of scrambling codes:


Long codes:
Gold

codes constructed from a position wise modulo 2 sum of 38400 chip segments of two binary sequences
(generated by means of 2 generators polynomials of degree 25)

used

with Rake Receiver : the PRACH is constructed from the long scrambling sequences. There are 8192
PRACH preamble scrambling codes in total, divided into 512 groups of 16 each.

Short codes:
Length

: 256 chips

used

with advanced multi-user detector

likely

to be used later

Refer to Technical Specification 3GPP TS 25.213

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 32

5 Soft Handover

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 33

5 Soft Handover

5.1 Introduction
Principle: As the UEs are separated by codes, they send and receive data at the
same time and on the same frequency and one frequency is used in a set of adjacent
cells, the soft handover is possible.
A UE is in case of Soft Handover when it is linked to several cells at the same time.
So , in downlink, the UE receives several time the same data and combine them to
increase the quality. In Uplink, a Node B can receive the same message from several
cells and combines them to increase the quality.
Interest: As the quality of the signal is increased after
the reception, it is possible to use less power. That allows
to save the interference level. If this interference level is
too high, it is not possible to decode the data and the call
is drop.

Soft Handover doesnt exist in GSM, it is not possible because there are different
frequencies in a set of adjacent cells.
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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 34

5 Soft Handover

5.2 Scenarios: Softer Handover

Core Network

Iu

Iu
Serving RNC

Iur

Iubs

Iubs

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Softer HO : the cells with which the mobile is in communication belong to the same Node B

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 35

5 Soft Handover

5.3 Scenarios: Soft Handover intra RNC

Core Network

Iu

Iu
Serving RNC

Iur

Iubs

Iubs

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Soft HO intra RNC : the cells with which the mobile is in communication belong to different Node Bs and same
RNC

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 36

5 Soft Handover

5.4 Scenarios: Soft Handover inter RNC

Core Network

Iu

Iu
Serving RNC

Drift RNC

Iur

Iubs

Iubs

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Soft HO inter RNC : the cells with which the mobile is in communication belong to different Node Bs and different
RNC
Serving RNC (SRNC1): on UL it collects information from the Drift RNC and from its own Node-B and performs
selection of the signal on a best frame quality basis. On DL it duplicates
Iu-information

to Drift RNC and to its own Node-B and recombination of the signal is performed by the UE.
There may be only one Serving RNC per UE.

Drift RNC (DRNC2): it performs the routing of information from/to the Serving RNC.

There may be up to 4 Drift RNC(s) per UE.

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 37

5 Soft Handover

5.5 Scenarios: SRNC Relocation

Core Network

Iu

Iu
Serving RNC

Drift RNCRNC
Serving

Iur

Iubs

Iubs

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SRNC Relocation : the Drift RNC becomes a serving RNC. Se we gain intransmission (no need for Iur for the
communication) and delay

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 38

5 Soft Handover

5.6 Soft Handover & Code Management


In Downlink,
Scrambling Code

Core Network

One DL SC per Cell


Channelization Code

Iu

One DL CC per radio link to avoid having the


same code sequence on 2 radio links

Serving RNC

In Uplink,

Iubs

Scrambling Code

UL CC user
UL SC eq

One UL SC per UE
Channelization Code

DL SC cellA

DL SC cellB

DL CC1 user 1

DL CC2 user 1

One UL CC per service (per physical


channel).

Conclusion:
The UE sends one signal which can be
received by several cells.
Cell A
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Cell B

The UE receives several signals


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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 39

5 Soft Handover

5.7 Cost & Benefit

Why do we need soft HO?


Imagine that a UE penetrates from one cell deeply into an adjacent cell:
it may cause near-far effect
hard HO is not a good solution, due to the hysteresis mechanism
Better spatial repartition of the power, so lower interference level
Additional resources due to soft HO:
- Additional rake receiver in Node-B
- Additional Rake Fingers in UE
- Additional transmission links between Node-Bs and RNCs
Soft HO provides Diversity (also called Macro-Diversity), but
requires more network resource.

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 40

5 Soft Handover

5.7 Cost & Benefit [cont.]

Soft Handover execution:


Soft Handover is executed by means of the following procedures
Radio Link Addition (FDD soft-add);
Radio Link Removal (FDD soft-drop);
Combined Radio Link Addition and Removal.

The cell to be added to the active set needs to have information forwarded
by the RNC:
Connection parameters (coding scheme, layer 2 information, )
UE ID and uplink scrambling code,
Timing information from UE

The UE needs to get the following information


Channelization & scrambling codes to be used
Relative timing information (Timing offset based on CPICH synchro)

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 41

6 Rake Receiver

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 42

6 Rake Receiver

6.1 Rake Receiver principle

In a CDMA system there is a single carrier which contains all user signals.
Decoding of all these signals by one receiver is only a question of signal
processing capacity.
A Rake receiver is capable to decode several signals simultaneously
in the so called fingers and to combine them in order to improve the
quality of the signal or to get several services at the same time.
A Rake receiver is implemented in mobile phones and in base stations.
A Rake receiver can provide:
- multi-service (via handling of multiple physical channels that are
carrying the services)
- soft handover
- path diversity

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A single carrier: in fact each operator may use several carriers of 5MHz each (2 in Germany, 3 in France)
The rake receiver can only be used with signals on the same carrier.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 43

6 Rake Receiver

6.1 Rake Receiver principle [cont.]


Delay Adjustment

Multi-code
signal

1st
Finger
2nd
Finger

Delay 1

Delay 2

Data 1
Code Sequence 1

Code Sequence 2

Data 2

3rd
Finger

Delay 3

Code Sequence 2 or 3

The components of the multi-code signal are demodulated in parallel each


in one finger of the Rake Receiver.
The outputs of the fingers:
can provide independent data signals
can be combined to provide a better data signal(s)
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Rake fingers are allocated to the peaks at which significant energy arrives. Update rate: tens of ms
Each finger tracks the fast-changing phase and amplitude values due to fast fading and removes them
Rake Receiver resides in both UE and Node-B.
The numbers of fingers for a Rake Receiver is implementation dependant.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 44

6 Rake Receiver

6.2 Rake Receiver and Multi-Service

Despreading 1

Spreading 1

Spreading 2

Radio Channel
Despreading 2

Transmitter

Multimedia receiver

As a first approach, we can say:


One service, one code! (*)
>> Which codes make it possible to
separate the two signals at the receiver?
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* We will see later that it is also possible to multiplex several services on the same code!
Indeed on a dedicated physical channel (which is identified by its spreading code) a user can multiplex several
services as long as the total bit rate of the services does not exceed the bit rate of the physical channel.
See subchapter 4 UTRAN/ Physical Layer (Transport Channel Multiplexing)

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 45

6 Rake Receiver

6.3 Rake Receiver and soft handover

Spreading 1

Base station 1

Spreading 2

Base Station 2

Radio Channel

Despreading 1&2

Mobile phone

>> Which codes make it possible to


separate the two signals
at the
receiver?

Soft handover is possible, because the two mobile stations use the same
frequency band. The mobile phone need only one transmission chain to
decode both simultaneously.
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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 46

6 Rake Receiver

6.4 Rake Receiver and Path Diversity

Natural obstacles (buildings, hills) cause reflections, diffractions and scattering


and consequently multipath propagation.
The delay dispersion depends on the environment and is typically:

1 s (300 m) in urban areas


20 s (6000 m) in hilly areas
The delay dispersion should be compared with the chip duration 0,26 s (78 m)
of the CDMA system.
If the delay dispersion is greater than the chip duration, the multipath
components of the signal can be separated by a Rake Receiver.
In this case, CDMA can take advantage of multipath propagation.
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What is multipath propagation?


The

signal travels from transmitter to receiver over different paths, due to reflections, diffractions or
scattering. Consequently the same signal arrives at the receiver with a little delay.

The

chip rate can be considered as the resolution of the CDMA system. It is linked with the 5 MHz carrier.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 47

6 Rake Receiver

6.4 Rake Receiver and Path Diversity [cont.]

Direct path
Despreading

Spreading

Transmitter

Reflected path

Receiver

Dispersion <Chip duration


The Rake Receiver cannot provide path diversity.

>> Which codes make it


possible to separate the two
signals at the receiver?

Direct path
Spreading

Transmitter

Despreading

Reflected path

Receiver

Dispersion > Chip duration


The Rake Receiver can provide path diversity to improve the quality of the signal.
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Multi-path propagation usually reduces the quality of the signal.


But in most cases a Rake Receiver can take advantage of multi-path to improve the quality of the signal. Indeed
the dispersion is often greater than the chip duration.
Note: with IS-95 (cdmaOne), the carrier bandwidth is about 1 MHz and the chip duration is consequently longer:
1 s (300 m). Multi-path components can not be separated in urban areas with IS-95.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 48

7 Power Control

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 49

7 Power Control

7.1 Why ?

Main Problem : If the interference level is to high, it is not possible to decode the signal.

P
Serving RNC
Eb

SIR

Iub

SIR
ISCP or No
PG
RSCP or Ec

At Node B reception level

1 2 50

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In UTRA/FDD, the power control is a key functionality : the users using

simultaneously the same frequency band interfere each other.

The transmit power must be dynamically adapted in order to


Enable

to reach the quality of service

Compensate
Avoid

fading occurrences

interfering other users (and thus decreasing the system capacity)

Two main power control algorithms can be distinguished:


Open-loop
Closed

power control (UL only)

loop power control (UL/DL)

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 50

7 Power Control

7.2 Different kinds of Power Control

Physical channels:
Not associated with transport channels

Channel power fixed and set by the


operator

(Physical signaling)
Associated with transport channels
Dedicated channels
Common channels

Closed & Open Loop power control

Channel power fixed and set by the


operator
Open Loop Power Control

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 51

7 Power Control

7.3 Open Loop Power Control

The Open Loop Power Control is used to set the initial transmit power when:
The UE requests a RRC Connection,

Based on CPICH measurements

The UE sends the first dedicated radio frame,


The Node B sends the first dedicated radio frame.

Based on UE measurement reports

Measurement reports
CPICH

Initial Access
First dedicated Radio Frame

1 2 52

First dedicated Radio Frame

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How is Power Control performed ?


Open
it

DL beacon signal and adding the interference level of the Node-B and a constant value.

Its

loop power control:

consists for the mobile station of making a rough estimate of path loss by means of a
far too inaccurate and only used to provide a coarse initial power setting of the mobile

station at the beginning of a connection

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 52

7 Power Control

7.4 Closed Loop Power Control: Principle


Closed Loop Power Control
SIR Estimation

SIR target

Power down

***

*** Power down

Iub

Power up
RNC

...

Error
measurements

Outer Closed Loop

***

Generation of a TCP
command: increase
or decrease

***

On each Time slot !


(1500 Hz)

Power ...

***

Comparison
between SIRest and
SIRtarget

***

Inner Closed Loop

The Node-B controls the power of the UE (and vice versa) by performing a SIR estimation (inner loop)
and by generating TPC command for each time slot of the radio frame.
The RNC controls parameters of the SIR estimation (outer loop) and set the initial SIR target, defined by
the operator and modify it according to the error measurement reports.
1 2 53

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Inner Loop (Fast Loop Power Control)


In
of

UL, the serving cells should estimate signal-to-interference ratio SIRest


the received uplink DPCH. The serving cells should then generate TPC commands

and

transmit the commands once per slot according to the following rule: if SIRest > SIRtarget

then the TPC command to transmit is "0" , while if SIRest < SIRtarget then the TPC

command
Upon

to transmit is "1".

reception of one or more TPC commands in a slot, the UE shall derive a single

TPC command, TPC_cmd, for each slot, combining multiple TPC commands if more

than one is received in a slot. TPC_cmd values = +1(power up), -1 (power down), 0

The
UE

step size DTPC is under the control of the UTRAN (value = 1 dB or 2 dB)

shall adjust the transmit power of the uplink DPCCH with a step of DDPCCH (in dB)

which is given by DDPCCH = DTPC TPC_cmd.

The

command rate of 1500Hz is faster than any significant change of path loss.

Outer Loop
The

(Cyclic Redundancy Check) and uses this result to adjust SIR target for the inner loop.

The

big issue is to meet constantly the required quality: no worse and also no better,

because it would be a waste of capacity.

The

RNC checks the quality of the signal using for example a CRC-based approach

required quality may change with the multi-path profile (related to the environment)

and with the UE speed.

The

outer loop management is handled by the CRNC because a soft HO may be performed.

Frequency
Note:

of the outer loop: 10-100 Hz typically

Copyrightisemployed
2012 Alcatel-Lucent.
Rights Reserved.
in GSM only slow power control
(about 2AllHz)
TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 53

7 Power Control

7.4 Closed Loop Power Control: Power Density


SIR target

Assuming a user using a service.

Power up
Iub

It is initial SIR target is 3dB.


The error ratio required is 0.01 .

...

RNC

Several error ratio reports are between 0.002


and 0.007
How do the SIR target evolve ?
What is the impact on the user or on the
system if the estimated SIR is too high ?
Too small ?

Power ...

Error
measuremen
ts

P
Eb
ISCP or No

SIRTarget

SIRest

RSCP or Ec

At Node B reception level

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 54

7 Power Control

7.5 UL Closed Loop PC, in case of Soft Handover

What is the behavior of the UE in UL in case of


soft handover ?
Iub

The UE takes in to account all the command


according to the 3GPP
1

P(t)=P(t-1) + F(TPC1(t) + TPC2(t))


The function F(TPC(t)) is implemented by the UE
manufacturer.
F(TPC(t))=min(TCP1(t), , TPCi(t))
With i= number of involved Node B

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Power up !!!
TPC=1

Power down !!!


TPC=-1
???

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 55

7 Power Control

7.5 DL Closed Loop PC, in case of Soft Handover

What is the behaviour of the Node B involed


in the call in DL in case of soft handover ?
The UE sends the same command for all
the Node B involved.

Iub

Node Bs must transmit data with the same


power for a user
Due to reception errors their power can shift
themselves
A mechanism, the DL Power Balancing,
allows to readjust the transmission power of
the Node B.

Power
up

The SRNC selects the best radio link, and


readjust, step by step, the transmission
power.
P(t) = P(t-1) + Ptpc(t) + Pbal(t)

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 56

Power
up
Power up !!!
TPC=1

8 Capacity, Coverage & Quality

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 57

8 Coverage, Capacity & Quality

8.1 Links between Coverage, Capacity and Quality

Example: Increase the quality in UL


RNC

How to do ?

Decrease the error ratio at the Node B level


So increase the SIR at the Node B level

SIR

Iub

SIR

So the UEs use more power


Node B
f

Impacts !
Increase the UL Interference level
So decrease of the cell size
And decrease the capacity of the cell.

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 58

8 Coverage, Capacity & Quality

8.2 Improvement Ways

AMR speech Codec


it enables to switch to a lower bit rate if the mobile is moving out of the cell
coverage area: it is a trade-off between quality and coverage.
Multipath diversity
it consists of combining the different paths of a signal (due to reflections,
diffractions or scattering) by using a Rake Receiver.
Multipath diversity is very efficient with W-CDMA.
Soft(er) handover
the transmission from the mobile is received by two or more base stations.
Receive antenna diversity
the base station collects the signal on two uncorrelated branches. It can be
obtained by space or polarization diversity.
Base stations algorithms
e.g. accuracy of SIR estimation in power control process

1 2 59

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The AMR (Adaptive Multi-rate) speech codec:


offers

8 AMR modes between 4,75 kbps and 12,2 kbps

is

capable of switching its bit rate every 20 ms upon command of the RNC

is

located in the UE and in the transcoder (which is located in the CN)

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 59

8 Coverage, Capacity & Quality

8.3 Typical Values


Quality: The quality is measured with the Block Error Ratio (BLER). Here some example according
different services.

AMR
Target
BLER

0.001

CS64

0.01

0.001

0.01

0.1

PS64

PS128

0.01

0.01

PS384 DCCH
0.01

0.01

Coverage:
Dense Urban Cell: about 300 meters
SubUrban Cell: about 1 km
Rural Cell: 3 km
Capacity:
The main limitation is the interference level due to the WCDMA technology.
But the system is also limited by capacity processing of the Node B and the RNC, by the codes, and by
the transmission capacity.

1 2 60

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The capacity depends also on:


the

radio environment (rural, suburban, indoor)

the

terminal speeds

the

distribution of the terminals

the

load of the cell: trade-off capacity/coverage (breathing cells)

Due to all these parameters, it is harder than in GSM to give a typical value of the capacity of a cell.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 60

Evaluation
Objective: To be able to define a Radio
Resource in 3G

Thank you for answering


the objectives sheet

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 2 Page 61

End of module
WCDMA for UMTS

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Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Section 1
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
Module 3
UTRAN Scenario

TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1

UTRAN
UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
TMO18246_V2.0-SG Edition 1

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 2

Module objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Build the map of the radio channels
(logical, transport and physical channels) from a white paper....

133
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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
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Module objectives [cont.]

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 4

Table of contents
Switch to notes view!
1 Introduction to UTRAN Scenarios
1.1 Introduction
2 Radio Channels Mapping
2.1 Downlink
2.2 Uplink
2.3 DL Channels Framing and Timing
3 Service Request
3.1 System Information Collection
3.1.1 P-SCH & S-SCH
3.1.2 CPICH
3.1.3 System Information Broadcast
3.1.4 Procedure
3.1.5 Radio Channel Mapping: P-CCPCH
3.1.6 Cell Selection Principle
3.2 RRC Connection
3.2.1 UE Status
3.2.2 Procedure: RRC Connection Establishment
3.2.3 Procedure: RRC Connection: RRC Connection Release
3.2.4 How to contact UTRAN: the PRACH
3.3 IMSI Attachment & Location Update
3.3.1 Principles
3.3.2
Procedure: Direct Transfer
135
3.4
W-CDMAPaging
R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
3.4.1 Procedure 1: UE in Cell-DCH or Cell-FACH
3.4.2 Procedure 2: UE in Idle Mode
3.4.3 Paging: PICH & PCH Radio Channels
4 RAB Establishment
4.1 Admission Control
4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment
4.2.1 Signaling: RAB Establishment
4.2.2 Signaling: Radio Link Setup
4.2.3 Radio Bearer Mapping
4.2.4 Physical Layer Processing
4.2.5 Radio Channels
4.2.6 Radio Channels: Data Processing
4.2.7 Radio Channels: Transport Channel Multiplexing
4.2.8 Radio Channels: DPDCH/DPCCH Channels
5 Mobility Management in Connected Mode
5.1 Soft HO: Active & Monitoring Set
5.2 Soft HO: Events
5.3 Compressed Mode
5.4 Hard HO: Events on other FDD Frequencies
5.5 Hard HO: Events on other GSM Frequencies
6 Exercises
6.1 Scenario Description
6.2 Downlink
6.3 Uplink

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Table of contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!

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Page

1 Introduction to UTRAN Scenarios

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section @@SECTION Module @@MODULE Page 7

1 Introduction to UTRAN Scenarios

1.1 Introduction

CN
3. IMSI
Attachment

Serving RNC

Collection of System Information


RRC Connection
IMSI Attachment
Paging

Iub
The UE is switched on !
1. System
Information

2. RRC
Connection

How can it retrieve network


parameters to request a service?

4. Paging

138
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On the first part, we are going to see how a UE, after it is just switched on, can be able to request a service and
to answer to a paging message.
So the first step is to retrieve information about the system. Thank to this system information the UE is able to
attach its IMSI and to update its location to the Core Network.
After that the UE can monitor a channel to answer to a paging message or can request itself a service.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 8

1 Introduction to UTRAN Scenarios

1.1 Introduction [cont.]

CN
RAB

Admission Control

Serving RNC

RAB Establishment

Iub
The UE requests a service.
How and in which conditions are the
resources required setup ?

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When a UE requests a service, the UTRAN must check if it has enough resources to establish new dedicated
channels.
There are after signaling between the UE, the Node B, the RNC and the Core Network to provide to the UE the
transfer of the data at the required QoS.
We will also how the data are mapped on the physical channels.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 9

1 Introduction to UTRAN Scenarios

1.1 Introduction [cont.]

CN
A new radio link is added
Hard Handover on another FDD carrier
Serving RNC

Inter RAT Handover

The UE uses a service and moves !

Iub

How UTRAN can provide the service despite


the mobility ?

BTS

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
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BSC

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UTRAN must provide the transfer of the data at the requested QoS to a moving user. So different kinds of
handover have been defined.
The Soft Handover, the UE can be linked to several cells using the same fraquency.
The Hard Handover inter FDD carrier and the interRAT HandOver between the 3G and the 2G network if the user
loses the 3G coverage.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 10

2 Radio Channels Mapping

1 3 11
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section @@SECTION Module @@MODULE Page 11

2 Radio Channels Mapping

2.1 Downlink

DTCH, DCCH

MTCH

MSCH, MCCH

CCCH, CTCH

BCCH

PCCH

Logical Ch
Transport Ch
DCH1

DSCH

DCH2

FACH

PCH

BCH

Not implemented
yet in Alactel-Lucent
Solution

CCTrCH
Physical Ch
DPDCH and DPCCH
multiplexed by time

DPDCH
+
DPCCH

PDSCH

Dedicated
Physical Ch

Not associated with


transport channels

P-CCPCH

S-CCPCH
Common Physical Ch

AICH

PICH

MICH

CPICH

P-SCH

MSCH, MCCH, MTCH map to FACH (only in DL)


1 3 12
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 12

S-SCH

2 Radio Channels Mapping

2.2 Uplink

DTCH, DCCH

CCCH

Logical Ch.
Transport Ch.
DCH1

DCH2

RACH

CPCH

CCTrCH
Physical Ch.
DPDCH and DPCCH
multiplexed by
modulation

DPDCH +
DPCCH

Common
Physical Ch.

Dedicated
Physical Ch.

1 3 13
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

PCPCH

PRACH

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 13

2 Radio Channels Mapping

2.3 DL Channels Framing and Timing


0

1 2

3 4

7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 0 1

2 3

9 10 11 12 13 14

P-SCH
S-SCH
P-CPICH
P-CCPCH
PICH
S-CCPCH
DPCH
PDSCH

10

11

12

13

14
AICH

1 3 14
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

following applies:
SCH (primary and secondary), CPICH (primary and secondary), P-CCPCH have identical
frame timings.
The S-CCPCH timing may be different for different S-CCPCHs, but the offset from the PCCPCH frame timing is a multiple of 256 chips.
The PICH timing is 7680 chips prior to its corresponding S-CCPCH frame timing, i.e. the
timing of the S-CCPCH carrying the PCH transport channel with the corresponding paging
information.
AICH access slots #0 starts the same time as P-CCPCH frames with (SFN modulo 2) = 0.
The DPCH timing may be different for different DPCHs, but the offset from the
frame timing is a multiple of 256 chips.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 14

P-CCPCH

3 Service Request

1 3 15
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 15

3 Service Request

3.1 System Information Collection

Principles

CN

The UE synchronizes itself at the


slot on the P-SCH
Serving RNC

UE synchronizes itself at the


frame level on the S-SCH and
retrieves a group of 8 Scrambling
codes.

Iub

???

The UE tests the 8 SC on the


CPICH to find the SC of the cell
The UE decodes the BCH channel
to read the system information
The UE selects the best cell

1 3 16
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Just after the switch on, the UE can decode only the P-SCH and S-SCH if it is on a covered area

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 16

3.1 System Information Collection

3.1.1 P-SCH & S-SCH

Slot #0

Slot #1

P-SCH

acp

acp

S-SCH

acs0

acs1

Slot #14

acp
acs14

256 chips

P-CCPCH Radio Frame 10 ms

The SCH is time-multiplexed with the P-CCPCH (which carries the BCH) and consists of 2 sub-channels.
The Primary SCH (P-SCH) made of always the slot on all the FDD Cells. The UE uses it to acquire the slot
synchronization to a cell.
The Secondary SCH (S-SCH) contains a sequence of 15 codes which identifies the Code Group of the
Downlink Scrambling Code (DL SC) of the cell. The UE uses it to acquire the frame synchronization to a cell
and to identify the Code Group of the DL SC.

1 3 17
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Cell Search Procedure (also called synchronization procedure)


3GPP

TS 25.214 provides an informative description how it is typically done

Step

1: slot synchronization
In all the cell of any PLMN, the P-SCH is made of a unique & same primary code sequence of 256 chips
repeated at each Time Slot Occurrence. This is typically done with a single matched filter (or any similar
device) to the primary synchronisation code which is common to all cells. The slot timing of the cell can be
obtained by detecting peaks in the matched filter output.

Step

2: frame synchronization and code-group identification


A S-SCH is made of 15 repetitions of a secondary code sequence of 256 chips (one per Time Slot)
transmitted in perfect synchronization with the P-SCH code sequences. The UTRAN uses 64 distinct
secondary synchronization code sequences (reused in distant cells of the UTRAN). This is done by correlating
the received signal with all possible secondary synchronisation code sequences, and identifying the
maximum correlation value. Since the cyclic shifts of the sequences are unique the code group as well as the
frame synchronisation is determined.
Each secondary code sequence corresponds to a unique group of 8 possible Primary Scrambling codes

Step

3: (downlink) scrambling code identification


The UE determines the (primary) scrambling code used by the found cell through symbol-by-symbol
correlation over the CPICH (pilot) with all codes within the Code Group identified in the step 2 (8
possibilities).
Afterwards the P-CCPCH can be detected and the system- and cell specific BCH information can be
read.
Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 17

Secondary Synchronization Channel

Scrambling
Code Group
Group 0
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4

Group 61
Group 62
Group 63

#0
1
1
1
1
1

#1
1
1
2
2
2

#2
2
5
1
3
16

#3
8
16
15
1
6

#4
9
7
5
8
6

#5
10
3
5
6
11

slot number
#6 #7 #8
15
8
10
14 16
3
12 16
6
5
2
5
15
5
12

#9
16
10
11
8
1

#10 #11 #12 #13 #14


2
7
15
7
16
5
12 14 12 10
2
16 11 15 12
4
4
6
3
7
15 12 16 11
2

9
9
9

10
11
12

13
12
10

10
15
15

11
12
13

15
9
14

15
13
9

12
14
11

14
10
11

Slot # ?

Slot #?

Slot #?

P-SCH

acp

acp

acp

S-SCH

16

11

9
13
14

16
11
15

13
16
13

16
15
12

14
14
16

11
16
10

..

Group 2
Slots 7, 8, 9

256 chips
2560 chips
1 3 18
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The

S-SCH also consists of a code, the Secondary Synchronization Code (SSC) that indicates which
of the 64 scrambling code groups the cells downlink scrambling code belongs to. 16 different SSCs
are defined. Each SSC is a 256 chip long complex-valued sequence with identical real and
imaginary parts constructed as follows:
z=<b,b,b,-b,b,b,-b,-b,b,-b,b,-b,-b,-b,-b,-b>, where b=<1,1,1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1>
corresponds to the first 8 chips of a (defined for PSC) and the opposite of its last 8 chips. This is
why the primary and secondary synchronization codes are orthogonal and can thus be sent in
parallel.
There is one specific SSC transmitted in each time slot, giving us a sequence of 15 SSCs. There is a
total of 64 different sequences of 15 SSCs, corresponding to the 64 primary scrambling code
groups. These 64 sequences are constructed so that one sequence is different from any other one,
and different from any rotated version of any sequence. The UE correlates the received signal with
the 16 SSCs and identifies the maximum correlation value.
The S-SCH provides the information required to find the frame boundaries and the downlink
scrambling code group (one out of 64 groups). The scrambling code (one out of 8) can be
determined afterwards by decoding the P-CPICH. The mobile will then be able to decode the BCH.
However, by giving scrambling codes from different groups to neighboring cells, the cell search
procedure for cell reselections, or for cell acquisition before handovers would not need that third
step. The primary and secondary synchronization codes are modulated by the symbol a, which is
worth +1 when STTD is used, and -1 when its not.
Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD) can be applied to the SCH. It is an optional technique
used in UTRAN. A figure above illustrates the structure of the SCH transmitted by the TSTD
scheme.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 18

3.1 System Information Collection

3.1.2 CPICH

Slot #0

Slot #1

Pre-defined symbol sequence

Slot #14

SF=256 Tslot=2560
chips 20 bits

CPICH (Common Pilot CHannel)


The pilot carries a pre-defined symbol sequence at a fixed rate.
It is a reference:
To aid the channel estimation at the terminal (time or phase reference)
To perform handover measurements and cell selection/reselection (power reference)
The UE tests the 8 DL SC of the Group Code. The DL SC which allows to retrieve the pre-define
sequence is the DL SC of the cell.

1 3 19

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The CPICH has the following characteristic


The

same channelization code is always used for the CPICH,

The

CPICH is scrambled by the primary scrambling code,

There
The

is one and only one CPICH per cell,

CPICH is broadcast over the entire cell.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 19

3.1 System Information Collection

3.1.3 System Information Broadcast

The broadcast system information:


May come from CN, RNC or Node-B.
Contains static parameters (Cell identity, supported PLMN types...) and dynamic
parameters (UL interference level...).
Is arranged in System Information Blocks (SIB), which group together elements of
the same nature.
Some exemple:
SIB1: Core Network Information

DL SC, Power Control info

SIB3: Cell Selection, Access Restriction

LA, RA

SIB7: UL Interference
SIB11: Measurement

CN
UL interference level

1 3 20
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Example of SIB:
MIB:

Master Info Block (structure & scheduling of SIBs)

SIB

1:

NAS System Information + Timer

SIB

2:

URA (not supported) +Timer

SIB

3:

Cell Selection/Reselection and Access Restriction

SIB

5:
Common channel Information (P-CCPCH, S-CCPCH, RACH) and AICH/PICH
power offset

SIB

7:

UL Interference and PRACH parameter SIB 11:Measurements

SIB

18:PLMN Identity of neighboring cells

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 20

3.1 System Information Collection

3.1.3 System Information Broadcast [cont.]


The broadcast system information can be carried on BCH which is transmitted permanently over
the entire cell.
The broadcast system information is made of 128 periodic radio frame. So its period is 1280 ms.
There are a Master SIB or MIB and several SIB (System Information Block) organised by domain.
Thanks to this channel, the UE is able to retrieve information allowing the request of
a RRC connection like the Channelization code used on the uplink common channel
MIB
Logical Ch.

SIB3

BCCH
Frame #1

Frame #0

Transport Ch.

Physical Ch.

SIB11

BCH

P-CCPCH

SIB5

Frame #i-1

Frame #i

SIB11

SIB5

Frame #125
1 3 21
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

SIB7

Frame #126

Frame #2

MIB

Frame #i+1

SIB7

Frame #127

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Three parameters are used to set the position of each SIB on the cycle.
SIB_POS: it is the position of the SIB on the cycle (#0 for the MIB for instance)
SIB_REP: it is the repetition of the SIB on the cycle (the MIB is repeated several time on the cycle.
SIB_OFF: If one Radio Frame is not enough to send all the data for a SIB, the rest of the SIB can be send on
another radio frame. For example, 2 radio frame after the first one. It is the SIB_OFF.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 21

3.1 System Information Collection

3.1.4 Procedure

UE

Node-B
NBAP

NBAP
RRC

RRC
RRC

System Information (BCCH:BCH)


Master/Segment Info Block(s)

System Information (BCCH:BCH)


Master/Segment Info Block(s)

System Information (BCCH:BCH)


Master/Segment Info Block(s)

1 3 22
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

RNC
System Information
Update Request
Master/Segment Info
Block(s), BCCH
modification time

CN

NBAP

System Information
Update Response

NBAP

RRC

RRC
RRC

>> Why does RRC protocol


terminate at NodeNode-B for BCH
(not at RNC)?

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 22

3.1 System Information Collection

3.1.5 Radio Channel Mapping: P-CCPCH


256 chips
SCH

Payload of 18 bits

Tslot=2560 chips
20 bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i

Slot #13

Slot #14

The Primary CCPCH carries the BCH, which provides system- and cellspecific information (e.g set of uplink scrambling codes)
The P-CCPCH is a fixed rate 30 kbps DL physical channel, which provide a
timing reference for all physical channels (directly for DL, indirectly for UL).
CCPCH is scrambled under the Primary Scrambling code.

1 3 23
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The P-CCPCH is time multiplexed with the SCH which is transmitted during the first 256 chips.
P-CCPCH timing is identical to that of SCH and CPICH (see 3GPP 25.211).
The P-CCPCH contains no layer 1 information.
Even if the PCCPCH is not transmitted during the 256 first chips of each slot (SCH), the scrambling code is
aligned with the PCCPCH frame boundary, i.e the first complex chip of the PCCPCH frame is multiplied with chip
number zero of the scrambling code.
The Secondary CCPCH, which is used to carry FACH and PCH information, is scrambled under the Primary
scrambling code as well.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 23

3.1 System Information Collection

3.1.6 Cell Selection Principle

Now, the UE can read the BCH of one cell.


CN

But this cell is not necessary the best because the


SCH has been chosen randomly.
The UE compares the cells to be camped on the
best one.

RNC

There are 2 criterion:


QRxLev, from the CPICH RSCP, to estimate
the reception level.
Iub

Qqual, from the CPICH Ec/No, to estimate the


quality of reception. It takes in account the
interference level.

???

1 3 24

When a UE is not connected, like here, and is


moving, it has to reselect regularly the best cell
for itself. To protect some cells, it is possible to
facilitate or not the selection of one cell.

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Aim : find a suitable cell to be camped on


The Cell selection criterion is defined in 3GPP TS 25.304 as:
Squal>0

with

Srxlev>0

Squal=Qqualmeas - Qqualmin
Srxlev= Qrxlevmeas Qrxlevmin - Pcompensation

Parameters :
Qqualmeas:

Measured CPICH Ec/N0

Qqualmin:

defines the quality of the cell

defines the threshold for the quality of the cell

Configurable in each cell independently

Range: -24 dB to 0 dB (step 1 dB)


Qrxlevmeas : defines the cell Rx Level value

Measured CPICH RSCP

Qrxlevmin

: defines the minimum required RX level of the cell

Configurable in each cell independently

Range: -115 dBm to -25 dBm

Pcompensation:

Parameter to take in account the UE capacity

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 24

3 Service Request

3.2 RRC Connection

CN

Why?
The UE is switched on and has selected a cell.
The UE is in idle mode.

RNC

UTRAN doesnt know anything about this UE.


The UE has neither UTRAN identifier nor
Scrambling and Channelization code.
Iub

The UE cant exchange any data with UTRAN.


To be known by UTRAN and to use dedicated radio
resources, the UE has to be RRC connected.
After, the UE can attach its IMSI or update its
location to the Core Network and can request a
service

RRC Connected

1 3 25
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 25

3.2 RRC Connection

3.2.1 UE Status

out of coverage

UE

RRC Connection Release

UE
in idle mode

detached

UE
in connected
mode

just after switch on process


Including Cell search procedure

Several substatus in the


connected
mode

RRC Connection Establishment

Just after the switch on, the UE has to attach its IMSI. Thanks to his procedure the Core Network
knows, the UE is on the network and where it is located at the Location or routing area level.
To attach its IMSI and update its location the UE has to be in connected mode, so it has
to request a RRC Connection
1 3 26

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Just after switch on process contains:


Cell

selection (including cell search procedure)

PLMN

selection

Attachment

procedure (see Appendix for more details)

The UE must enter the connected mode to transmit signalling or traffic data to the network
What is the relationship with the states of the mobile phone in GSM?
The

two GSM states, idle mode and connected mode, are similar to idle mode and cell_DCH state in UMTS.

What is the relationship with the states of the mobile phone in GPRS?
There

is no correspondence between GPRS states (idle, standby and ready) and UMTS states.

Indeed there is no notion of connection on GPRS.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 26

3.2 RRC Connection

3.2.1 UE Status [cont.]

Cell_DCH state
Signalling and traffic data
dedicated to the UE (mapped on
DCCH and DTCH respectively)
are carried on DCH transport
channel

Cell DCH

UE

UE in connected
mode

in idle

Cell PCH

mode

Cell FACH
URA PCH

Cell_FACH state
Signalling and traffic data
dedicated to the UE (mapped on
DCCH and DTCH respectively)
are carried on RACH (uplink)
and FACH (downlink) transport
channels

1 3 27

Cell_DCH Cell_FACH
No traffic UL/DL at expiry of timer
Cell_FACH Cell_DCH
Traffic volume UL/DL too large

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The initial state of the UE is determined by the DCCH established during RRC connection establishment:
if

the DCCH is mapped on a DCH, the UE is in cell_DCH state

if

the DCCH is mapped on RACH/FACH, the UE is in cell_FACH state

The UE can move from one state to another during the time of the RRC connection.

Transitions between states are:

based on traffic volume measurements and network load

always triggered by UTRAN signalling

Note:

in cell_DCH state, the DSCH transport channel can also be used.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 27

3.2 RRC Connection

3.2.1 UE Status [cont.]


Cell_PCH state
No transmission of signalling and
traffic data dedicated to the UE (no
DCCH and no DTCH)
But the RRC connection is still
active (UTRAN keeps RNTI for UE)
and UE location at a cell level.

UE
in idle
mode

- a DCCH (and possibly a DTCH)


can be reestablished very quickly
(this procedure is initiated by
sending a paging signal PCH)

Cell PCH
Cell FACH

Cell_FACH Cell_PCH
No traffic UL/DL at expiry of timer
2
Cell_PCH Cell_FACH URA_PCH
Too many cell reselections

Very similar to cell_PCH state


UTRAN keeps the location of the UE at
the URA level (set of UMTS cells)

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

UE in connected
mode

URA PCH

URA_PCH state

1 3 28

Cell DCH

Cell/URA_PCH Cell_FACH
Incoming DL or UL traffic

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

URA: UTRAN Registration Area (a small set of cells)


Cell_PCH and URA_PCH states are needed for non real time services to optimise usage of codes and battery
consumption. It would not be efficient to allocate permanently a DCH which would be used a very low percentage
of time (Web application for example)
What is the difference between idle mode, Cell_PCH and URA_PCH states?
In idle mode the location of the UE is not known by the UTRAN, but only by the CN at a Location Area (LA) or
Routing Area (RA) level (LA and RA are sets of cells larger than URA).
The paging message PCH must hence be sent in a LA or in a RA when the UE is in idle mode, whereas it only
needs to be sent in a cell in Cell_PCH state or in an URA when the UE is in URA_PCH state (hence the paging
procedure is much faster).
New in UA8.0 Direct transition from PCH to DCH
FEATURE DESCRIPTION
Until now, direct RRC state transition from URA_PCH or CELL_PCH to CELL_DCH is supported only for multi-RAB
call or upon a mobile terminating CS RAB request. This feature extends the direct transition support to all RAB
combinations and to all Always-On upsize triggers.
The decision to go directly to CELL_DCH or through CELL_FACH is based on the Establishment Cause and/or the
Traffic Volume Indicator (TVI) included in the Cell Update message

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 28

3.2 RRC Connection

3.2.2 Procedure: RRC Connection Establishment

RRC

RNC

Node-B

UE

1. RRC Connection Request (CCCH:RACH)


Initial UE identity, Establishment cause, Initial UE capability

RRC

2. Allocate RNTI, Select Level


1 and Level 2 parameters
(e.g. TFCS, scrambling code)
3. Radio Link Establishment

RRC

RRC

4. RRC Connection Setup (CCCH:FACH)


Initial UE identity, RNTI, capability update requirement, TFS, TFCS, frequency, UL
scrambling code, power control info

5. RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCCH:RACH or DCH)


Integrity information, ciphering information

RRC

RRC

>> Can the UE send user information (e.g voice call) after completing
completing this stage?

1 3 29

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

1. UE initiates set-up of an RRC connection


Initial

UE identity: e.g TMSI

Establishment

cause: e.g traffic class

2. RNC decides which transport channel to setup (RACH/FACH or DCH) and allocates

RNTI (Radio Network Temporary Identity) and radio resources (e.g TFS, TFCS, scrambling codes) for this
RRC connection.

3. A new radio link must be setup.


This

is done via a signalling procedure between RNC and Node-B which is managed by NBAP protocol (see

Procedure D for more detail).

4. Logical, transport and physical channel configuration are sent to the UE.
5. RRC Connection Setup Complete message is sent:
on
on

RACH in case of RRC connection on RACH/FACH (cell_FACH state)


DCH in case of RRC connection on DCH (cell_DCH state)

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 29

3.2 RRC Connection

3.2.3 Procedure: RRC Connection: RRC Connection Release


UE

Node-B
(DRNC)

Node-B
(SRNC)

DRNC

SRNC
RANAP

RANAP

CN

1. Iu Release
Command
Cause

2. Iu Release
Complete
-

RANAP

RANAP

3. ALCAP Iu Bearer Release


RRC
RRC

4. RRC Connection Release (DCCH:DCH )


Cause

5. RRC Connection Release Complete (DCCH:DCH )


-

RRC
RRC

6. Radio Link Deletion


7. Radio Link Deletion
8. Radio Link Deletion

1 3 30
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

In this example, the UE is in macro-diversity on two Node-Bs from two different RNCs. Therefore the UE could
only be in cell_DCH state (soft HO is only possible on DCH)

1. The CN initiates the release of RRC connection


2. 3. SRNC initiates release of Iu Bearer using ALCAP protocol
4. 5. 6. SRNC initiates release of radio link (for Node-B of SRNC) using NBAP protocol
7. SRNC requires release of radio link (for Node-B of DRNC) to DRNC using RNSAP protocol
8. DRNC initiates release of radio link (for Node-B of DRNC) using NBAP protocol

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 30

3.2 RRC Connection

3.2.4 How to contact UTRAN: the PRACH

For the initial access, the UE has to use a common


uplink channel called the PRACH

RNC

Every UE uses this channel to request a connection. If


2 UEs request on the time there is collision, and
UTRAN receives nothing.

Iub

2. Yes
!

Response on the AICH

HELLO!
1. I need
a connection
Hello
!

To manage this problem, the UE sends a first


message called preamble until it receives a response
on a downlink channel called AICH.
After the response on the AICH, the UE sends its
message (the request) on the PRACH.

PRACH Request : Pre-amble


Preamble on the
PRACH

3. Here is my request
Preamble on the
PRACH : Message part
PRACH
1 3 31

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

PRACH= Physical Random Access Channel


AICH= Acquisition Indicator channel

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 31

3.2 RRC Connection

3.2.4 How to contact UTRAN: the PRACH [cont.]


The first preamble is sent with the power P.
The UE resends a preamble until it receives a response on the AICH.
At each time, it increases the power of the preamble by the Power Offset parameter (PO)
UTRAN cant receive its preamble if:
The power is not enough high
There is a collision with another user.
In the message part, there is the RRC connection request.

PO
PO Prea
P

Prea
mble

DPp,m
Message part

mble
Reception of
AICH

1 3 32
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 32

PRACH channel

3 Service Request

3.3 IMSI Attachment & Location Update


Initial Attachment
SGSN

MSC/VLR

MSC/VLR

HLR

SGSN

The UE has selected a cell.


RNC

It had to declared its identity and its location


(LA & RA) to the Core Network.
So, it requests a RRC connection to send to
the Core Network information about its
situation.

Iub

The parameters are mainly the LA, the RA


and its IMSI

1 3 33

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

In the selected PLMN, the UE:


selects

the best cell according to radio criteria I

initiates

attachment procedure on the selected cell

During the attachment procedure (called IMSI attach for CS domain, GPRS attach for PS domain), the UE
indicates its presence to the PLMN for the purpose of using services:
authentication
storage

procedure

of subscriber data from the HLR in the VLR (or in the SGSN for PS domain)

allocation

of the TMSI (P-TMSI for PS domain)

The result of the procedure is notified to the UE:


if

successful, the UE can access services

if

it fails, the UE can only perform emergency calls

LA=Location Area= Set of cells for the CS CN


RA= Routinf Area= Set of cells for the PS CN

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 33

3.3 IMSI Attachment & Location Update

3.3.1 Principles

Location Area

SGSN

MSC/VLR

(LA)

MSC/VLR

HLR

Routing Area

(RA)

SGSN

When camping on a cell, the terminal must register its LA and/or its RA.
When the terminal moves across the network, it must update its LA (RA) which is stored in VLR
(SGSN) in the Core Network.
LA (RA) Update is performed periodically or when entering a new LA (RA).
1 3 34

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

LA and RA are managed on an independent way, but a RA must always be included in one LA (and not be
divided into several different LAs).

LA update is performed by the NAS layer MM (Mobility Management) located in UE and in MSC.

RA update is performed by NAS layer GMM (GPRS Mobility Management) located in UE and in SGSN.

In the Core Network, the location information is stored on databases:


HLR

(Home Location Register)


It stores the master copy of users service profile, which consists of information on allowed services,
forbidden roaming areas, and which is created when a new user subscribes to the system.

The HLR also stores the serving system (MSC/VLR and/or SGSN) where the terminal is located.

VLR

(Visitor Location Register)

It serves the terminal in its current location for CS services and holds a copy of the visiting

users service profile.

It stores the Location Area (LA) where the terminal is located.

SGSN

(Serving GPRS Support Node)

It serves the terminal in its current location for PS services and holds a copy of the visiting

users service profile.

It stores Routing Area (RA) where the terminal is located.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 34

3.3 IMSI Attachment & Location Update

3.3.2 Procedure: Direct Transfer


UE

Node-B

SRNC

CN

1. Uplink Direct Transfer


RRC

(DCCH:RACH or DCH)
CN node indicator, NAS message

RRC
RANAP

RANAP

2. Downlink Direct Transfer


RRC

(DCCH:FACH or DCH)
NAS message

2. Direct Transfer
CN Domain Indicator,
NAS PDU

1. Direct Transfer
CN Domain Indicator,
NAS PDU

RANAP

RANAP

RRC

Use mainly for the IMSI attachment, location update and the authentification between the UE and
the Core Network

1 3 35
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

UE must be in cell_FACH or in cell_DCH states.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 35

3 Service Request

3.4 Paging
Principle
Core Network

MSC/VLR

Called number

RNC

HLR

MSC/VLR

Paging message
with the IMSI of
the called UE

Location Area
RNC

RNC

Iub

Iub

Iub

Some one is calling


me, I request a RRC
connection
1 3 36
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

If the UE is in idle mode. UTRAN doesnt know them and can just forward the paging message coming from the
Core Network to all the cell belonging to the Location ou Routing Area.
The UE monitors periodically a channel to check if it is paged or not.
If the UE is connected the Core Network knows the Serving RNC of the UE and sends the paging message just to
this RNC.
The RNC knows the UE uses the dedicated or common channel to send the paging message.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 36

3.4 Paging

3.4.1 Procedure 1: UE in Cell-DCH or Cell-FACH


UE

Node-B

SRNC
RANAP

RRC

2. Paging Type 2 (DCCH:FACH or DCH)

CN
1. Paging
CN Domain Indicator, UE
identity, Paging cause

RANAP

RRC

In this case the UE is already connected and is using a service (voice call, web-browsing ).
The Core Network knows the situation of the UE and mainly its Serving RNC. The CN contacts
directly the Serving RNC.
The RNC doesnt use the PCCH and the PCH but the channel used for the UE, dedicated or
common, according to the status of the UE.

1 3 37

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

UE is in cell_FACH or in cell_DCH states:


1. CN initiates the paging of a UE to Serving RNC
2. Paging of UE with Paging Type 2 (on DCCH) using the existing RRC connection

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 37

3.4 Paging

3.4.2 Procedure 2: UE in Idle Mode


UE 1 UE 2

Node-B1 Node-B2

RNC1
RANAP

RNC2
1. Paging
CN Domain Indicator, UE
identity, Paging cause

RANAP

RRC

2. Paging Type 1 (PCCH:PCH)

RRC

CN

1. Paging
Idem

RANAP

RANAP

RRC

2. Paging Type1 (PCCH:PCH)

RRC

When the mobile is in idle mode, UTRAN doesnt know where it is located and the Core Network
knows its location at the LA or RA level. UTRAN uses the PCCH and the PCH radio channels.

1 3 38
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

UE is in idle mode:
1. CN initiates the paging of a UE over a LA (RA in PS domain) spanning, for example, two RNCs.
2. Paging of UE with Paging Type 1
LA: Location Area, RA: Routing Area (see subchapter 5.8 Mobility Management)
A similar procedure applies to UE in cell_PCH or in URA_PCH states.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 38

3.4 Paging

3.4.3 Paging: PICH & PCH Radio Channels

PCCH

Logical Ch

RNC
MAC
In RNC
Iub
PCH

Paging
message

..
.
PI

Transport Ch

Physical
layer
In Node B

PI

It watches the PICH (Page Indicator


Channel) at regular and defined
interval and look for its PI, for
Paging Indicator.
The PI is based on the IMSI. Several
UEs can have the same PI.
When the UE find its PI on the
PICH, it watches the S-CCPCH to
check if it is for it and what is the
cause.
Then it requests on RRC connection
to have a RAB.

PI

S-CCPCH

The UE doesnt watch the S-CCPCH.

Physical Ch
PICH
S-CCPCH

1 3 39
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

PICH

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The period of the cycle is between 4 and 4096 radio frames. That means the UE can monitor the PICH every X
seconds, with X between 40 ms and 40,96 seconds. If the period is too short the UE uses too much power if the
period is 40 s, the delay is really long.
It is a trade-off between the delay and the consumption.
To determine the radio frame number into the cycle and the Paging Indication, the UE uses its IMSI and others
parameters send on the SIB.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 39

4 RAB Establishment

1 3 40
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section @@SECTION Module @@MODULE Page 40

4 RAB Establishment

4.1 Admission Control


According to the previous part WCDMA in UMTS, if the interference level at the Node B level is too
high, the Node B cant decode all the signal. The size of the cell decreases. The interferences are
due to several causes:
The radio environment and the load of the adjacent cells,
Some users use too much power, the power control manages this problem,
There are too many users on the cells
UTRAN has to check if there is enough UL radio resource
P
SIR too small to
retrieve the message

RNC
Eb

Iub

SIR
ISCP = No
PG
RSCP = Ec
f
At Node B reception level

2 others questions before adding a new user : Is there sufficient DL radio resource and
sufficient processing resources ?
1 3 41
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

If the CAC (Call Admission Control) has not been passed,


For

CS services, the call cant be established.

For

PS services, the UTRAN may try assigning a RB with a lower bit rate. There are different level of bit rates
than can be used a given requested RAB. The Node B tries to assign first the highest, and then goes to the
lower rates, as long as the RAC rejects the Radio Link Reconfiguration.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 41

4 RAB Establishment

4.1 Admission Control [cont.]


Is there sufficient UL Radio Resource -> Rx CAC
If UL interference level + estimated new user contribution < threshold
Then Rx RAC ok

Is there sufficient DL Radio Resource -> Tx CAC


If Total DL Tx Power + estimated new user contribution < threshold
Then Tx RAC ok
Is there sufficient processing resource -> Processing CAC
3 main points are checked:
the channelization codes
The Baseband load
The number of users and radio links
Is there sufficient Iub Bandwidth -> Iub CAC
Iub Bandwidth is checked
1 3 42
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

CAC = Call Admission Control

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 42

4 RAB Establishment

4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment


We have seen how a UE, after the switch on, can collect system information, update its location,
request a RRC Connection and a service, can be paged and how UTRAN allows it to use
services. Now how is established the RAB ?

B
RA

RNC
Iub

Radio Bearer

Iu Bearer

Node B

Configured
by

Core Network

Signaling

UTRAN
RLC

B
RA

RLC Mode: Tr., UM or AM and


retransmission parameter for AM

Logical Channel
MAC

RRC

TTI, TFS, TFCS, CRC, FEC, Coding Rate,


Rate Matching

Transport Channel
Phy.

Frequency, Power, Channelization &


Scrambling codes

Physical Channel
1 3 43
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

RAC = Radio Access Control

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 43

4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment

4.2.1 Signaling: RAB Establishment


UE

Node-B

SRNC
RANAP

CN

1. RAB Assignment Request


RAB parameters, User plane
mode, Transport Address, Iu
Transport association

RANAP

2. ALCAP Iu Data Transport Bearer Setup


3. Radio Link Establishment

RRC

4. RB Setup (DCCH:FACH or DCH )

RRC

TFS, TFCS...

5. RB Setup Complete (DCCH:RACH or DCH )


RRC

RRC
RANAP

6. RAB Assignment Response


-

RANAP

The UE is RRC connected and has requested a service.


1 3 44
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Can the UE send user information (e.g voice call) just after Radio Access Bearer establishment?
YES : At the end of this signaling procedure, a RAB has been assigned to the UE to carry user information. The
RAB is mapped on the RB which has been set up. The RB is mapped on DTCH: RACH/FACH or DCH.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 44

4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment

4.2.2 Signaling: Radio Link Setup


Node-B
NBAP
Start RX

SRNC
Radio Link Setup Request
Cell id, TFS, TFCS, frequency, UL scrambling
code, power control info

NBAP

ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup


NBAP

Iub-FP
Iub-FP

Radio Link Setup Response


Signaling link termination, transport layer
addressing info

Downlink synchronisation
Uplink synchronisation

NBAP

Iub-FP
Iub-FP

Start TX
>> Are NBAP, ALCAP and RRC messages carried on the same transport
transport bearers on Iub?

1 3 45
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

RAC = Radio Access Control


This procedure is used in many RRC procedures, e.g RRC connection establishment (Procedure C1), Radio Bearer
Set-up (Procedure F1), soft HO (Procedure G)

In this procedure:
a

radio link is set up by the RNC on the Node-B side using the NBAP protocol

(a
a

similar task is performed on the UE side using RRC protocol, see e.g. procedure C1)

terrestrial link (AAL2 bearer) is setup on Iub interface using ALCAP protocol

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 45

4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment

4.2.3 Radio Bearer Mapping


We have seen how a UE, after the switch on, can collect system information, update its location,
request a RRC Connection and a service, can be paged and how UTRAN allows it to use
services. Now how are established the RAB ?

B
RA

RNC
Iub

Radio Bearer

Iu Bearer

B
RA

Core Network

Node B

UTRAN
RLC
Configured
by

RLC Mode: Tr., UM or AM and


retransmission parameter for AM

Logical Channel
MAC

RRC

TTI, TFS, TFCS, CRC, FEC, Coding Rate,


Rate Matching

Transport Channel
Phy.

Frequency, Power, Channelization &


Scrambling codes

Physical Channel
1 3 46
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

RAC = Radio Access Control

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 46

4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment

4.2.4 Physical Layer Processing

Convolutional coding,
Turbo coding

Channel Coding
Radio Frame Segmentation
Transport Channel Multiplexing
Physical Channel Mapping

Layer 1

10 ms frame duration
15 time slots
CCtrCH
DPDCH, DPCCH, PRACH...

Spreading

Channelization codes
Scrambling codes

Modulation

QPSK

Physical Channels
spread over 5 MHz bandwidth

1 3 47

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The physical layer belongs to control plane and to user plane.


Physical layer main functions:
Multiplexing/de-multiplexing

of transport channels on CCTrCH (Coded Composite Transport Channel) even if


the transport channels require different QoS.

Mapping

of CCTrCH on physical channels

Spreading/de-spreading
RF

and modulation/demodulation of physical channels

processing (3 GPP 25.10x)

Frequency

and time (chip, bit, slot, frame) synchronization

Measurements
Open

and indication to higher layers (e.g. FER, SIR, interference power, transmit power, etc.)

loop and Inner loop power control

Macro-diversity

distribution/combining and soft handover execution

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 47

4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment

4.2.5 Radio Channels


Assuming a UE a video call service. What happens in Uplink ?

CN

RAB :64 kbps


Radio Bearer

RLC parameters
Mode : Transparent because it is a real time service
MAC parameters

RLC
Logical Ch.
DTCH

CRC = 16 bits, FEC = Turbo Code Coding Rate = 1/3, TTI= 20 ms,
TFS=(0*640, 2*640 bits)

MAC
Transport Ch.
DCH
Physical Layer
Physical Ch.
DPDCH/DPCCH

640

640

640

640

640

640

TTI
How many radio frame are necessary to send all this data ?

UE
1 3 48
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The RB 20 (1st column ) corresponds to the Video Call.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 48

4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment

4.2.6 Radio Channels: Data Processing


Assuming a UE a video call service. What happens in Uplink ?

Transport
Blocks

#1

#2

640 bits

16

#1

CRC attachment

#2

Tr Bl concatenation

(640+16)*2=1312 bits

Turbo coding (1/3)

1312*3=3936 bits

Tail Bit Attachment

1312*3=3936 bits

Can you deduce the SF ?


And the value of Nrm ?

3942 bits

1 st interleaving
Radio Frame
Segmentation

1971

1971

#1

#2
#2

#1

Rate matching
1971

1 3 49

+Nrm

1971

+Nrm

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

First, the 16 CRC bits are added at each transport block.


Then the transport block are concatenated.
The turbo coding consist of adding a lot of redundant bits to be able to detect and correct errors.
Before the interleaving some bits are added. The purpose of the interleaving is to avoid to have big packet of
errors at the reception.
Finally the data are segmented by 2, because the TTI=20 ms and a radio frame is 10 ms.
At the end to fill the radio frame, Nrm bits are added.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 49

4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment

4.2.7 Radio Channels: Transport Channel Multiplexing


Assuming a UE a video call service and on the same time sends on a e-mail.
How can it be possible to send 2 different services on the same physical channel ?
Several transport channels can be time-coordinated to be multiplexed on a CCTrCH
before mapping on one physical channel
MAC

Transport Format

Example:

TFC Selection

TFS (DCH1)={(0*640); (4*640)}


TFS(DCH2)={(1*0); (1*39); (1*42); (1*55); (1*65)}

DCH1

DCH2

TrCH Multiplexing
TFCS={(0*640); (1*0)}; {(0*640); (1*39)}; {(0*640); (1*42)};
{(0*640); (1*55)}; {(0*640); (1*65)}; {(1*640); (1*39)};
{(1*640); (1*42)}
Transport Format Combination

There is one TFCS per CCTrCH

Physical Channel

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

Phy. Ch. Mapping


L1

MAC selects TFC inside TFCS.

1 3 50

CCTrCH

TFS= Transport Format Set


TFCS=Transport Format Combination Set
TF=Transport Format

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 50

4.2 Radio Bearer Establishment

4.2.8 Radio Channels: DPDCH/DPCCH Channels


Multiplexed by the modulation

Uplink

Data : user data, RRC Signaling & NAS Signaling

DPDCH

TFCI

Pilot

DPCCH

Slot #1

Slot #0

Slot #13

Slot #i

Slot #14

Time-multiplexed

Downlink
Data1
DPDCH

Slot #0

TPC

FBI

Slot #1

1 3 51
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

TPC

Data2

DPCCH

DPDCH

TFCI
DPCCH

Slot #i

Slot #13

Pilot
DPCCH

Slot #14

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Why are DPDCH and DPCCH time-multiplexed in DL(and not transmitted simultaneously as in UL)?
Discontinuous transmission can cause audible interference to audio equipment close to the terminal (e.g hearing
aids), which is a disturbance for user.
In UL the transmission is always continuous, because there is at least the DPCCH which is transmitted. The user
will not be disturbed.
In DL the transmission may be discontinuous, but it is no problem (no user at the base station).
Note: The downlink DPDCH/DPCCH physical channels are called the DPCH physical channel.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 51

5 Mobility Management in Connected


Mode

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section @@SECTION Module @@MODULE Page 52

5 Mobility Management in Connected Mode

5.1 Soft HO: Active & Monitoring Set


RNC

Iub
The RNC manages the Active Set and builds
the Monitoring Set.
The Monitoring Set is built from the
information of topology and design in the
RNC.
The Active Set is managed from the event
send by the UE to the RNC.
Cell in the Active Set
Cell in the Monitoring Set

1 3 53
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COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The maximum number of cells in the monitoring set is 32.


The maximum number of cells in the active set is set from the Office Data, between 3 and 6.
The monitored set is built for each UE by the RNC from the neighboring list. The RNC selects the best cells in this
list for the monitored cells.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 53

5 Mobility Management in Connected Mode

5.2 Soft HO: Events

There are 3 events for the soft handover.


The value measured is the CPICH Ec/No.
The event 1a is triggered when the CPICH
Ec/No of a monitored cells is above a
RNC
certain threshold.
If the event is fulfilled the cell is added in the
active set
Iub
The event 1b is triggered when the CPICH
Ec/No of a active cell is below a certain
threshold.
If the event is fulfilled the cell is removed
from the active set
The event 1c is triggered when the active
set has reached its maximum size and the
CPICH Ec/No of a monitored cells is better
than a cell belonging to the active set.
If the event is fulfilled the candidate cell
replaces the cell in the active set

Cell in the Active Set


Cell in the Monitoring Set

1 3 54

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles UTRAN Scenario


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

The simplified formula to trigger an 1a event is :


10log(Mnew)

> 10log (MBest) R1a

Where:
Mnew

is a measurement on the candidate cell about the quality of reception.

Mbest

is a measurement on the best cell in the active set about the quality of reception.

R1a

is the Reporting Range.

CPICH
Ec/N0
Best
Cell
R1a

Candidate
Cell
T0

Time
T1 -> Event 1a

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 54

5 Mobility Management in Connected Mode

5.3 Compressed Mode

Most of the UEs are not dual receivers.


And they need to perform measurements
on other frequencies.

RNC

So UTRAN has to free a time window to


perform these measurements on other
FDD frequencies or on GSM frequencies.

Iub

Cell in the Active Set


Cell in the Monitored Set, same FDD frequency

Time interval to measure other frequencies

Cell in the Monitored Set, other FDD frequency


Cell in the Monitored Set, GSM cell

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Compressed mode method available according to the 3GPP TS 25.212


compressed

mode methods:

By puncturing : the rate matching is applied for creating a transmission gap in one or two frames (not
in UL)
Reducing the SF by 2
Compressed frames can be obtained by higher layer scheduling. Higher layers then set restrictions so
that only a subset of the allowed TFCs are used in a compressed frame. The maximum number of bits
that will be delivered to the physical layer during the compressed radio frame is then known and a
transmission gap can be generated

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 55

5 Mobility Management in Connected Mode

5.4 Hard HO: Events on other FDD Frequencies

There are 4 events to watch the UMTS cell


with other FDD frequencies
The event 2d_cm is triggered when the
quality of on the current frequency is
below a certain quality. The compressed
mode is launched.

RNC

Iub

The event 2b is triggered when the quality


of the current frequency is below a
certain threshold and the quality on an
other frequency is above a certain
threshold
The event 2f is triggered when the quality
on the current frequency is above a certain
threshold. The compressed mode is
deactivated.

Cell in the Active Set


Cell in the Monitored Set, same FDD frequency
Cell in the Monitored Set, other FDD frequency
Cell in the Monitored Set, GSM cell

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 56

5 Mobility Management in Connected Mode

5.5 Hard HO: Events on other GSM Frequencies

2 causes can trigger an hard HO toward the


GSM system:
Some bad radio conditions

RNC

due to the service requested


The event 2d_cm is triggered when the
Iub
quality of on the current frequency is below a
certain quality. The compressed mode is
launched.
The event 3a is triggered when the quality on
the current FDD frequency is below a certain
threshold and the quality on the GSM is
above another threshold.
The event 3c is triggered when the service
requested can be managed by the GSM, the
voice typically.

Cell in the Active Set


Cell in the Monitored Set, same FDD frequency
Cell in the Monitored Set, other FDD frequency
Cell in the Monitored Set, GSM cell

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COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Alcatel-Lucent HHOs algorithm (called iMCTA Intelligent Milti carrier Traffic Allocation) doesnt use the 3A and
3C events.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 57

6 Exercises

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section @@SECTION Module @@MODULE Page 58

6 Exercises

6.1 Scenario Description


Objectives:
Rebuilt the channels mapping, Logical, Transport and Physical channels
from a scenario to guide you with the 2 next pages
Scenario:

The UE switches on in a covered area

The UE collects information about the system

The UE requests a RRC connection to declare its location and releases the RRC
connection

The UE receives a paging message to receive an e-mail

UTRAN establishes a RAB and is in the DCH_Cell State

As the traffic is not large, the UE passes to the FACH_Cell State


Be careful, following this scenario, some channels are missing.
Which are the missing channels ?

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 59

6 Exercises

6.2 Downlink

Logical Ch.

Transport Ch.

Physical Ch.

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 60

6 Exercises

6.3 Uplink

Logical Ch.

Transport Ch.

Physical Ch.

1 3 61
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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 61

End of module
UTRAN Scenario

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 3 Page 62

Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Section 1
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
Module 4
MBMS Radio Principles

TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1

UTRAN
UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
TMO18246_V2.0-SG Edition 1

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent @@YEAR

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 1

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142

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UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 2

Module objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:

Describe the Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) feature


Explain the new NEs and interfaces in the UMTS architecture
List the new channels and the functions
Explain the OVSF Code Tree Configuration with MBMS
Explain the MBMS service area concept
Describe the features: Iub Transport bearer sharing and Selective/soft
Combining

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 3

Module objectives [cont.]

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 4

Table of contents
Switch to notes view!
1 MBMS introduction
1.1 MBMS principles
1.2 Architecture overview
2 MBMS UTRAN new functionalities
2.1 MBMS new channels
2.2 MBMS data flow through RLC, MAC and L1
2.3 OVSF Code Tree Configuration with MBMS (1/2)
3 MBMS features in UA7.1
3.1 Service areas
3.2 Iub transport bearer sharing
3.3 Native IP Iub and MBMS
3.4 Selective/soft Combining
3.5 Summary MBMS in UA07

145
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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 5

Page
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
19
20

Table of contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
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1 MBMS introduction

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section @@SECTION Module @@MODULE Page 7

1 MBMS introduction

1.1 MBMS principles


FEATURE DESCRIPTION

TV program

MBMS Broadcast allows operators to


broadcast Multimedia content to all
mobiles in any cell(s) of the network

FEATURE VALUE
Unicast: data is sent as
many
times as users in the
network
TV program

Efficient data delivery method to many


users
For the operators, this means
reduction of the TCO for additional
data revenue streams (e.g.. Mobile TV,
advertising, etc.) and improved
subscriber loyalty.

DEPENDENCIES
UE and Core Network MBMS support

Broadcast: data is sent only


once within network

Same content to Multiple users :


Bandwidth efficiency, capacity gain, CAPEX saving
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Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) is a 3GPP Release 6 feature


Enhanced MBMS Broadcast Service allows operators to broadcast Multimedia content (text, images, audio,
video, ..) to all mobiles in any cell(s) of the UMTS network.
Two

modes of operation:

Broadcast mode (point-to-multipoint)

Multicast mode (point-to-multipoint or point-to-point) (expected later than UA07)

Data is transmitted from one single source to multiple terminals in a broadcast service area.
Optimization of Iub resources
Support of MBMS on Iub over IP
Use of IP multicast in case of native IP Iub (not available yet, expected later than UA07)
Transport Bearer Sharing.

Customer Benefits
Efficient delivery method to many users. Compared to CBS, MBMS-broadcast allows high data rates and

multimedia services. Moreover, it is possible for UEs to receive this data in any state

For the operators, this means additional data revenue streams (e.g. Mobile TV, advertising, etc..) and improved

subscriber loyalty

Transport bearer sharing unloads the transport network.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 8

1 MBMS introduction

1.2 Architecture overview


CN PS domain

UTRAN
Uu

IuPS

RNC

LTE Access

Content
Provider

Gn

Bearer
Plane

2GSGSN

eCN

aGW

eNode B

BSS

Gi

Gr

MBMS is provided
over the PS
Domain

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles MBMS Radio Principles


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

BM-SC

GGSN

Gr

HLR

BSS

A new UMTS entity


(BM-SC) has been
introduced

Gmb

Gn
3GSGSN

Node B

149

Contro
l Plane

Multicast /
Broadcast
source

Other Network entities


(GGSN, SGSN and RAN)
are impacted to
support MBMS

The BM-SC performs the following


functions:
Membership function
Session and transmission function
Proxy and transport function
Service announcement function
Security function

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The boundary of the MBMS Bearer Service is the Gmb and Gi reference points: the former provides
access to control plane and the later the bearer plane.
Gmb:
Signaling between GGSN and BM-SC is exchanged at Gmb reference point. This represents the network side
boundary of the MBMS Bearer Service from a control plane perspective. This includes user specific Gmb
signaling and MBMS bearer service specific signaling.
MBMS bearer service specific Gmb signaling:
The GGSN establishes the MBMS bearer context and registers at BM-SC
The GGSN or the BM-SC releases the MBMS bearer context and deregisters the GGSN from the BM-SC
The BM-SC indicates session start and stop to the GGSN including session attributes like QoS and MBMS service
area.

User specific Gmb signaling:


BM-SC authorizes the user specific MBMS multicast service activation (join) at the GGSN
GGSN reports to the BM-SC the successful user specific MBMS multicast activation (join) to allow the BM-SC to
synchronize the BM-SC MBMS UE context with the MBMS UE contexts in the SGSN and GGSN
GGSN reports to BM-SC when a user specific MBMS multicast service is released or deactivated (e.g. at implicit

detach), it makes this report in order to synchronize the BM-SC MBMS UE context with the MBMS UE contexts in
the SGSN and GGSN.
The BM-SC initiates the deactivation of a user specific MBMS bearer service when the MBMS user
service is terminated.
BM-SC functions for different MBMS bearer services may be provided by different physical network elements.
Further, MBMS bearer service specific and user specific signaling for the same MBMS bearer service may also be
provided by different physical network elements. To allow this distribution of BM-SC functions, the Gmb protocol
must support the use of proxies to correctly route the different signaling interactions in a manner which is
transparent to the GGSN.
Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 9

2 MBMS UTRAN new functionalities

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Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section @@SECTION Module @@MODULE Page 10

2 MBMS UTRAN new functionalities

2.1 MBMS new channels


New Logical channels
MSCH (MBMS PTM Scheduling Channel) mapped on FACH
Used to notify the scheduling of MBMS sessions

MCCH (MBMS PTM Control Channel) mapped either on FACH


Carries control plane information

MTCH (MBMS PTM Traffic Channel) mapped on FACH


Delivers user plane information

MAC-m (Media Access Control MBMS) functionality


Handling of the mapping of MTCH, PCCH to the appropriate FACH
In charge of Scheduling/Buffering/Priority handling of MBMS transmissions
Located at RNC

New Physical channel


MICH (MBMS notification Indication Channel)
SF=256 S-CCPCH physical channel
Used to indicate MBMS information availability on MCCH

1 4 11

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles MBMS Radio Principles


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

PTM Point-To-Multipoint
MCCH - MBMS PTM Control Channel
Carries control plane information between network and UEs
Is mapped over a separate FACH, i.e., not sharing with other logical channels
Can share SCCPCH

MTCH - MBMS PTM traffic channel


Carries user plane traffic
Is mapped to one FACH transport channel
TCTF field in MAC header is always used
One MTCH is configured for each MBMS service

MSCH - MBMS PTM scheduling channel


Carries transmission schedule between network and UEs
Is mapped over a separate FACH
Shares SCCPCH with MTCH
Used for DTX

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 11

2 MBMS UTRAN new functionalities

2.2 MBMS data flow through RLC, MAC and L1


PTM radio bearer

RNC
One MAC
entity for
each cell

RLC
MTCH
MAC-c/m

MAC-c/m

MAC-c/m

FP

FP

FP

FACH
Node B

1 4 12
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles MBMS Radio Principles
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FP

FP

FP

S-CCPCH

S-CCPCH

S-CCPCH

Cell1

Cell2

Cell3

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

PTM Point-To-Multipoint

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 12

2 MBMS UTRAN new functionalities

2.3 OVSF Code Tree Configuration with MBMS (1/2)

1
2
1

256

128

64

32

16

0
0

P-CPICH; Cch256,0
P-CCPCH; Cch256,1
Aich; Cch256,2
Pich; Cch256,3
S-CCPCH (for DTCH/DCCH/
CCCH/BCCH); Cch64,1

S-CCPCH (for PCCH); Cch128,4


4
5
6

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S-CCPCH (for MCCH); Cch256,10


MICH; Cch256,11
HS-SCCH; Cch128,6

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

MICH & MCCH

The codes for the MICH (SF=256) and the MCCH (SF=256 or 128) are allocated at the top of the tree at MBMS
cell setup.
Example: DL OVSF code allocation with configuration B with MBMS and without CBS

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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3 MBMS features in UA7.1

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section @@SECTION Module @@MODULE Page 14

3 MBMS features in UA7.1

3.1 Service areas


MBMS Service Area (SA): area in which a specific MBMS session is made
available.
The MBMS RAB establishment involves the establishment of a number of
RB for MTCH (one per cell). The service content is broadcast within a set
of cells MBMS service area.

Service Area
2

Service Area
1

Service Area
N

IP Network

RNC

The operator can define the MBMS Service Areas in a flexible way. The service
area can be as small as one cell, and one cell can belong to up to 8 service areas.
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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 15

3 MBMS features in UA7.1

3.2 Iub transport bearer sharing


MBMS Transport in 3GPP Release 6

NodeB
n

Node Bn

Node B2

IP Network
RNC

Node B1
RNC

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TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 16

3 MBMS features in UA7.1

3.2 Iub transport bearer sharing [cont.]


MBMS first Transport Optimization in 3GPP Release 7
Iub Transport bearer sharing

Node Bn

Node B2

IP Network
Node B1

RNC

Iub transport efficiency is also ensured over several cells of the same Node B:
a
single flow is used on a shared Transport bearer if the same content is sent to multiple
cells of the same Node B.
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Transport bearer sharing


MBMS over a single FACH is supported in UA7.1.
It is activated per Iub with OAM parameter IsTransportBearerSharingForMBMSSupported.
This improvement applies only for PTM transmission, using FACH transport channel. It concerns only MTCH
(MBMS traffic channel) and not MCCH (MBMS control channel)
Without this improvement, the MBMS RAB establishment involves the establishment of several MTCH flows per

Node B (one MTCH flow per cell)

With this improvement, the MBMS RAB involves the establishment of only one MTCH flow for multiple cells in
one Node B, or more precisely of one FACH DATA frame for MTCH per Node B, (instead of one FACH data frame
for MTCH per cell) and thus enables to improve Iub bandwidth efficiency
There is a restriction in iCEM and xCEM, that the number of cells that can share a TB is <= 3, and all those cells

have to be handled by the same BBU (i.e. those cells are in the same LCG or Local Cell Group). So for a (6sector
2carrier) BTS configuration, we would need 4 MBMS Broadcast Groups, each having a separate TB, so 4TBs in
sum.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 17

3 MBMS features in UA7.1

3.3 Native IP Iub and MBMS


In case of a native IP Iub, all traffic, including the MBMS PTM traffic is
carried on IP/Ethernet in RNC and in Node B
Default DSCP used for MBMS PTM are configurable in RNC, configured
values have to be consistent with global IP QoS strategy on Iub
Default DSCP used for MBMS PTM Streaming and MBMS PTM Background
are different.

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PTM Point-To-Multipoint

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3 MBMS features in UA7.1

3.4 Selective/soft Combining


There is less PA power needed in a cell when combining is possible.
Thus, during an ongoing MBMS session, the RNC will periodically adjust
power levels according to the neighboring situation.
To improve quality of received traffic
Soft combining:
L1 combining
MTCH payload is received from the primary cell and neighboring cells, and is
combined at L1 (similar to DHO)
Require transmission synchronization from the RNC

Selective combining:
L2 combining
RLC provides buffering of PDUs before the re-assembly unit
PDUs received in sequence are sent to the re-assembly unit, otherwise held in
the DAR buffer

1 4 19

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles MBMS Radio Principles


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

DAR Duplicate Avoidance and Reordering


DHO Diversity Handover
PTM Point-To-Multipoint
In order to improve L1 performance Selective/Soft Combining is supported.
Selective combining
Selective Combining is the mode where the UE performs RLC re-ordering based on RLC PDU numbering and
on combining data streams from different cells

To support selective combining:


One RLC entity per MBMS service utilizing PTM transmission and per cell group
All cells in the cell group are under the same CRNC, i.e. Iur support is not considered.

Soft/Selective combining is only possible with same SF & user rate.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 19

3 MBMS features in UA7.1

3.5 Summary MBMS in UA07


MBMS Broadcast main target is Mobile TV application
MBMS Broadcast can be supported on any carrier(s), and can be dedicated
or mixed with other services
Mobility is supported in any mobile state
64, 128, and 256 kbps data rates can be supported
MBMS traffic may be transmitted in parallel to other services
Iub optimization

1 4 20

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles MBMS Radio Principles


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

MBMS Broadcast main target is Mobile TV application


Session running for long/unlimited time
High number of users interested in the service

MBMS Broadcast can be supported on any carrier(s), and can be dedicated or mixed with other services
FLC/FLD (Frequency Layer Convergence/Divergence) is supported

Mobility is supported in any mobile state


Idle, Cell-FACH, URA/Cell-PCH, and Cell-DCH state

64, 128, and 256 kbps data rates can be supported


Streaming @ 64, 128 or 256 kbps, Background @ 64 kbps
Lower

rates currently not defined in 3GPP TR 25.993

MBMS traffic may be transmitted in parallel to other services


Whether the UE will be able to actually receive MBMS will only depend on its own capabilities
Note

: MBMS capabilities are not provided to UTRAN

Iub optimization
When the same content is sent to multiple cells of the same Node B, trunking allows to conveyed on the same flow:

thus, instead of one FACH data frame per cell, only one FACH data frame is sent to a Node B.
Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 20

Module Summary
Having completed this module, you should be able to:

Describe the MBMS feature


Explain the new NEs and interfaces in the UMTS architecture
List the newly introduced channels and the functions
Explain the OVSF Code Tree Configuration with MBMS
Explain the MBMS service area concept
Describe the features: Iub Transport bearer sharing and Selective/soft
Combining

1 4 21
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles MBMS Radio Principles
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 21

End of module
MBMS Radio Principles

1 4 22
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles MBMS Radio Principles
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 4 Page 22

Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Section 1
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
Module 5
Glossary

TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.5 Edition 1

UTRAN
UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
TMO18246_V2.0-SG Edition 1

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent @@YEAR

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Section 1 Module 5 Page 1

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152

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W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles Glossary


UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

This page is left blank intentionally

Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.5 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 5 Page 2

Abbreviations and Acronyms


#
Switch to notes view!
16-QAM 16 Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation
3GPP
3rd Generation Partnership Project
A
AAL
ATM Adaptation Layer
ACELP
Algebraic Code Excited Linear
Prediction
ACK
Acknoledgement
ADN
Abbreviated Dialling Number
AID
Alarm Instance Identification
ALCAP Access Link Control Application Part
AMPS
Advanced Mobile Phone System
AMR
Adaptive Multi Rate
ANRU
Antenna Network and multi-carrier
Receiver UMTS
ANSI
American National Standard Institute
(USA)
ARIB
Association of Radio Industries and
Business (Japan)
ATC
ATM Traffic Contract
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode

CN
CONT
CPCH
CPCS
CPS
CPU
CQI
CRC
CS
CS
CTCH
CTD

Core Network
Controller
Common Packet Channel
Common Part Convergence Sub-layer
Command Part Sub-layer
Central Processing Unit
Channel Quality indicator
Cyclic Redundant Check
Circuit Switched
Convergence/Adaptation to Services
(ATM)
Common Traffic Channel
Cell Transfer Delay

D
DAR
Duplicate Avoidance and Reordering
DB
Debug
DCA
Dynamic Channel Allocation
DCCH
Dedicated Control Channel
DCH
Dedicated Channel
DCN
Data Communication Network
DHO
Diversity HandOver
DHT
Diversity HandOver Trunk
DL
Downlink
B
DPCH
Dedicated Physical Channel
153
COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
W-CDMA
R99 Radio Band
Principles Glossary
BB
Base
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
BCCH
Broadcast Control Channel
DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel
BER
Bit Error Rate
DRAC
Dynamic Resource Allocation Control
BHCA
Busy Hour Call Attempts
DRNC
Drift RNC
BLER
Block Error Rate
DS
Direct Sequence
BMC
Broadcast Multicast Control
DSCH
Downlink Shared CHannel
BM-SC
Broadcast Multicast Service Centre
DTCH
Dedicated Traffic Channel
BM-IWF Broadcast Multicast Inter-Working
Function
E
BPMT
Node B Performance Monitoring Tool
E-DCH
Enhanced Dedicated CHannel
BSC
Base Station Controller
EDGE
Enhanced Data rates for GSM
BSS
Base Station (sub)System
Evolution
BTS
Base Transceiver Station
EFR
Enhanced Full Rate
BWC
Bandwidth Control
E-GSM
Enhanced GSM
E-GPRS Enhanced GPRS
C
EM
Element (or Equipment) Manager
CAC
Connection Admission Control
ERAN
EDGE Radio Access Network (all-IP)
CAMEL Customised Application for Mobile
ETSI European Telecommunication
CAPEX CAPital EXpenditure
Enhanced
Standard Institute
Logic
F
CC
Call Control
FACH
Forward Access Channel
CCCH
Common Control Channel
FAD
Function Access Domain
CCO
Cell Change Order
FBI
Feed-Back Information
CCT
Call Context Template
FDD
Frequency Division Duplex
CCTrCH Coded Composite Transport Channel
FDL
File Download (EM application)
CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access
FDMA
Frequency Division Multiple Access
CDR
Call Data Record
FER
Frame Error Rate
CDV
Cell Delay Variation
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
CLR
Cell Loss Ratio
FW
Firmware
CM
Configuration Management

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.5 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 5 Page 3

Abbreviations and Acronyms [cont.]


G
GCRA
GERAN
GGSN
GMSC
GMSK
GP
GPRS
GSM
GTP
GTP-U
GUI

Switch
to notes view!
Generic Cell Rate Algorithm
GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
Gateway GPRS Support Node
Gateway MSC
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
Granularity Period
General Packet Radio Service
Global System for Mobile
Communications
GPRS Tunneling Protocol
GPRS Tunneling Protocol-User Plane
Graphical User Interface

Iu-PS

Interface RNC - CN Packet Switch

K
Kbps

Kilo Bit per Second

L
L1, L2, L3 Layer , Layer 2, Layer3
LA
Local Area
LAC
Local Area Code
LAN
Local Area Network
LCS
LoCation Services
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LLC
Logical Link Control
LoS
Line of Sight
LM
Load Module
LMT
Local Maintenance Terminal
LIF
Low speed Interface
LQC
Link Quality Control

H
HCS
Hierarchical Cell Structure
HHO
Hard HandOver
HIF
High speed Interface
HLR
Home Location Register
M
HO
HandOver
MAC
Medium Access Control
HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access
MAC-hs Medium Access Control - High Speed
HS-DPCCH High Speed Dedicated Physical
Control
MAP
Mobile Application Part
CHannel.
MBMS
Multimedia
Broadcast Multicast
154
COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
R99 Radio
Principles Glossary
HS-DSCHW-CDMA
High
Speed
Downlink Shared CHannel
Service
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
HSS
Home Subscriber Service
MBS
Multi-standard Base Station (UTRAN)
HS-SCCH High Speed Shared Control CHannel
MBS
Maximum Burst Size (ATM)
HSUPA
High Speed Uplink Packet Access
MCCH MBMS PTM Control Channel
HPLMN Home PLMN
MCR
Minimum Cell Rate
MICH
MBMS notification Indication Channel
I
MIMO
Multiple Input / Multiple Output
IMEI
International Mobile Equipment
MM
Mobility Management
Identity
MMUX
MAC Multiplexer
IMS
IP Multimedia Subsystem
MSC
Mobile Switching Centre
IMSI
International Mobile Subscriber
MSCH
MBMS PTM Scheduling Channel
Identity
MSP
Multiple Subscriber Profile
IMT
International Mobile
MTCH
MBMS PTM Traffic Channel
Telecommunication
MTP3
Message Transfer Part level 3
IMT-DS
Direct Sequence
MTP-3B Message Transfer Part level 3
IMT-MC Multi Carrier
Broadband
IMT-SC Single Carrier
IMT-TC
Time Code
N
IOT
Inter Operability Tests
NACK
Non-Acknoledgement
IOR
Interoperable Object Reference
NAS
Non Access Stratum
IP
Internet Protocol
NAD
Network Access Domain
IR
Incremental Redundancy
NBAP
Node-B Application Part
ISC
Internetworking Services Card
NE
Network Element
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network
N/E
Normal/ Emergency
Itf-b
Interface Node B - OMC-R
NEM
New element manager
Itf-r
Interface RNC - OMC-R
NEM-B
Network Element Manager for Node B
ITU
International Telecommunication
NEM-R
Network Element Manager for RNC
Union
NM
Combined EM and SNM
Iub
Interface Node B - RNC
NML
Network Management Layer
Iur
Interface RNC - RNC
NMS
Network Management System
Iu-CS
Interface RNC - CN Circuit Switch
NPA
Network Performance Analyser
NTP
Network Time Protocol
Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.5 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 5 Page 4

Abbreviations and Acronyms [cont.]


O
O AM
O &M
OD
O DMA
O DT
O DTM
O FDM
O MC-R
O PEX
O RB
OS
O SA
O TDOA
O TSR
O VSF

Switch
to And
notes
view!
O peration
Maintenance
O peration And Maintenance
O ffice Data
O rthogonal Division Multiple Access
O ffice Data Tool
O ffice Data Tool Macro
O rthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing
O peration & Maintenance Centre - Radio
O Perational EXpenditures
O bject Request Broker
O perating System
O pen Service Architecture
O bserved Time Difference of Arrival
O mni directional Tx / Sectorised Rx
O rthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

RAN
RANAP
RB
RR
RF
RPMT
RRC
RRM
RV

Q
Q oS
Q PSK

S
SAC
SAP
SAR
SAT
SC
SC
SCF
SCR
SCTP
Paging Control Channel
SDH
Peak Cell Rate
SF
Packet Control Unit
SGSN
Personal Digital Assistant
SHO
Personal Digital Cellular (2G Japan)
SIR
Packet
Data
Protocol
155
COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
W-CDMA
R99 Radio Principles
SL
Protocol
Data Glossary
Unit
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
SMS
Proportional Fair Scheduling
SNMP
Public Land Mobile Network
SPU
Performance Measurement (O &M)
SQ L
Physical Random Access Channel
SRNC
Packet Switched
SSCO P
Phase Shift Keying
Public Switched Telephone Network
SSCP
Point-To-Multipoint
STM
Precision Timing Protocol
STTD
SU
Q uality of Service
Q uadrature Phase Shift Keying

R
R5
R99
RA
RAB
RAC
RAC
RACH
RLC
RNC
RNO
RNS
RNSAP
RNTI
RP

Release 5
Release 99
Routing Area
Radio Access Bearer
Routing Area Code
Radio Admission control
Random Access Channel
Radio Link Control
Radio Network Controller
Radio Network O ptimiser
Radio Network Sub-System
RNS Application Part
Radio Network Temporary Identity
Reporting Period

P
PCCH
PCR
PCU
PDA
PDC
PDP
PDU
PFS
PLMN
PM
PRACH
PS
PSK
PSTN
PTM
PTP

RAID

Radio Access Network


RAN Application Part
Radio Bearer
Round Robin
Radio Frequency
RNC Performance Monitoring Tool
Radio Resource Control
Radio Resource Management
Redundancy Version

Service Area Code


Service Access Point
Segmentation And Re-assembly
SIM Application Toolkit
Short Cell
System Configuration
System Configuration File
Sustainable Cell Rate
Stream Control Transmission Protocol
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
Spreading Factor
Serving GPRS Support Node
Soft HandO ver
Signal to Interference Ratio
Scheduling List
Short Message Service
Simple Network Management Protocol
Signaling Processing Unit
Structured Q uery Language
Serving RNC
Service Specific Connection O riented
Protocol
Signaling Connection Control Part
Synchronous Transfer Mode
Space Time transmit diversity
Signalling Unit

Redundant Array Independent


(or Inexpensive) Disk
Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.5 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 5 Page 5

Abbreviations and Acronyms [cont.]


T
Switch
to notes view!
TC
Transcoder
V
TC
Transmission Convergence (ATM)
VC
Virtual Channel
TCP
Transport Control Protocol
VCI
Virtual Channel Identifier
TD-CDMA Time Division & CDMA
VHE
Virtual Home Environment
TDD
Time Division Duplex
VLR
Visitor Location Register
TDMA
Time Division Multiple Access
VoIP
Voice over IP
TEU
Transmitter Equipment UMTS
VP
Virtual Path
TF
Transport Format
VPI
Virtual Path Identifier
TFC
Transport Format Combination
VSWR
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
TFCI
Transport Format Combination Indicator
TFCS
Transport Format Combination Set
W
TFRC
Transport Format Resource Combination
W3C
World Wide Web Consortium
TFRI
Transport Format Resource Indicator
WAP
Wireless Application Protocol
TFS
Transport Format Set
W-CDMA Wide-band Code Division Multiple
TIA
Telecommunication Industry Association
Access
(USA)
WIM
WAP Identity Module
TMA
Tower Mounted Amplifier
TMN
Telecommunication Management
X
Network
XML
Extensible Mark-up Language
TMSI
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identify
TPA
Transmit Power Amplifier
TPC
Transmission Power Control
TQL
Query Language for semi-structured data
156
COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
TRE W-CDMA R99
Transceiver
Equipment (GSM)
Radio Principles Glossary
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles
TRX
Transceiver (UMTS V1)
TS
Tunning Session
TSAL
Tunning Session Application Log
TSTD
Time Switch Transmit Diversity
TTA
Telecommunication Technology
Association (Korea)
TTI
Transmission Time Interval
U
UARFCN UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel
Number
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
UE
User Equipment
UICC
UMTS Integrated Circuit Card
UL
Uplink
UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunication
System
URA
UTRAN Registration Area
USB
Universal Serial Bus
USIM
UMTS Subscriber Identity Card
USM
User Service Manager
USSD
Unstructured Supplementary Service Data
UTRA
UMTS Radio Access Network (ETSI)
UTRA
Universal Radio Access Network (3GPP)
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
UWCC Universal Wireless Communications
Committee

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.5 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 5 Page 6

End of module
Glossary

157
W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles Glossary
UTRAN UA08 9300 W-CDMA R99 Radio Principles

COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18246_V2.0-SG-UA08-Ed1 Module 1.5 Edition 1
Section 1 Module 5 Page 7

Last but one page

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You have finished the training
Your feedback is appreciated!
Please feel free to Email your comments to:
training.feedback@alcatel-lucent.com
Please include the training reference in your email (see cover page)

Thank you!

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