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we`¨vb›` m„Rbkxj mnvwqKv

8g †kÖYx Bs‡iRx 2q cÎ

†jLK:

1) gÄyiæj Kwei †mŠif| 2) mvewibv mvC`| 3) ewki Avn‡g` mRxe| 4) mvqiv mvC`| 5) †gvnv¤§` mvBdzj Bmjvg|

cÖKvkbvq: we`¨vb›` dvD‡Ûkb

2) mvewibv mvC`| 3) ewki Avn‡g` mRxe| 4) mvqiv mvC`| 5) †gvnv¤§` mvBdzj Bmjvg| cÖKvkbvq: we`¨vb›`

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2) mvewibv mvC`| 3) ewki Avn‡g` mRxe| 4) mvqiv mvC`| 5) †gvnv¤§` mvBdzj Bmjvg| cÖKvkbvq: we`¨vb›`

we`¨vb›` m„Rbkxj mnvwqKv

8g †kÖYx Bs‡iRx 2q cÎ

†jLK:

1) gÄyiæj Kwei †mŠif| 2) mvewibv mvC`| 3) ewki Avn‡g` mRxe| 4) mvqiv mvC`| 5) †gvnv¤§` mvBdzj Bmjvg|

cÖKvkbvq: we`¨vb›` dvD‡Ûkb

2) mvewibv mvC`| 3) ewki Avn‡g` mRxe| 4) mvqiv mvC`| 5) †gvnv¤§` mvBdzj Bmjvg| cÖKvkbvq: we`¨vb›`

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2) mvewibv mvC`| 3) ewki Avn‡g` mRxe| 4) mvqiv mvC`| 5) †gvnv¤§` mvBdzj Bmjvg| cÖKvkbvq: we`¨vb›`

gyLeÜ

mgv‡Ri GK †kªYxi wk¶v_©x Av‡Q, hviv Avw_©K msK‡U wKsev †gavi `ye©jZvq wKsev w`Kwb‡`©kbvi

Afv‡e wQU‡K co‡Q cÖwZ‡hvMxZvg~jK wk¶ve¨e¯’v †_‡K| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ A‡b‡KiB m¤¢vebv wQ‡jv my›`i fwel¨‡Zi †gavweKv‡ki c_cÖ`k©K †c‡j| mv‡_ `iKvi Avw_©K mnvqZv Avi cvV¨ mnvqK eB Ávb weÁv‡bi eB| mgv‡Ri GB Ae‡nwjZ QvÎQvÎx‡`i Avkvi Av‡jv †`Lv‡Z Òwe`¨vb›`Ó(www.bidyanondo.org) bvgK cÖwZôv‡bi R¤§ †`b cÖevmx evOvwj wK‡kvi Kzgvi `vk| wb‡RB myweavewÂZ wQj e‡jB nq‡Zv Rxe‡bi me mÂq w`‡q Aby`vb QvovB Pvjv‡”Qb GB cÖwZôvb‡K| †Kvb FZzwfwËK cÖwZôvb bq we`¨vb›`| XvKv, PÆMÖvg Ges bvivqYM‡Äi wZb kvLvq eQ‡ii cÖwZwU w`b Kvh©µg P‡j †eZbfz³ PvKz‡i Ges wKQz gnrcÖvY †¯^”Qv‡meK Øviv|

ÒAvb‡›`i mv‡_ wk¶v jvfÓ- GB cÖwZôv‡bi g~jgš¿| wkï‡kªYx †_‡K Øv`k †kªYx ch©šÍ wk¶v_©x‡`i †gavweKv‡ki cvkvcvwk we`¨vb›` Zv‡`i ˆbwZK gyj¨‡ev‡ai DbœwZ, ¯^wk¶vq wkw¶ZKiY Ges Zv‡`i ¯^v¯’¨m‡PZbZv wb‡q KvR K‡i| eZ©gv‡b wZb kZvwaK QvÎQvÎx‡K cÖwZw`b wk¶v †`evi cvkvcvwk ïKbv Lvevi †`q GB cÖPviwegyL cÖwZôvbwU| GwK mv‡_ webvg~‡j¨ wk¶v DcKiY w`‡q _v‡K we`¨vb‡›`i cÖwZwU wkï‡K| ïaygvÎ myweavewÂZ‡`i Rb¨ bq, me©¯’‡ii cvVK‡`i Rb¨ Pvjy K‡i‡Q 8,000 eB‡qi wZbwU cvVvMvi, hv webvg~‡j¨ e¨envi Kiv hvq †Kvbiƒc m`m¨ bv n‡qI| AbjvBb ¯‹z‡ji gva¨‡g we`¨vb‡›`i KvR‡K cÖZ¨šÍ A‡j †cŠu‡Q w`‡Z welqwfwËK wk¶vg~jK wfwWI wUD‡Uvwiqvj ˆZwi Ki‡Q we`¨vb›`| GB wUD‡Uvwiqvj¸‡jv‡K AviI mnR K‡i Zzj‡Z webvg~‡j¨ wk¶v mnvwqKv weZiY Ki‡Q GB cÖwZôvbwU| we`¨vb‡›`i Av‡iKwU cÖ‡R± bv ej‡jB bq, †mwU n‡jv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi fwZ© †KvwPs| MZeQ‡ii 85 Rb Mixe wk¶v_©xi GB Kvh©µ‡gi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ask my‡hvM cvq †`‡ki wewfbœ miKvix wek¦we`¨vj‡q|

ïaygvÎ wk¶ve¨e¯’v bq, mgv‡Ri mvaviY cÖwZeÜKZv `~i Ki‡ZI, we`¨vb›` nv‡Z wb‡”Q bZzb bZzb cÖ‡R±| Zvu‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU n‡jv-Ò†d«‡g evuav ˆkkeÓ| 10,000 myweavewÂZ wkïi ˆkk‡ei Qwe msi¶‡Yi Rb¨ webvg~‡j¨ wcÖ›U Ges †jwg‡bwUs K‡i weZiY K‡i we`¨vb›`| DVwZ ZiæY †jLK Ges Kwe‡K c„ô‡cvlKZv w`‡Z wb‡R‡`i A_©vq‡b Agi GKz‡k eB‡gjv-2015 †Z cÖKvk K‡iwQj `yBwU Mí Ges KweZv msKjb, hvi jf¨vsk e¨q nq wkï‡`i Lvev‡ii Kv‡R| we`¨vb‡›`i mv‡_ hy³ Av‡Qb †`‡ki †miv wk¶vcÖwZôv‡bi GKSvuK ZiæY †¯^”Qv‡meK| GBme †¯^”Qv‡meK‡`i †hvM¨ K‡i Zzj‡Z wewfbœ cÖwk¶Y †`qv n‡”Q ¯^bvgab¨ cÖwk¶K Øviv| Avkv GKw`b GLvb †_‡KB m„wó n‡e †`‡ki †miv me †gavex Ges wkw¶Z gvbyl¸‡jv| cÖwZôvbwU bZzb, Z‡e mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b Gi AMÖMwZ Ges Ae`vb Cl©Yxq ch©v‡qi | Aí‡Z mš‘ó bq we`¨vb›`, ZvB †h‡Z n‡e Av‡iv A‡bK `~i| GKK cÖ‡Póv bq, eis mevi AvšÍwiK AskMÖnYB cv‡i mgv‡Ri Ae‡nwjZ †gavex wk¶v_©x‡`i K‡qKavc GwM‡q wb‡q †h‡Z| Avmyb we`¨vb‡›`i g‡Zv cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡K mn‡hvwMZv K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki fvM¨ cwieZ©‡b mnvqZv Kwi|

3

Avmyb we`¨vb‡›`i g‡Zv cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡K mn‡hvwMZv K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki fvM¨ cwieZ©‡b mnvqZv Kwi| 3

m~PxcÎ

SL.No

Particular

Page No

1

Prepositions

1-7

2

Right Form of Verbs

8-12

3

Articles

12-14

4

Tense

15-22

5

Suffix & Prefix

23-25

6

Punctuation

26-28

7

Transformation of Sentence

29-33

8

Voice

34-40

9

Narration

40-48

4

Punctuation 26-28 7 Transformation of Sentence 29-33 8 Voice 34-40 9 Narration 40-48 4

Prepositions

Preposition Kx Ges Prepostion Kx K‡i t Pre k‡ãi A_© c~‡e© Ges Position A_© Ae¯’vb A_ev Noun-equivalent Gi e¨eüZ n‡q Zvi m‡½ ev‡K¨i Ab¨ Word Gi m¤úK© eywS‡q †`q Zv‡K Preposition e‡j| Ex: Mita is coming with Rita.

GLv‡b, with nj Preposition Ges GwU Noun Gi c~‡e© e‡m‡Q|

Preposition + Noun I gave the book

to

Soha

Pre

N

to

him

Preposition + Pronoun I gave

Pre P.N Note: Avgiv †Kvb e¨w³, e¯‘i g‡a¨ m¤úK© ¯’vcb Kivi Rb¨ Preposition use Kwi|

wb‡Pi Passage wU jÿ Kit Fahad lives at Sutrapur in Dhaka. He goes to school by a Toyota car. Sometime he goes on rickshaw. He starts for home at 8:30 am. I go to School by rickshaw. I start early in the morning. There was a heavy rain yesterday and the roads went under water. So, I was absent from School.

cÖ`Ë Passage wU‡Z- at, in, to, by, on, from I under GB Preposition ¸‡jv e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q|

mvaviY 2 ai‡Yi Preposition jÿ Kiv hvq| (1) Complement of Preposition Or Basic uses of Preposition (2) Appropriate Preposition.

Basic uses of some Important preposition :

‡ek wKQz Preposition Av‡Q †h¸‡jv‡K wb‡¤œ cÖ`Ë Diagram-Gi mvnv‡h¨ AZ¨šÍ mnRfv‡e e¨vL¨v Kiv hvq t

At, in eo ¯’vb ev mg‡qi c~‡e© in Ges ‡QvU ¯’vb ev mg‡qi c~‡e© at e‡m| He lives at Deana in Khulna. He went there at 7 O’clock in evening.

Note: mg‡qi c~‡e© in e¨envi Ki‡j Zvici the e‡m| wKš‘ at e¨envi Ki‡j the e‡m bv| Night, noon, dusk, down BZ¨vw`i c~‡e© at e‡m| Ges Morning, evening, afternoon BZ¨vw`i c~‡e© in e‡m|

In, Into ‡Kvb wKQzi wfZ‡i Aew¯’Z ev w¯’wZkxjZv eySv‡j in Ges wfZ‡i cÖ‡ek ev MwZkxjZv Ges iƒcvšÍwiZ nIqv eySv‡j into e‡j| The students are in the room. They entered into the room. Water change into vapour.

5

nIqv eySv‡j into e‡j| The students are in the room. They entered into the room. Water

on, in, at w`b ev Zvwi‡Li c~‡e© on, gvm ev eQ‡ii c~‡e© in Ges wbw`©ó mg‡qi c~‡e© at e‡m| I shall meet you at 5 O’clock on Sunday in January.

After, in AZxZKv‡ji e¨vcK mgq (period of time) eySv‡Z after Ges fwel¨r Kv‡j e¨vcK mgq (Period of time) eySv‡Z in e¨eüZ nq| I returned to my naitve Village after six months.

In with-in fwel¨rKv‡j e¨vcK mg‡qi †kl gyn~Z© eySv‡Z in Ges ‡mB mgq DËxY© nevi c~‡e© eySv‡Z with in e‡m| †hgb t Mr. Ahad will come in a month. (GK gv‡mi †kl gyn~‡Z©) We, will finish the work within a month. [GK gvm DËxY© nevi c~‡e©]

in, by, before fwel¨ZKv‡ji e¨vcK mg‡qi c~‡e© in, Ges wbw`©ó mg‡qi c~‡e© by ev before e‡m| †hgb t I shall have finished reading the book by or before 5 p.m. He will come in a month.

in, on, to mxgvi g‡a¨ eySv‡Z in mxgvi evwn‡i eySv‡Z to Ges mxgvi Dc‡i eySv‡Z on e¨eüZ nq| †hgb t The Sounderban is to the south of the Country. Dhaka in on the Buriganga. Dhaka city college is in the heart of the city.

In, after Future tense G In Ges Past tense G after e¨eüZ nq| †hgb t My father will come from the states in a week. His father died after two monthes.

Since, from, for wbw`©ó mg‡qi c~‡e© Since ev from Ges e¨vcK mg‡qi c~‡e© for e‡m| Since Øviv ïay AZx‡Zi wbw`©ó mgq Ges from Øviv me tense Gi mgq eySvq| It has been raining Since morning It has been raining for two hours.

Beside besides Òcv‡kÓ A_© eySv‡Z beside Ges ÒBnv Qvov/AwaKš‘Ó eySv‡Z besides e¨eüZ nq| †hgb t He sat beside me. Besides this pen, I have two other pens.

Between among `yÕ‡qi g‡a¨ between Ges `yÕ‡qi AwaK n‡j among e¨eüZ nq| †hgb t Divide the mangoes between the two boys. Divide the mangoes among them.

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AwaK n‡j among e¨eüZ nq| †hgb t Divide the mangoes between the two boys. Divide the

By, with ‡h K‡i Zvi c~‡e© by Ges hvi Øviv K‡i Zvi c~‡e© with e‡j| †hgb t The tiger was killed by the hunter with a gun.

On, Over jvMvjvwM Ae¯’vq Dc‡i n‡j on Ges space ‡i‡L Dc‡i n‡j over e¨eüZ nq| †hgb t The book in on the table. The clock is over the cupboard.

Under/ below Under gv‡b eivei wb‡P Ges below gv‡b wb‡P wKš‘ eivei wb‡P bv| †hgbt Your foot is under the table [exactly] My foot is below the table. [beside]

Down wmwo w`‡q wb‡P bvg A‡_© down kãwU e¨eüZ nq| DuPz ¯’vb †_‡K wb‡P bvgv eySv‡Z down e‡m| †hgb t The store rolled down the hill.

Across ‡Kvb we›`y †K GK cÖvšÍ †_‡K Ab¨ cÖvšÍ eySv‡Z Across e¨eüZ nq| †hgb t I swim across the river. She ran across the road.

Though Though Øviv †Kvb wKQz wb‡`©k Kiv nq, ev †Kvb e¯‘i evwni n‡Z ïiæ nq, e¯‘‡Z cÖek K‡i Ges Z¨vM K‡i| †hgb t They walked home though the part the train went through the tunnel.

Note: Dc‡ii hv †`Iqv nj G¸‡jv Beside use of Preposition. Diagram wUi mvnv‡h¨ Avgiv G¸‡jv g‡b ivLvi †Póv Kie| Meaning of Some Prepositions

Preposition

Bengali meaning

At

w`‡K

In

†Z/ ‡h/ ‡fZ‡i/ g‡a¨

On

Ic‡i

Onto

Ic‡i

Over

wKQz Ic‡i

Above

A‡bK Ic‡i

Up

Ic‡ii w`‡K

Down

wb‡Pi w`‡K

To

w`‡K

7

Over wKQz Ic‡i Above A‡bK Ic‡i Up Ic‡ii w`‡K Down wb‡Pi w`‡K To w`‡K 7

From

‡_‡K/ nB‡Z

Into

evwni †_‡K †fZ‡i

Out of

‡fZi †_‡K evwn‡i

Behind

‡cQ‡b

Before

c~‡e©

After

c‡i

Besider

Bnv QvovI

Beside

cv‡k

By

Øviv/ cv‡k

Next to

wVK cv‡k

Across

Ic‡i/AwZµg

with

mv‡_

without

e¨ZxZ

through

ga¨ †_‡K ˆ`N©¨ AwZµg

Along

cvk w`‡q ˆ`N©¨ AwZµg

Below

wb‡P

Of

Gi

Inside

‡fZ‡i/ g‡a¨

for

Rb¨

Towards

w`‡K

Between

`yÕ‡qi g‡a¨

Against

weiæ‡×

within

wbw`©ó mg‡qi g‡a¨

[Note: cieZx© As‡ki wKQz Important appropriate Preposition ‡`Iqv nj| †m¸‡jv Aek¨B gyL¯Í Ki‡Z n‡e|]

Appropriate Preposition

Abide by-(‡g‡b Pjv) Students should abide by their teacher’s advice. Adsorbed in-(wbqg) He is absorbed in deep studies. Absent from-(Abycw¯’Z) He was absent from the meetwing. Abstain from-(weiZ _vKv) Everyone should abstain from smoking. Accuse of-(Awf‡hvM Kiv) He was accused of theft. Access to-(wbK‡U hvevi AwaKvi) We have easy access to our headmaster. Accustomed to (Af¨¯Í) Jerry was accustomed to hard work. Adhere to-(‡j‡M _vKv) I must adhere to my principles. Addicted to – (Lvivc Kv‡R Avmw³) He is addicted to gambling. Adjacent to-(msjMœ) His house is adjacent to mine. Adapted from-(M„nxZ) The story is adapted from Gulliver’s Travels. Admit to-(fwZ© nIqv) I was admitted to Chittagong College. Afraid fo-(fxZ) He is afraid of anything.

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Travels. Admit to- (fwZ© nIqv) I was admitted to Chittagong College. Afraid fo- (fxZ) He is

Argue with-(ZK©)-Students shouldn’t argue with their teachers. Aim at –(jÿ¨ Kiv) The police aimed at the robber. Alternative to-(cwie‡Z©) This question is alternative to that. Ambition for-(D”PKv•ÿv) I have no ambition for fame. Amenable to-(evav)-The lady is not amenable to reason. Ambitious of-(D”Pvwfjvlx) I am not ambitious of fame. Anxious for-(DwØMœ)-I am anxious for result. Apology for-(ÿgv cÖv_©bv) The student had to apology to the teacher for his misbehaviour. Aptitude for-(cÖeYZv) The girl has a great aptitude for music. Ashamed of –(jw¾Z) I am ashamed of his conduct. Astonished at-(wew¯§Z) The authoress was astonished at jerry’s integrity. Aware of –(AeMZ) He was aware of the fact. Bark at -(‡ND †ND Kiv) The dog always barks on a stranger. Belong to-(AwaKvix nIqv) This book belong to me. Beware of –(mZK© nIqv) Beware of thieves. Believe in-(wek¦vm Kiv) I dont believe in overloading my stomach. Blind to-(‡`‡LI bv †`Lv) He is blind to his sons fault. Boast of –(`¤¢ Kiv) He boasts of his riches. Born in –(Rb¥) I was born in Khulna. Born of –(RvZ) I was born of a middle class family. Burst into –(Kvbœvq †f‡½ co) Suddenly he burst into tears. Busy with-(e¨¯Í) He is busy with his lessons. Condemn to-(`vqx nIqv) The criminal was condemned to death. Confess to-(¯^xKvi Kiv) He confessed to his guilt. Confident of-(Avkvev`x) I am confident of my success. Consist of –(MwVZ) The comittee consists of then members. Contrary to-(wecixZfv‡e) The Students acted contrary to his teacher’s direction. Cope with-(Gu‡U DVv) I failed to cope with the new environment. Conspire with-(lohš¿ Kiv) His enemees conspired with his soldier to ruin him. Contact with-(‡hvMv‡hvM) I have no contact with him. Deal in-(e¨emv Kiv) He deals in rice. Delight in-(Avbw›`Z nIqv) I deligh in sport and games. Demand for-(Pvwn`v) Jerry had no demand for high amount. Dependent on-(wbf©ikxj) Our family is dependent on me. Deprive of-(ewÂZ nIqv) He was deprived of the property. Devoid of-(ewR©Z) He is devoid of common sense. Die of-(‡Kvb †iv‡M giv) He died of cholera. Die from-(‡Kvb Kvi‡Y giv) He died from over eating. Die by-(B”QvK…Zfv‡e giv) He died by suicide.

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cholera. Die from-( ‡Kvb Kvi‡Y giv) He died from over eating. Die by-( B”QvK…Zfv‡e giv) He

Die for-(AvZ¥Z¨vM Kiv) We are ready too die for our country. Different from-(c„_K) This pen is different from that. Disappointed at-(‡Kvb wKQz‡Z nZvk) He was disappointed at your failure. Divide into-(fvM Kiv) He devided the mangoes into two equal halves.

Due to-(KviY) I could not go to college due to my illness.

Expert at-(`ÿ) The girl is expert at drawing. Easy of-(mnR) The problem is easy of solution. Engaged n-(wbgMœ) He is engaged in writting a book. Escape from-(gyw³) Man has no escape from death.

Faith in-(wek¦vm) I have faith in his honesty. Famous for-(weL¨vZ) Mohin is famous for his kindness. Fond of –(wcªq) I am fond of meet.

Full of-(cwic~Y©) The glass is full of dirty water.

Good at –(`ÿ) Shimu is good at math. Include in-(AšÍfy©³ Kiv) My name was included in the list.

Indebted to-(FYx) I am greatly indebted to my teachers. Indifferent to-(D`vmxb) Students should not be indifferent to their studies. Insist on –(wR` Kiv) He insisted on my going to chinema. Liable to-(`vqx) Man is liable to error. Live in-(evm Kiv) Man live in society.

Mix with-(‡gkv) He does not mix with other boys.

Necessity for-(Avek¨KZv) I have no necessity for the book. Need of-(cÖ‡qvRb) I am badly in need of a seat in the hostel. Object to-(AvcwË Kiv) I objected to his proposal. Obstacle to-(euvav) Proverty was obstacle to his success in life.

Open to-(Db¥y³) The national Zoo is open to all. Owe to-(FYx nIqv) I owe to my teacher.

Play at-(‡Ljv Kiv) Students should not play at cards.

Pretend to-(cQ›` Kiv) He Prefers reading to writing. Prefer to-(fvb Kiv) Hamlet pretended to madness. Prevent from-(weiZ _vKv) My father prevented me from going to cinema.

Pride in-(Me© Kiv) He takes pride in his wealth. Rely on-(wbf©i Kiv) The authoress relied on Jerry. Remind of-(g‡b Kwi‡q †`qv) I reminded him of the accident. Satisfied with-(mš‘ó) Man should be satisfied with what he has. Sorry for-(`ytwLZ) I am sorry for my rude behaviour.

Suffer from-(mn¨ Kiv) The poor Suffer from many troubles. Quarrel with-(KviI mv‡_ SMov Kiv) We should not quarrel with one another.

Use of-(cÖ‡qvRb) There is no use of buying the book.

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mv‡_ SMov Kiv) We should not quarrel with one another. Use of-( cÖ‡qvRb) There is no

Used to-(Af¨¯Í) Jerry was used to hard work. Victim to-(wkKvi) We are victim of him cruelness. Wait for-(A‡cÿv Kiv) They waited for us at the station. Want of –(Afve) I have want of money. Zealous for-(Drmvnx) A Slave is always zealous for freedom.

Exercise

1)

of, in, with, for, into, about. Mr. Rahim was very popular a)

his student. The Students had easy

access b)

his room. Whenever the student entered c)

his room,

they found him absorbed c)

study. He was proficient in English. He

was very conscious e)

his duties and responsibilities.

 

2)

about, againgt, for, at, after, of, to.

 

Our school is famous a)

its good result. The school advertised for the

appointment of and English teacher. Since Mr. Ahmed was good b)

English, he Applied for the post. A written test was in a room Adjacent

c)

the headmaster’s room. He appropate at the test. He stood first. He

was selected for the post, But the committee had bais for answer candidate.

The committee talked d) headmaster was sure e)

the mother with the headmaster. The fair selection.

3)

on, to, from, of

 

A

good boy always attentive a)

his studies. He thinks b)

his

career. He is determined c)

carrying d)

his studies. He doesn’t

c)

the truth.

4)

Down, by, of , with, around.

 

The world a) cities are filled b)

factories. The seas are polluted c)

us is becoming more and more polluted day by day. The fume and smoke from motor vehicles, mills and

industrial waste, chemicals and on a large scale. for instance, forests are being cleared and

other poisons. Forests are being cut d)

in Brazil thousands of square miles e)

burned.

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forests are being cleared and other poisons. Forests are being cut d) in Brazil thousands of

Right From of Verbs

Sentence Gi cwic~Y©Zvi Rb¨ verb Acwinvh© GKwU Ask| verb ‡K Sentence ev ev‡K¨i cÖvY ejv nq ? †Kvb Sentence mwVKfv‡e †jLvi Rb¨ verb m¤ú‡K© cwi®‹vi aviYv _vKv Avek¨K| Bs‡iwRi cÖwZwU cÖwZwU †ÿ‡Î wePi‡Yi Rb¨ right form of verbs Rvb‡Z n‡e| Zvn‡jB GKgvÎ mwVKfv‡e sentence make Kiv hv‡e| ev‡K¨i A_©m½wZ iÿv cv‡e Ges mwVKfv‡e I ï×fv‡e evK¨ e¨envi Kiv hv‡e| Right form of verbs Rvb‡Z n‡j wKQz rules m¤ú‡K© aviYv _vK‡Z n‡e| wb‡Pi wKQz rules m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv nj t

1)

2)

Subject hw` 3rd person singular number nq Ges verb hw` present indefinite tense nq Zvn‡j verb Gi †k‡l s/es ‡hvM Ki‡Z nq|

a. The boy (Play) football. -The boy Plays football.

Universal truth (wPišÍb mZ¨), habitual fact (Af¨vmMZ Kg©) eySv‡j Present indefinite tense nq| †hgb-

a. The sun (rise) in the east. -The sun rises in the east.

b. Too err (is) human.

-Too err is human.

c. He (swim) everyday. -He Swim everyday. 3) Sentence G †Kvb mg‡qi D‡jøL bv †_‡K hw` always, everyday, regularly,

sometimes, often, generally, daily, occasionally, usually, normally, frequently BZ¨vw` _v‡K Zvn‡j verb Gi Present indefinite tense nq| †hgb-

a. He always (disturb) the class. -He always disturbs the class.

b. Mahin (go) to school regularly. -Mahin goes to school regularly.

c. Mr. Fahim (drink) tea everyday. -Mr. Fahim drinks tea every day.

4)

‡Kvb sentence G hw` Just, Just now, already, yet, ever, lately, recently BZ¨vw` _v‡K Zvn‡j verb Gi Prefect tense nq| †hgb-

a. Shahida (go) out just now. -Shahida gone out just now.

b. I (see) him recently. -I have seen him recently.

5)

AZxZ wb‡`©kK ‡Kvb kã ev phrase ‡hgbt (yesterday, ago, long, since, last night) _vK‡j verb Gi past form nq| †hgb-

a. He (leave) home last night. -He left home last night.

12

since, last night) _vK‡j verb Gi past form nq| †hgb- a. He (leave) home last night.

b. I (come) home yesterday. -I came home yesterday.

c. I (see) you long ago. -I saw you long ago.

6)

Now, right now, at present, at this moment, day by day, step by step, gradually, continuously BZ¨vw` _vK‡j sentence Gi †ÿ‡Î verb Gi present Continuous tense nq| †hgb-

a. Now i (go) to class. -Now i am going to class.

b. They (play) at this moment.

7)

-They are playing at this moment. Present perfect ev Present perfect Continuous G period of time (wKQz Kvj

e¨wcqv) eySv‡Z for Ges Point of time (wbw`©ó mgq) eySv‡Z since e¨eüZ nq| †hgb-

a.

He has been reading since noon. -I have been reading for two hours.

8)

`ywU clause, before ev after Øviv hy³ n‡j before Gi c~e©eZx© Ges after Gi cieZx© verb wU past perfect tense nq| †hgb-

a.

The patient had died before the doctor come. -The doctor came after the patient had died.

9)

GKwU Simple sentence Gi †ÿ‡Î `ywU verb e¨eüZ n‡j wØZxq verb wUi mv‡_ ing ‡hvM

nq| †hgb-

a. Would you mind opening the window? -I heard the baby crying.

10)

lest Øviv `ywU Dc‡`k hy³ n‡j lest Gi cieZx© verb Gi c~‡e© should e‡m| †hgb- a. Work hard lest you should fail in the exam. -Run fast lest you should miss the train.

11)

`yB ev Z‡ZvwaK Singular subject and Øviv hy³ n‡j, Zv‡`i c‡i verb Ges pronoun

Dfq Plural Number nq| †hgb- a. Salam and Jamal have done their works. -Karim and Rahim are always happy.

12) i) And Øviv hy³ `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK Singular subject hw` GKB e¨w³ ev e¯‘‡K wb‡`©k K‡i †m †ÿ‡Î verb Gi singular number nq| †hgb- The Headmaster and secretary of the school was present. ii) And Øviv hy³ `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK Noun hw` c„_K c„_K e¨w³‡K ‡evSvq| †m †ÿ‡Î cÖwZUv Noun Gi c~‡e© the e‡m Ges verb Gi Plural number nq| †hgb- The Headmaster and the secretary of the school were present in the

13)

meeting.

And Øviv hy³ `ywU singular subject hw` GKB fve ev A_© cÖKvk K‡i, †m‡ÿ‡Î verb Gi

singular number nq| †hgb-

13

hy³ `ywU singular subject hw` GKB fve ev A_© cÖKvk K‡i, †m‡ÿ‡Î verb Gi singular number

a. My name and address is given below pen and ink is required for me.

b. Bread and butter is my favourite food.

14)

And Øviv hy³ GKvwaK Singular subject Gi c~‡e© hw` each, every ev no e¨eüZ nq| †m‡ÿ‡Î-Zv‡`i cieZx© verb Gi singular number nq|

a. Each boy and each girl has got a prize.

b. No teacher and no student attends the class.

15)

Interrogative sentence G hw` what, when, where, who, which, whose, why,

how _v‡K Zvn‡j subject Gi c~‡e© tense I person Abyhvqx to be verb ‡hvM Ki‡Z nq| to be verb bv _vK‡j tense I person Abyhvqx do/ does/ did e‡m|

a.

What you (do) now?

-What are you doing now?

b.

What you (want)?

-What do you want?

c.

Why Mr. Fahim (look) so angry?

16)

-Why does Mr. Fahim look so angry? Since Gi cÖ_g Ask Present Indefinite/ Present perfect tense n‡j c‡ii Ask past

Indefinite tense nq|

a.

It is many years since I (come) to Dhaka.

-It is many years science I came to Dhaka.

17)

to be Ges having Gi ci g~j verb Gi past participle nq|

a. He ran away having (take) the money. -He ran away having taken the money.

18) As though/ as if Gi cÖ_g Ask Present Indefinite tense n‡j Gi c‡ii Ask Past Indefinite nq| Avevi cÖ_g Ask Past Indefinite Tense n‡j c‡ii Ask Past perfect Tense nq|

a. He speaks as though he (know) everything.

-He speaks as though he knew every-thing.

b. She proceeded as though I (not speak)

-She proceeded as though I had not spoken.

19)

Can, Could, may, might, Shall Should, will would BZ¨vw` auxiliary verb wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ n‡j g~j verb wU present tense nq|

You may (come) tomorrow. -You may come tomorrow.

a.

b.

I can (do) the work.

-I can do the work.

One should (take) care of one’s health. -One should take care of One’s health.

c.

20)

While Gi ci verb _vK‡j Zvi mv‡_ ing ‡hvM nq| wKš‘ While Gi c‡i Subject _vK‡j While Gi AskwU Past continuous tense nq|

14

Zvi mv‡_ ing ‡hvM nq| wKš‘ While Gi c‡i Subject _vK‡j While Gi AskwU Past continuous

a. While walking in the garden, a snake bite him

b. While he was walking in the garden, a snake bite him.

21)

‡Kvb sentence hw` there Øviv ïiæ nq Ges Zvici hw` singular number _v‡K Zvn‡j there Gi ci singular verb e‡m| Avi Plural number _vK‡j there Gi ci Plural verb e‡m|

a. There is a school in the village

b. There are two high schools in the village.

22)

One third, One-fourth e¯‘i †ÿ‡Î singular verb em‡e wKš‘ e¨w³ †ÿ‡Î Plural n‡e| One-third, One-fourth Gi †ÿ‡Î fMœvsk Plural n‡e bv Ab¨ mKj †ÿ‡Î fMœvsk Plural n‡e|

One-third of the work (have) been finished. -One-third of the work has been finished.

a.

b.

One-third of the students (is) Present.

23)

-One-third of the students are present. All Gi ci Plural verb e‡m wKš‘ cÖev` evK¨ ev Proverbial word Gi ci verb singular

nq|

a. All men (be) mortal.

-All men are mortal.

b. All that (glitter) is not gold.

-All that glitters is not gold.

24) ‡Kvb sentence Gi verb Zvi subject Gi Number Ges Person Abyhvqx e¨eüZ nq- A_©vr subject singular n‡j verb singular n‡e Ges subject Plural n‡j verb Plural n‡e| -The colour of his eyes is blue.

25)

‡Kvb sentence-G wewfbœ Person GK‡Î †jLvi mgq cÖ_‡g 2 nd Person Zvici 3 rd Person Ges †k‡l First person (231) em‡e| -You, Habib and I are present wKš‘ †`vl ¯^xKvi eySv‡j cÖ_‡g 1st Person, Zvici 3rd Person Ges me©‡k‡l 2 nd Person (132) e‡m| - I, Habib and you are guilty.

26)

mywbw`©ó / wbw`©ó (Specific) ‰`N©¨, cwigvY ev ¯’vb eySv‡j Subject ‡`L‡Z Plural n‡jI verb singular nq|

a. Forty miles is a long way.

b. Ten maunds is a heavy weight.

27)

eB‡qi bvg, †`‡ki bvg †`L‡Z Plural n‡jI Zviv singular Ges Zv‡`i c‡i singular verb e‡m|

a. Gulliver’s Travels is a famous book.

b. The United states of America is a rich country.

28) Relative pronoun Gi verb antecedent Abyhvqx e¨eüZ nq|

a. It is I who (is) responsible for this.

b. It is i who am responsible for this.

15

verb antecedent Abyhvqx e¨eüZ nq| a. It is I who (is) responsible for this. b. It

Exercise

1. The moon (shine) at night.

2. Flowers (be) gift of nature.

3. I saw him (go) to the town.

4. Science (discover) many things.

5. It is high time they (earn) their livelihood.

6. Women (contribute) much to their family income.

7. World temperatures (increase) day by day.

8. He tell the matter of as if he (know) it.

9. I am glad to learn you that you (be) well.

10. Ill news (run) fast.

Articles

Articles: mvaviYfv‡e Avgiv a, an, the †K Articles e‡j _vwK, A_©vr Noun Gi c~‡e© a, an, the Gi e¨envi‡K Articles e‡j| †hgb: an apple, a boy BZ¨vw`|

wkÿv_x©‡`i eySvi myweav‡_© wek` Av‡jvPbv Kiv nj:

A boy is flying a kite.

The kite is nice.

A man is drawing a picture.

There is an owl in the tree. GLv‡b underline Kiv Articles ¸‡jv Noun Gi c~‡e© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| GBfv‡e Avgiv Articles Gi Fill in the gaps ¸‡jv c~iY Ki‡Z cvie|

Articles ‡K `yB fv‡M fvM Kiv nq|

1. Definite (wbw`©óZvevPK)

2. Indefinite (Awbw`©óZvevPK)

Indefinite Articles: Awbw`©÷Zv eySv‡bvi Rb¨ †h Articles e¨eüZ nq Zv‡K Indefinite

e‡j| †hgb- a man, an egg .

A Gi e¨envi t Bs‡iwR eY©gvjv `yBfv‡e wef³ Kiv nq|

i) vowel (¯^ieY©)

vowel nj- a, e, i, o, u. Avi evwK me eY©gvjv nj- Consonant.

ii) Consonant (e¨ÄbeY©)

1. consonant Gi c~‡e© a e¨eüZ nq| a cat, a bat.

2. ‘u’ Gi D”PviY hw` ÒBDÓ Gi gZ nq Zvn‡j Zvi c~‡e© a e‡m| a Uniform, a European.

GLv‡b uniform evbv‡b cÖ_g ‘u’ eY©wU ÒBDÓ Gi gZ D”PvwiZ n‡q‡Q, ZvB Zvi c~‡e© a e‡m‡Q|

3. ‘O’ hw` ÒIqvÓ Gi gZ D”PvwiZ nq Zvi c~‡e© a e‡m| ‡hgbt a One-taka note, a one-eyed man.

16

3. ‘O’ hw` ÒIqvÓ Gi gZ D”PvwiZ nq Zvi c~‡e© a e‡m| ‡hgbt a One-taka note,

GLv‡bv ÒIqvb-UvKvÓ kãwU‡Z ‘o’ ‡K ÒIqvÓ Gi gZ D”PviY Kiv n‡q‡Q ZvB Zvi c~‡e© a e‡m‡Q| 4. †Kvb e¨w³ ev e¯‘i bvg cÖ_gevi D‡jøwLZ n‡j a/an e‡m| †hgb- a man 5. †Kvb cÖKvi mswÿß k‡ãi cÖ_g Aÿi vowel Gi gZ D”PvwiZ bv n‡j a e‡m| †hgbt a B.A, a B.Sc GLv‡b cÖ_g Aÿi B(we) vowel Gi gZ D”PvwiZ nqwb ZvB a e‡m‡Q|

6. msL¨vevPK k‡ãi c~‡e© a e‡m| †hgb- a hundred taka. a dozen pen.

GLv‡b hundred (100) I dozen (12) msL¨vevP kã|

An Gi e¨envi t

1. k‡ãi ïiæ‡Z vowel (a, e, i, o, u) _vK‡j an e‡m| †hgbt an egg, an apple.

2. hw` k‡ãi cÖ_‡g ‘h’ _v‡K Ges hw` ‘h’ Gi g‡Zv D”PvwiZ bv nq Zvn‡j Zvi c~‡e© an e‡m| †hgbt an honest, an hour GLv‡b honest kãwU ÒI‡b÷Ó Ges hour kãwU ÒAvIqviÓ A_©vr “O” D”PvwiZ n‡q‡Q hv Vowel Gi b¨vq ZvB an e‡m‡Q|

3. k‡ãi cÖ_‡g U hw` ÒAvÓ Gi gZ D”PvwiZ nq, Zvn‡j Zvi c~‡e© an e‡m| †hgbt An umbrella GLv‡b “U” kãwU ÒAvÓ Gi gZ D”PvwiZ n‡q‡Q, ZvB Zvi c~‡e© an em‡e|

4. mswÿß k‡ãi cÖ_g Aÿi vowel Gi gZ D”PvwiZ n‡j Zvi c~‡e© an e‡m| †hgbt An L.L.B, An M.A GLv‡b “L” (Gj) k‡ãi ïiæ‡Z G (a) Ges M (Gg) Gi †ÿ‡ÎI G (a) D”PvwiZ ZvB Zvi c~‡e© an e‡m‡Q| [we‡kl `ªóe¨t Article Gi (a, an) e¨env‡ii Gi †ÿ‡Î D”PviYwU A‡bK †ekx ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| ZvB ï× D”Pvi‡Yi †Póv Ki‡Z n‡e|]

Definite Articles : wbw`©ó K‡i eySv‡bvi Rb¨ †h Articles e¨eüZ nq Zv‡K Definite Articles e‡j| †hgbt The Titanic, The English boy.

The Gi e¨envi t

1. wbw`©ó K‡i †Kvb e¨w³, e¯‘, ¯’vb‡K eySv‡j The e‡m| †hgb t The man standing on road. The water of this pond is dirty. GLv‡b “man” Ges water ‡K wbw`©ó K‡i eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q|

2. b`x, mvMi, ce©Zgvjv, weL¨vZ MÖš’, msev`cÎ Gi c~‡e© the e‡m| †hgb t The Padma, The Atlantic Ocean. The Himalays, The Prothom-alo.

3. mgMÖ RvwZ, m¤úª`vq Gi c~‡e© the e‡m| †hgb t The Punjab, The Bangladeshi.

17

The Prothom-alo. 3. mgMÖ RvwZ, m¤úª`vq Gi c~‡e© the e‡m| †hgb t The Punjab, The Bangladeshi.

GLv‡b Punjab GKwU m¤úª`vq Ges Bangladeshi GKwU RvwZ‡K eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q|

4. w`K, ag©MÖš’, cwÎKv bv‡gi c~‡e© The e‡m| †hgb t The East, The Holy Quran, The observer.

5. Superlative degree Ges wbw`©óZv eySv‡j Abstract Noun Gi c~‡e© The e‡m| †hgbt The best boy, The kindness.

6. `ywU Noun, and Øviv hy³ n‡q GKB e¨w³/ e¯‘‡K wb‡`©k K‡i Zvn‡j cÖ_gwUi c~‡e© The e‡m| †hgbt The Headmaster and secretary is present. GLv‡b Headmaster Ges Secretary GKB e¨w³ ZvB cÖ_g Noun Gi c~‡e© The e‡m‡Q|

7. wKš‘ `ywU Noun hw` wfbœ wfbœ e¨w³ ev e¯‘‡K eySvq Zvn‡j `ywU Noun Gi c~‡e©v The em‡e| †hgbt The Headmaster and The secretary are present. GLv‡b (H) Ges (S) `y‡Uv Avjv`v e¨w³ ZvB `ywU Noun Gi c~‡e© The e‡m‡Q| [ DËi t (6) bs D`vniY G jÿ Ki (H) Ges (S) GKB e¨w³ nIqvi Kvi‡Y Singular verb is e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| Ges (7) bs D`vni‡Y (H) I (S) Avjv`v e¨w³ nIqvi Kvi‡Y Plural verb are e‡m‡Q| GBfv‡e Avgiv verb Gi w`‡K jÿ¨ †i‡L Zv Answer Ki‡Z cvie| ]

Omission of Articles:

†Kvb †Kvb ¯’v‡b Articles e‡m bv, Zv GLb Avgiv Rvbe|

1. Proper, Material, Abstract Noun I Uncountable Noun Gi c~‡e© Articles e‡m bv| †hgbt × Dhaka, × Iron, × Honesty, × Milk.

2. fvlv I Allah ev God bv‡gi c~‡e© Articles e‡m bv| †hgbt × Enghlish, × Allah.

3. Plural noun, Lvev‡ii bvg, Drm‡ei bv‡gi c~‡e© Articles e‡m bv| †hgbt × Cows, × dinner, × Eid-ul-fitr.

4. w`b ev gvm, cvK©, †iv‡Mi bv‡gi c~‡e© Articles e‡m bv| †hgbt × January, × Bahadurshah park, × cholera.

5. †Ljv I possessive case Gi c~‡e© Articles e‡m bv| †hgbt × Football, It is my ×

book.

Practice:

1. Newspaper is a)

home and

important thing without which, we cannot think single day. In educated society, It is regarded as

paper which carries news of b)

abroad. It is such c) to pass even d)

e) storehouse of knowledge.

2. English is a)

international language. It is spoken all over b)

world. So the importance of c)

words. All d)

organizations need employees who can speek and write e)

form of f)

Answer: 1. a) a, b) ×, c) an, d) a, e) the 2. a) an, b) the, c) × d) the e) the f) ×

English cannot be disenabled in

books of higher education are written in English. Today

standard

English.

18

e) the f) × English cannot be disenabled in books of higher education are written in

Tense

Tense k‡ãi A_© Kvj/ mgq| AZxZ, eZ©gvb, fwel¨Z GB wZbwU‡K Kvj wn‡m‡e ¸Yv nq| AZx‡Z Kx K‡iwQ, eZ©gv‡b wK KiwQ, fwel¨‡Z wK Kie GB me series of verb w`‡q time relation Uv cÖgvY Kwi| Tense wb‡`©k K‡i Past, present and future Gi Kg©‡K| myZivs ejv hvq tense 3 cÖKvi|

h_v

1. Present tense (eZ©gvbKvj)

2. Past tense (AZxZKvj)

3. Future tense (fwel¨ZKvj)

Present tense: eZ©gv‡b †Kvb KvR nq ev n‡”Q eySvq †mwU n‡e verb Gi Present tense.

†hgb- I eat rice. [Avwg fvZ LvB] There are Playing Cricket [Zviv wµ‡KU †Lj‡Q]

Past tense: AZx‡Z †Kvb KvR N‡UwQj ev NUwQj eySvq †mUv n‡e verb Gi Past tense.

†hgb- I ate rice. [Avwg fvZ †L‡qwQjvg] They were Playing Cricket [Zviv dzUej †LjwQj]

Future tense: fwel¨‡Z †Kvb KvR m¤úbœ n‡e eySv‡j †mUv n‡e verb Gi Future tense.

†hgb- I shall buy a car [Avwg GKwU Mvwo wKbe] She will go to Chittagong. [wZwb PÆMÖvg hv‡eb]

DcwiD³ wZb cÖKvi tense Gi cÖ‡Z¨KwU Avevi wb‡¤œv³ Pvi fv‡M wef³ t

Present tense
Present tense
Avevi wb‡¤œv³ Pvi fv‡M wef³ t Present tense Tense Past tense Future tense 19 Present Indefinite
Avevi wb‡¤œv³ Pvi fv‡M wef³ t Present tense Tense Past tense Future tense 19 Present Indefinite
Tense Past tense
Tense
Past tense
Future tense
Future tense

19

Present Indefinite tense Present Continuous tense Present Perfect tense Present Perfect Continuous tense

Past Indefinite tense Past Continuous tense Past Perfect tense Past Perfect Continuous tense

Future Indefinite tense Future Continuous tense Future Perfect tense Future Perfect Continuous tense

Continuous tense Future Indefinite tense Future Continuous tense Future Perfect tense Future Perfect Continuous tense

Present tense [eZ©gvbKvj]

A. Present Indefinite tense:

†h tense Øviv eZ©gv‡b †Kvb KvR Kiv, Af¨vm ev wPimZ¨ eySvq Zv‡K Present Indefinite tense e‡j| Structure: Subject + g~j verb Gi Present form + object

 

We

Play

Cricket

Sub V.P.F

object

Present Indefinite tense G me mgq subject Gi ci g~j verb Gi Subject third

Person singular Number n‡j verb Gi †k‡l s ev es nq| [†h mKj verb Gi †k‡l O,

S, ss, sh, ch, x,

z.

_v‡K Zv‡`i †k‡l es ‡hvM Ki‡Z nq| Avi evwK verb Gi †k‡l s e‡j]

†hgbt He goes to school. GLv‡b He third person singular Number ZvB verb Gi †k‡l es e‡m‡Q|

 

Uses of the present Indefinite tense

1.

†Kvb Sentence G usually, always, regularly, everyday, sometime, often, daily, generally, normally BZ¨vw` _vK‡j Sentence wU Present Indefinite n‡e| †hgbt They usually (walked) to school. They usually walk to school.

2.

wPišÍb mZ¨ ev (Universal truth) ‡evSv‡Z Present Indefinite nq| †hgbt The moon shines at night. A_©vr, Puv` iv‡Z wKiY †`q|

3.

It is used to Introduce quotations. †hgbt Pope says, ‘To err is human.’ Robindranath says, ‘Love is painful.’

4.

Permanent situation Gi †ÿ‡Î Present Indefinite tense nq| Permanent

situation ej‡Z eySvq-‡hUv Av‡M wQj, eZ©gv‡b Av‡Q, fwel¨‡Z _vK‡e| †hgbt Liza is a girl. We live in Bangladesh. 5. Habitual Actions: mPivPi Avgiv †hme KvR K‡i _vwK †m¸‡jv Present Indefinite tense

n‡e|

†hgbt I get up at 6 a.m. John smokes a lot.

6. Future reberence: fwel¨‡Z †Kvb KvR n‡e eyS‡Z A‡bK mgq Present tense e¨eüZ nq| †hgbt We leave tomorrow at 11:15 and arrive at 17:50

7. Permanent truths: Avgiv Present Indefinite tense use Kwi †mB me Stetements G †h¸‡jv memgq mZ¨| †hgbt Summer follows spring Water boils at 100 celsius.

8. In imperative : Imperative sentence ¸‡jv memgq Present Indefinite tense nq| †hgbt Do not make friendship with the Boys. Develop an attitude of gratitude.

20

memgq Present Indefinite tense nq| †hgbt Do not make friendship with the Boys. Develop an attitude

B. Present Continuous tense †h tense Øviv eZ©gvbKv‡j †Kvb KvR Pj‡Z‡Q eySvq Zv‡K Present continuous tense

e‡j| Structure: Subject + Am/is/are + g~j verb Gi †k‡l ing + Object. I am going to school. GLv‡b Subject Gi ci am/ is/ are e‡m, g~j verb Gi †k‡l ing nq| Gici sentence Gi evKx Ask|

[ N.B:

I Gi ci am e‡m|

He, she, it Ges Ab¨me third person singular Gi ci is e‡m| We, you, they I Plural subject Gi ci are e‡m| ]

Use of the Present continuous tense

1. ‡Kvb sentence G now, at this moment, day by day, today, always BZ¨vw` _vK‡j

Sentence wU Present continuous tense n‡e| †hgbt She is singing a song now. They are watching T.V at this moment. 2. Temporary situations: A¯’vqx Ae¯’v eySv‡Z Present Continuous tense e¨eüZ nq| †hgb- †Kvb we‡`kx hw` evsjv‡`‡k G‡m wKQz mg‡qi Rb¨ Ae¯’vb K‡i ZLb †m ej‡e- I am living in Bangladesh.

GLv‡b †m wKš‘ Permanently evsjv‡`‡k Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q bv| wKQz mg‡qi (K‡qK gvm) Rb¨ Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q|

3. When we are in the middle of an action of the time of speaking. †hgbt I am waiting for the train The children are sleeping.

4. When we are in the middle of an action but not at the moment of speaking. I am reading ‘The Tempest’ by shakespear. [He may not be doing at the moment of speaking]

5. wbKU fwel¨Z †evSv‡Zz Present continuous tense e¨eüZ nq| †hgbt She is coming soon.

6. ‡Kvb KvR evievi n‡”Q †evSv‡Z Present continuous tense e¨eüZ nq| †hgbt You are always talking [Zzwg cÖvqB (evievi) K_v ejQ] It is raining continuously. (AbeiZ e„wó n‡”Q) Note: wb‡Pi verb ¸‡jv mvaviYZ Continuous form G e¨eüZ nq bv| verb of perception see, smell, notice, recognize verbs of emotion want, wish, desire, feel, like, love, hate, hope, refuse, etc. verbs of thinking think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, remember, forget, know, imagine, mean, mind, understand etc. The auxiliaries May, shall, will, can, must BZ¨vw`|

21

remember, forget, know, imagine, mean, mind, understand etc. The auxiliaries May, shall, will, can, must BZ¨vw`|

C.

Present Perfect tense

†Kvb KvR GB gvÎ †kl n‡q‡Q A_P Zvi dj GL‡bv eZ©gvb Av‡Q Giƒc †evSv‡j verb Gi

Present perfect tense nq|

Structure: Subject + have/has + verb Gi Past participle form + object.

I have done the work.

Subject Gi ci have/ has e‡m| verb me mgq past participle form G n‡e| Gi ci evKx

Ask| [ Note: He, she, It Ges Ab¨me Singular number hy³ Third person Gi c‡i has e‡m|

We, I, you I plural subject Gi ci have e‡m| ]

Use of the present perfect tense:

1. Just, Just now, already, yet, ever, never, lately, recently GB me¸‡jv †Kvb Sentence _vK‡j sentence Present perfect tense G n‡e| †hgbt I have already written the letter.

2. An action that happend more than once in the past. †hgbt

I have written six letters since morning.

This is the third time I have heard mila’s song.

3. AZx‡Z msNwUZ n‡q †Kvb KvR eZ©gv‡b P‡j‡Q Giƒc eySv‡Z Present perfect tense e¨eüZ

nq| †hgbt

He has been in London for there years.

D. Present perfect continuous tense

continuous tense e‡j| Structure: Subject + have been/has been + g~j verbGi ing + object . They have been playing football for two hours. cÖ_‡g Subject e‡m Gici have been/ has been; verb Gi mv‡_ Aek¨B ing n‡e| Gici evwK Ask| [ Note: Present perfect continuous tense Gi †ÿ‡Î e¨vcK mgq (Period of time) Gi c~‡e© for Ges wbw`©ó mgq (Point of time) Gi c~‡e© since e‡m| ]

†h tense Øviv †Kvb KvR c~‡e© ïay n‡q eZ©gv‡b Pj‡Z‡Q eySvq Zv‡K Present Prefect

Use of present perfect continuous tense:

1. We usually use Since/for for longer Period/version.

I have been reading for two hours.

I have been living here for three years.

2. The present perfect continuous tense are often used to show that and act is

frequently repeated. Zara has been phoning jenny euery night for the past week.

22

are often used to show that and act is frequently repeated. Zara has been phoning jenny

A. Past Indefinite tense

Past tense (AZxZKvj)

AZx‡Z †Kvb KvR n‡qwQj wKš‘ eZ©gv‡b Zvi †Kvb dj we`¨gvb †bB Giƒc cÖKvk Ki‡j verb

Gi past Indefinite tense nq| Structure : Subject + g~j verb Gi past form + object.

Use of the past Indefinite tense:

1. Yesterday, ago, foncy, it is time/ it is high time, long since, last night, wish BZ¨vw` hy³ sentence me mgq past Indefinite tense nq| †hgbt It is High time we decided the matter. I saw jony yesterday.

2. Awbw`©ó AZxZKvj †evSv‡Z Past Indefinite tense nq| †hgbt There lived a young

man in a village.

3.

AZxZKv‡ji †Kvb Af¨vZMZ Kg© eySv‡Z| †hgbt She always carried an umbrella.

4.

Since Gi cÖ_g Present Indefinite ev present tense n‡j, Gi c‡ii Ask Past Indefinite

n‡e|

†hgbt It is many year Since I came here.

Avevi c‡ii Ask Past Perfect n‡j Av‡Mi Ask Past Indefinite n‡e| †hgbt It was long since I had seen her last.

B.

Past Coutinuous tense

†Kvb KvR AZxZK‡j wKQz mgq a‡i Pj‡ZwQj eySv‡Z verb Gi Past continuous tense

nq|

Structure: Subject + was/were + g~j verb Gi mv‡_ ing ‡hvM + object. cÖ_‡g Subject n‡e| Gi ci was/were. verb Gi mv‡_ Aek¨B must ing ‡hvM Ki‡Z n‡e| Gi ci evKx Ask|

 

Use of the past continuous tense

1.

AZx‡Zi †Kvb KvR, Ae¯’v, †hUv `xN©Kvj ¯’vqx wQj, Ggb NUbv eY©bv Ki‡Z past continuous tense nq|

 

†hgbt

I was watching T.V at yesterday night.

2.

AZxZKv‡j 2wU KvR GKmv‡_ Pj‡ZwQj eySv‡Z 2wU B Past Continuous tense n‡e|

†hgbt

I was reading a book while my sister was writing a letter.

C. Past perfect tense

AZxZKv‡ji 2wU Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ †hwU Av‡M n‡qwQj †mwUB Past perfect tense and Ab¨wU Past

Indefinite tense. Structure: Subject + had + g~j verb Gi Past participle form + object. cÖ_‡g subject Gi ci had e‡m Ges g~j verbwU memgq past participle n‡e| Gi ci evKx Ask|

23

form + object. cÖ_‡g subject Gi ci had e‡m Ges g~j verb wU memgq past participle

[ Note: sentence G Before _vK‡j before Gi Av‡Mi Ask Past perfect Ges Before Gi c‡ii Ask past Indefinite n‡e| After _vK‡j; After Gi Av‡Mi Ask Past perfect n‡e|

Ex: Before the patient had died before the doctor came.

After

we reached the home after the sun had set. ]

Use of the past perfect tense:

1.

that Øviv AZxZKv‡ji `yÕwU Kvh©hy³ n‡j that Gi c‡ii Ask verb Gi Past perfect tense

nq| †hgbt

Nazma said that he had done the work.

2.

Hardly, scarcely w`‡q ev‡K¨ ïiæ n‡j hardly, scarcely Gi c‡ii past perfect tense n‡e|

†hgbt

We had hardly started when it bgan to rain

 

A_ev Hardly had we started when it bagan to rain

 

D.

Past perfect continuous tens

AZxZKv‡ji `ywU Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ A‡cÿvK…Z Av‡Mi KvRwU `xN© mgq a‡i Pj‡ZwQj eySv‡j verb

Gi Past perfect continuous tense nq| Structure: Subject + had been + g~j verb Gi †k‡l ing + Object. We had been playing cricket. Note: ev‡K¨ before _vK‡j before Gi Av‡Mi Ask past perfect continuous tense nq Ges c‡ii Ask past Indefinite nq|

 

Use of the past perfect continuous tense:

1.

G tense e¨env‡ii mgq wZbwU wRwbm †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e:

K) AZxZKv‡ji 2wU KvR n‡qwQj|

L) Zv‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU Av‡M Ges Ab¨wU c‡i n‡qwQj|

M) †hwU Av‡M n‡qwQj †mwU `xN© mgq a‡i ej‡ZwQj|

 

†hgbt

I had been reading when he came.

2.

Past perfect tense Gi repeated action eySv‡Z gv‡b past perfect tense Gi KvRwU eve evi NU‡j|

 

†hgbt

He had been trying to get her on the phone

 

Future tense (fwel¨ZKvj)

 

A.

Future Indefinite tense

fwel¨‡Z ‡Kvb KvR n‡e eySv‡j verb Gi Future Indefinite tense nq|

Structure: Subject + Shall/will + verb Gi present form + object

†hgbt

I shall do the work.

She will buy a pen. [ Note: ïaygvÎ I Gi ci shall e‡m Avi mewKQzi ci will e‡m|

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I shall do the work. She will buy a pen. [ Note: ïaygvÎ I Gi ci

Shall/will Gi ci g~j verbwU present form G n‡e| ]

Use of the future Indefinite tense:

1. fwel¨‡Zi cwiKíbvi Abyôvb †NvlYv Ges AvenvIqvi c~e©fvl, Le‡ii KvM‡R cÖKvk Kivi mgq Future Indefinite tense e¨envi nq| †hgbt The president will open the bank tomorrow. You will draw a map tomorrow.

2. Conditional sentence G Subordinate clause wU if + Present Indefinite tense n‡j Principle clause wU future Indefinite tense G nq| †hgbt If he comes, I shall go. If I drop this, it will broak.

B. Future continuous tense

fwel¨ZKv‡j †Kvb KvR msMwVZ n‡q wKQz mgq a‡i Pj‡Z _vK‡e eySv‡j verb Gi future

continuous tense nq|

Structure : Subject + shall be/ will be + g~j verb Gi mv‡_ ing ‡hvM + object. [Note: I Gi ci shall be evKx me¸‡jvi mv‡_ will be nq Ges verb Gi mv‡_ Aek¨B ing †hvM Ki‡Z n‡e|

I shall be reading the book.

we will be doing the work. ]

Use of the future continuous tense:

1.

verb Gi †Kvb KvR fwel¨‡Z cyiæ mg‡qi meUv a‡i Pj‡Z _vK‡e eySv‡j future continuous tense n‡e|

†hgbt

I shall be reading all morning.

2.

fwel¨‡Zi †Kvb KvR wbw`©ó ev e¨vcK mg‡qi c~‡e© Avi¤¢ n‡q c‡i I Pj‡Z _vK‡e eySv‡Z|

†hgbt

In a few minutes the chairman of the meeting will be arriving.

3.

cwiKíbv ev wba©vwiZ e¨e¯’vq Askiƒ‡c fwel¨‡Z †Kvb KvR Pj‡Z _vK‡e eySv‡Z|

†hgbt

He will be reading date every night next month.

C. Future perfect tense

fwel¨ZKv‡ji `yÕwU Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ †h KvRwU A‡cÿvK…Z c~‡e© †kl n‡q _vK‡e eySvq †mwU Future

perfect tense.

Structure : Subject + shall have/ will have + g~j verb Gi past participle form + object.

I shall have reading the book by 4 pm

Use of the future perfect tense:

1. fwel¨‡Zi 2wU Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ †h KvRwU Av‡M †kl n‡e †mwU future perfect tense Ges Ab¨wU present indefinite tense G nq|

†hgbt

I shall have done the work befor my father comes.

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perfect tense Ges Ab¨wU present indefinite tense G nq| †hgbt I shall have done the work

We will have reached the station before the rain leaves.

2. KL‡bv KL‡bv fwel¨Z m¤¢vebv eyS‡Z verb Gi Future Perfect tense nq|

†hgbt

Jony will have heard the news.

3. fwel¨Z †Kvb wbw`©ó mg‡q ev mg‡qi c~‡e© †Kvb KvR †kl n‡e Ges Zvi djvdj we`¨gvb _vK‡e Giƒc eyS‡Z verb Gi future perfect tense nq|

†hgbt

Suchi will have finished the work by five O’clock. [mywP 5Uvi g‡a¨ KvRwU †kl K‡i _vK‡e]

D. Future perfect continuous tense fwel¨ZKv‡j †Kvb KvR †Kvb wbw`©ó mgq †kl nIqvi c~e© ch©šÍ Pj‡Z _vK‡e eySv‡j A_ev `yÕwU Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ GKwU KvR fwel¨‡Z ïiæ Pj‡Z _vK‡e Giƒc eySv‡j verb Gi future perfect continuous tense nq|

Structure: Subject + shall have been / will have been + g~j verb Gi mv‡_ ing + object.

†hgbt

I shall have been reading for two hours.

[ Note: Future perfect continuous tense Gi e¨envi †bB ej‡jB P‡j| Gi ci wKQz Example wb‡P †`Iqv njt

4. evev Avmvi c~‡e© Avwg KvRwU Ki‡Z _vKe| I shall have been doing the work before my father comes.

5. ‡m wWwMÖ cvIqvi c~‡e© Pvi eQi XvKvq co‡Z _vK‡e

He will have been studying for four years in Dhaka when he gets his degree.

6. AvMvgx wW‡m¤^i ch©šÍ Avgiv GLv‡b wZb eQi evm Ki‡Z _vKe By next December, we

shall have been living here for three years. ]

Exercise

1. Re-write the following passage in the present tense:

After breakfast we went to see the famous shat Gombuj Mosque buill by ulgh Khan Jahan Ali and paid respect to the departed soul. Its designs and architecture impressed us all. we returned to our camp after an hour. After cooleing our foods we ate them with pleasure.

2. Re-write the following passage in the past tense:

Mr. Kabir, the headmaster of our school teacher us English. He has a strong, clear and pleasant voice. He can make any grammatical problem easy. He knows well how to increase the curious of the students. He speaks English will a foreign accent.

3. Read the following passage and re-write it in the future tense.

An honest man is true to his world. he doesn’t deviate from thepath of honesty. He knows that towe peace consists in honesty. So, he doesnot fall victim to any gread. He has no ambition for worldly things.

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that towe peace consists in honesty. So, he doesnot fall victim to any gread. He has

Suffix & Prefixt

Suffix & Prefix English Grammar Gi GKUy LyeB ÿz`ª wKš‘ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ask, suffix I prefix Gi e¨envi Rvb‡j Avgiv GKwU k‡ãi wewfbœ e¨envi Ki‡Z cvie| English Gi `ÿZv e„w×i Rb¨ Suffix I Prefix m¤ú‡K© aviYv _vKv ¸iæZ¡c~Y©|

Prefixt t

Prefix kãwU‡K hw` Avgiv †f‡½ †dwj Z‡e Avgiv cvB Pre + fix †hLv‡b

Pre A_© nj ÔAv‡MÕ Avi fix A_© Ôemv‡bvÕ, myZivs Prefix A_© ÔAv‡Mi emv‡bvÕ| English k‡ãi Av‡M Avgiv wewfbœ iKg Alphabet ev Alphabet mgwó e¨envi K‡i GKB Word Gi wewfbœ A_© ˆZix Ki‡Z cvwi|

For Example: Happy A_© nj myLx| wKš‘ ÔHappy’- Word Gi Av‡M Un- GB `ywU Alphabet ‡hvM K‡i Unhappy nq hvi A_© AmyLx|

More Example:

Word

PrefixWord New Word

Word Prefix New Word

New Word

Cultural

MultiCultural Multi-cultural

Multi-cultural

work

Overwork Over-Work

work Over Over-Work

Over-Work

Space

CyberSpace Cyber-space

Space Cyber Cyber-space

Cyber-space

Market

SuperMarket Super market

Super market

 
 
 

Suffix: Avgiv †hgb Prefix m¤ú‡K© †R‡bwQ †Zgwbf‡e Suffix nj hLb wKQz alphabet ev alphabet mgwó‡K GKwU Avgiv †hgb Prefix m¤ú‡K© †R‡bwQ †Zgwbf‡e Suffix nj hLb wKQz alphabet ev alphabet mgwó‡K GKwU Word Gi c‡i †hvM K‡i bZzb kã MVb Kiv nq Zv‡K Suffix e‡j|

For Example: Child A_© nj ev”Pv| wKš‘ Gi c‡i -ish e¨envi K‡i Avgiv hw` bZzb kã cvB Zv nj Childish hvi A_© ev”Pvmyjf|

More Example:

Word

SuffixWord New Word

New WordWord Suffix

Taste

lessTaste tasteless

tastelessTaste less

Idol

ize/iseIdol Idolise/Idolize

Idolise/IdolizeIdol ize/ise

like

ablelike likeable

likeablelike able

Dc‡i Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB †h, Word Gi †k‡l Suffix hy³ Ki‡j gv‡S gv‡S Word Gi aiY cwieZ©b n‡q hvq| †hgbt like nj Verb| wKš‘ -able hy³ nIqvi ci likeable nj hv nj adjective| Avevi Idol nj Noun wKš‘ Idolize nj verb.

27

| wKš‘ - able hy³ nIqvi ci likeable nj hv nj adjective | Avevi Idol nj
 

There are a short list of some suffix & prefix

 

Word

Prefix

New Word

Word

Suffix

New word

agree

dis

disagree

comfort

able

comfortable

appear

dis

Disappear

port

able

portable

legal

Il

Illegal

comic

al

comical

logical

Il

Illogical

Big

er

Bigger

Possible

im

impossible

strong

er

stronger

Proper

im

improper

strong

est

strangest

hale

en

exhale

tiny

est

tiniest

Plosion

ex

explosion

beauty

ful

beautiful

action

in

in action

ineate

ful

Ineatful

lisible

in

invisible

happy

ily

happily

lead

mis

mis lead

act

ing

acting

Place

mis

misplace

show

ing

showing

fiction

non

Non fiction

friend

less

friendless

sence

non

nonsence

firele

less

fireless

fix

pre

prefix

clear

ly

clearly

appear

Dis

Disappear

hour

ly

hourly

active

pro

proactive

mess

y

messy

1. He was sitting

Suffix Prefix Exercise

in

his seat on the train. (comfort).

2. There was a

3. He was acting in a very

4. This word is very difficult to spell, and even worse, it’s

5. He’s lost his book again. I don’t know where he has

6. You shouldn’t have done that! It was very

7. He didn’t pass his exam. He was

8. Some of the shanty towns are dreadfully

9. The team that he supported were able to win the

light coming from the window. (green)

way. (child)

(pronounce) it this time. (place) of you. (think)

for the second time. (succeed) (crowd)

(Champion)

10.There is a very high

11.I couldn’t find any 12.He wants to be a

13.You need to be a highly trained 14.There were only a

15.She arrived late at work because she had 16.The road was too narrow, so they had to

17.He was accused of

that they will be late. (likely) in his theory. (weak) when he grows up. (mathematics)

to understand this report. (economy) of people at the match. (hand)

(sleep)

it. (wide)

documents. (false)

28

(mathematics) to understand this report. (economy) of people at the match. (hand) (sleep) it. (wide) documents.

18.They had to 19.He needed to

the lion before they could catch it. (tranquil) he temperature. (regular) because of the strike. (stop) motivation, organization and revision to learn

(practice)

20. There was a three-hour

21.You need a

English. (combine) 22.I try not to go to the supermarket at 5 pm because it’s

of

23.It is very

to run air-conditioning with the door open. (economy)

24.His

has been expected for the last half an hour. (arrive)

25.She looked at her

26.I told him my plan but he wasn’t very

27.She had no 28.He spent half an hour

29.Failing her driving test was a great

30.He decided to study 31.The film was 32.There was the need for 33.I don’t like him at all; He’s so 34.The company has over 500

35.The new manager was very efficient and

36.It really isn’t mine. I think that you are

37.The rate of

38.with the real plan, the rate of 39.She looked at him 40.The party was

41.The film was so 42.The film was terrible, I felt really 43.I think that there has been a

44.The bacteria are so small that you need a

45.Have you seen that new

46.The event was totally 47.I arrived late for work because I had

48.There is a small 49.He was

in the mirror. (reflect)

(receive)

of going to see him. (intend)

to herself with the building. (familiar) to her. (appoint)

at university. (journal) good. (surprise) construction when the fighting stopped . (war) (satisfy) (employ)

(business)

(take)

in Brazil has been rising steadily. (employ)

in brazil has fallen. (inflate)

, and started to cry. (happy)

, everything went wrong. (disaster)

that we left before the end. (bore)

(bore)

?

, I didn’s order this. (Understand) to see them. (scope) He`s very funny. (comedy)

It was terrible. (organize) (sleep)

explaining the new traffic code. (book) He wouldn`t change his mind. (compromise)

Punctuation (weivgwPý)t-

29

(sleep) explaining the new traffic code. (book) He wouldn`t change his mind. (compromise) Punctuation ( weivgwPý

Punctuation k‡ãi A_© weivg ev wekÖg| ¯^Ztm~Î fv‡e K_v ejvi mgq Avgiv GKUvbv K_v ej‡Z cvwi bv| Avgv‡`i _vg‡Z nq| †Zgwb wKQz covi mgq I Avgv‡`i mvg‡Z nq| G †_‡K hvIqv wRnŸv ev k¦vmh‡š¿i GKwU ¯^vfveK cÖwµqv G weiwZ †LqvjLywk gZ bv K‡i wbqg ‡g‡b Ki‡j GKw`‡K †hgb D”Pvi‡b Kó nq bv| Aciw`‡K fvlv kÖæwZgayi nq| ZvB ev‡K¨i A_©‡K my¯úófv‡e †evSvi Rb¨ ev‡K¨i †Kv_vq KZUzKz _vg‡Z n‡e| Zvi GKwU wbw`©ó wbqg Av‡Q Ges KZ¸‡jv mvs‡KwZK wP‡ýi mvnv‡h¨ G wbqgv¸‡jv cÖKvk Kiv nq| Gme wP‡ý¸‡jv nj Punctuation ev weigwPý|

Punctuation Gi e¨envi h_vh_ bv Rvb‡j ev‡K¨i A_© mwVK fv‡e eySv hvq bv Ges evK¨ kÖæwZgayi nq bv| Punctuation Gi mwVK e¨envi Kiv bv n‡j A‡bK mgq ev‡K¨i A_©B cwieZ©b n‡qB hvq| ZvB Punctuation m¤ú‡©K aviYv _vKv Avek¨K|

wb‡P QKKv‡i Bs‡iwR‡Z e¨eüZ Punctuation Mark ¸‡jv ‡`Lv‡bv njt

1.

Full stop

(.)

1 †m‡KÛ _vg‡Z nq

2.

Semi-colon

;

1 (GK) ejvi wظY mgq

3.

Comma

,

1 (GK) ej‡Z †h mgq cÖ‡qvRb

4.

Question Mark

?

1 †m‡KÛ _vg‡Z nq

5.

Exclamation

!

1 †m‡KÛ _vg‡Z nq

6.

Colon

t

1 †m‡KÛ _vg‡Z nq

7.

Dash

-

1 †m‡KÛ _vg‡Z nq

8.

Inverted Commas

ÒÓ

ÔGKÕ D”Pvi‡b †h mgq jv‡M

9.

Apostrophe

Õ

_vgvi cÖ‡qvRb †bB

10.

Hyphen

Ñ

_vgvi cÖ‡qvRb ‡bB

Punctuation Mark mg~‡ni e¨envit

Full stop [`uvwo (.)]t ev‡K¨i cwimgvwß †evSv‡Z Full stop e¨envi Kiv nq | †hgbt Boiled rice is our staple food. (fvZ Avgv‡`i cÖavb Lv`¨|) Semi-colon (;)t Kg A‡cÿv †ekx weiwZi cÖ‡qvRb n‡j †mwg‡Kvjb e‡m| †hgbt Too err is human; To forgive is divine. She looks wise; She has bright eyes.

Comma (,)t (i) ev‡K¨ covi mgq my¯úóZv ev A_© wefvM †`Lv‡bvi Rb¨ †hLv‡b ¯^í weiwZi cÖ‡qvRb nq, †mLv‡b Kgv e¨eüZ nq| †hgbt Where there is a will, there is a way. (ii) Date (ZvwiL) Address (wVKvbv) Place (¯’vb) BZ¨vw`‡K Avjv`vfv‡e cÖKvk Ki‡Z Comma e¨eüZ nq| †hgbt Liza was born on 2 nd February, 1997 Shanto lives in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

30

Ki‡Z Comma e¨eüZ nq| †hgbt Liza was born on 2 n d February, 1997 Shanto lives

(iii)

KviI Dw³ mivmwi ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ Ki‡Z PvB‡j Dw³i c~‡e© Kgv e¨eüZ nq| †hgbt Shima said, “I can dance”

(iv) m‡¤^va‡bi ci Kgv emv‡Z nq| †hgbt Farzana, Come here

Question Mark [cÖkœ‡evaK wPý (?)]t ev‡K¨ ‡Kvb wKQz wR‡Ám Kiv n‡j ev‡K¨i †k‡l Question Mark e‡m †hgbt Where she lives? Do you know him?

Exclamation Mark [we¯§qm~PK wPý (!)]t †Kvb Sentence Øviv hw` Av‡`k, fq, wP¯§q, Djøvm ev g‡bi †Kvb AvKw¯§K Av‡eM cÖKvwkZ nq Zvn‡j ev‡K¨i †k‡l Exclamation mark e‡m| †hgbt Hurrah ! we have won What a beautiful bird it is! Alas ! You have failed

Colon (:) t †Kvb ZvwjKv cÖKvk Ki‡Z Colon e¨eüZ nq| †hgbt The job calls for skills in the following areas: proofing, editing, and database administration.

Dash (`xN© ms‡hvM wPý) t D`vnviY ev `„óvšÍ cÖ‡qv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î W¨vm e¨eüZ nq| †hgb- He is a good student.

Inverted Commas (D`aiY wPý) t KviI K_v ûeû Zz‡j ai‡Z Inverted Comma e¨eüZ nq| †hgb- Hasan says “ I want to play football”

Apostrophe (‡jvc wPý) t (i) Noun mg~‡ni Possessive form MVb Ki‡Z apostrophe e¨eüZ nq| †hgb- Rahima’s father is a teacher in khulna.

(ii) mgq D‡jøL Ki‡Z apostrophe e¨eüZ nq| †hgb- It is 4 O’clock

(iii) Contraction (kã ms‡ÿcb) ev `y‡Uv kã‡K ms‡ÿ‡c †jLvi †ÿ‡Î apostrophe (Õ) e¨eüZ nq| †hgb-

Don’t distrub him. I’m your uncle.

Hyphen (ms‡hvM wPý) t

[Do + Not = Don’t]( Õ ) e¨eüZ nq| †hgb- Don’t distrub him. I’m your uncle. Hyphen ( ms‡hvM wPý

[I +am= I’m]( Õ ) e¨eüZ nq| †hgb- Don’t distrub him. I’m your uncle. Hyphen ( ms‡hvM wPý

31

nq| †hgb- Don’t distrub him. I’m your uncle. Hyphen ( ms‡hvM wPý ) t [Do +

(i)

nvB‡db GKwU Word ‡K Avjv`v Ki‡Z wKsev `yB‡hi AwaK MVb Ki‡Z Word ‡K hy³ Ki‡Z e¨eüZ nq| †hgb- I like home-made cakes. GKB fv‡e Full-time, well-known, one-eyed etc.

(ii)

21 n‡Z 99 ch©šÍ mKj Compound number (†hŠwMK msL¨v) wjL‡Z nB‡db e¨eüZ nq|

†hgb-

My grandfather is sixty- five We need thirty-eight packets more. ev‡K¨i A_© m½wZ iÿvi Rb¨ Punctuation weivg wPýi weKí †bB| ZvB weivg wPý m¤ú‡K© cwi¯‹vi aviYv _vKv Avek¨K|

Exerciset

Question: 1. Thomas Alva Edison was born in 1984 in Ohio America as a little boy he was very inquisitive very early in life he showed that he was full of curiosity a quality which is so important to inventors.

Question: 2. How much do you want said the mayor A thousand guilders said the pied piper all right said the mayor we’ll pay you a thousand guilders. When will you set to work now lied the pied piper.

Answer: 1. Thomas Alva Edison was born in 184 in Ohio, America as a little boy, he was very inquisitive very early in life, he showed that he was full of curiosity. a quality which is so important to inventors.

Answer: 2. “How much do you want said?” the mayor “A thousand guilders,” said the pied piper “all right” said the mayor “we’ll pay you a thousand guilders. When will you set to work?” “now”, lied the pied piper.

32

said the mayor “we’ll pay you a thousand guilders. When will you set to work?” “now”,

Transformation of sentence

Transformation of sentence ev Changing sentence nj GKwU ev‡K¨i A_©‡K wVK †i‡L MVb‡K Ab¨ MV‡b iæcvšÍwiZ Kiv, D`vniY ¯^iƒc ejv hvq ÒwfÿK‡K `vb KivÓ Gi MVb cwieZ©b Ki‡j nq Ò†h wfÿv Pvq, Zv‡K `vb KiÓ wKš‘ evK¨ `ywU jÿ¨ Ki Gi A_© wVK GKB i‡q‡Q| GLb Avgiv Bs‡iRx evK¨‡K Kxfv‡e iæcvšÍwiZ Kie Zv wkLe|

Degree cwieZ©‡bi wbqgt Degree ‡K 3 fv‡M fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv nj-

1. Positive Degree -> ‡Kvb e¨w³ ev e¯‘i Zzjbv eySv‡Z|

2. Superlative Degree -> `yÕGi AwaK e¨w³, e¯‘i Zzjbv eySv‡Z|

3. Comparative Degree -> `yRb Gi g‡a¨ Zzjbv eySv‡Z|

Degree cwieZ©b ej‡Z GB wZb cÖKvi‡K GKwU †_‡K Avi GKwU iæcv‡šÍi eySv‡q, wZbwU Diagram Gi gva¨‡g Avgiv Degree cwieZ©b Kiv wkLe-

Rules: 1

Gi gva¨‡g Avgiv Degree cwieZ©b Kiv wkLe- Rules: 1 i) Very few hy³ Positive Degree, Superlative

i) Very few hy³ Positive Degree, Superlative Kivi mgq One of the Ges Comparative Kivi mgq Than most other e‡m|

ii) Positive Gi †ÿ‡Î Very few _vK‡j Plural verb e‡m|

D`vniYt Positive: Very few city in Bangladesh are as big as Dhaka. Superlative: Dhaka is one of the biggest city in Bangladesh. Comperative: Dhaka is bigger than most City in Bangladesh. GLv‡b Degree cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ big-bigger-biggest Gi cwieZ©b¸‡jv jÿ¨ Ki‡Z n‡e|

i)

Rules: 2

Gi cwieZ©b¸‡jv jÿ¨ Ki‡Z n‡e| i) Rules: 2 No other hy³ Positive Degree, †K Superlative Kivi

No other hy³ Positive Degree, †K Superlative Kivi mgq Adjective Gi superlative form Ges Comparative Kivi mgq Than any/all other e‡m|

D`vniYt Positive: No other city in Bangladesh are as big as Dhaka. Superlative: Dhaka is bigger than all other city in Bangladesh Comperative: Dhaka is biggest City in Bangladesh. GBfv‡e Avgiv Degree ¸‡jv‡K e„ËvKv‡i cwieZ©b Ki‡Z cvie|

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Dhaka is biggest City in Bangladesh. GBfv‡e Avgiv Degree ¸‡jv‡K e„ËvKv‡i cwieZ©b Ki‡Z cvie| 33

Rules: 3

1) Comparative †_‡K Positive

i) Sub †K Obj Ges Obj †K Sub Ki‡Z nq| ii)Verb †K Negative Ki‡Z n‡e Ges as+ Positive Degree + as em‡e| iii) Than D‡V hv‡e| Comperative: He is taller than I Positive: I am not as tall as he 2) Positive †_‡K Comparative

i) As

as

hy³ Positive Degree hw` Affirmative Sentence nq Z‡e Verb

Gi ci not e‡m, Comparative form Gi ci than e‡m|

ii)As

as

hy³ Positive Degree hw` Negative Sentence nq Z‡e Not D‡V

hvq, Comparative form Gi ci than e‡m| Positive: He is as tall as his brother. Comperative: His brother is not taller than he.

Practice:

1. Cox’s Bazar is the longest sea-beach in the Word. (Positive)

2. Winter is the best season to visit Cox’s Bazar (Comparative)

3. Rana is one of the meritorious boys in our class (Positive)

4. No Other boys in our class is as popular as Rana (Superlative)

Answer:

1. No other sea-beach in the Word is as long as Cox’s Bazar.

2. Winter is better than any other season to visit Cox’s Bazar.

3. Very few boys in our class are as meritorious as rana.

4. He is the most popular of all the boys in our class.

Sentence cwieZ©‡bi wbqg-

Avgiv mveB Rvwb Sentence cuvP cÖKvi

1. Assertive Sentence

wee„wZg~jK evK¨ cÖkœ‡evaK evK¨ Av‡`k/Ay‡ivag~j evK¨

evK¨ cÖkœ‡evaK evK¨ Av‡`k/Ay‡ivag~j evK¨ 2. Interrogative Sentence 3. Imperative Sentence 4. Optative

2. Interrogative Sentence

3. Imperative Sentence

4. Optative Sentence

5. Exclamatory Sentence

Sentence 4. Optative Sentence 5. Exclamatory Sentence Avkx©ev`g~jK evK¨ we¯§qm~PK evK¨ 1. Assertive Sentence
Sentence 4. Optative Sentence 5. Exclamatory Sentence Avkx©ev`g~jK evK¨ we¯§qm~PK evK¨ 1. Assertive Sentence
Sentence 4. Optative Sentence 5. Exclamatory Sentence Avkx©ev`g~jK evK¨ we¯§qm~PK evK¨ 1. Assertive Sentence

Avkx©ev`g~jK evK¨

we¯§qm~PK evK¨Sentence 5. Exclamatory Sentence Avkx©ev`g~jK evK¨ 1. Assertive Sentence `yB cÖKvi i) Affirmative ii)

1. Assertive Sentence `yB cÖKvi

i) Affirmative

ii) Negative

Assertive Sentence `yB cÖKvi i) Affirmative ii) Negative nu¨v †evaK bv †evaK i) Affirmative Sentence G
Assertive Sentence `yB cÖKvi i) Affirmative ii) Negative nu¨v †evaK bv †evaK i) Affirmative Sentence G

nu¨v †evaK

bv †evaK

i) Affirmative Sentence G Auxiliary verb Gi mv‡_ not †hvM K‡i Negative Ki‡Z nq| Auxiliary verb bv _vK‡j do not, does not, did not ‡hvM Ki‡Z nq| D`vt

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not †hvM K‡i Negative Ki‡Z nq| Auxiliary verb bv _vK‡j do not, does not, did not

Affir: Farjana is a good Girl. Neg: Farjana is not a bed girl jÿbxq Aff †K Neg Kivi ciI wKš‘ GLv‡b A_© GKB i‡q‡Q|

Auxiliary verb Qvov D`vniYt

i) Hafij Played Football

= Hafij did not play football (Past+ ence n‡j did not)

ii) Salma Cooks rice

= Salma does not cook rice (Third person singular n‡j does not)

iii) I eat rice

= I do not eat rice (Present tense n‡j do not)

wbw`©ó wKQz cwieZ©b

 

Negative

Affirmative

 

1. None but (e¨w³) /not more /less than. Ex: None but Allah can help us

1. Only/alone Ex: Only Allah can help us.

2.

Con not help + ing/ can not but + base form

2.

Must/ have to + verb Gi g~j form

Ex: I can not but g there

 

Ex: I must/ have to go there

3.

Could not help + ing/ could not but+ base form

3.

had to + verb Gi g~j form

Ex: I had to go there

Ex: I Could not but go there

4.

Not only

but

also

4.

Both

and

Ex: Not only popy but also Jesmin

Ex: Both popy and Jesmin came

 

come here

 

here

5.

So

that

5.

too

to

Ex: He is so weak that he cannot walk.

Ex: He is too weak to walk.

6.

No sooner had

than

6.

As soon as

Ex: no sooner had he arrived the we

Ex. As soon as he arrived we

 

welcomed him

 

welcomed him

 

7.

There is/was no + noun+ without

7.

Fvery/ All+nous + have/ has/ had

Ex: There is no girl without a soft heart

Ex: Every girl has soft heart.

8.

There is no + noun + but/ who/

8.

Every/all+ noun+ other verb

which Ex: There is no mother but loves her

Ex: Every mother loves her child

 

child

Assertive

which Ex: There is no mother but loves her Ex: Every mother loves her child  

Interrogative

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which Ex: There is no mother but loves her Ex: Every mother loves her child  

1. Assertive sentence †K Interrogative Kivi mgq Auxiliary Verb †K Sub Gi Av‡M ewm‡q w`‡j nq Avi Auxiliary Verb bv _vK‡j Tense Abyhvqx Subject Gi Av‡M do/does/did emv‡j nq|

D`vt

1.

Farjana is a good girl.

=

Is Farjana a good girl?

2.

Hafij played football.

=

Did Hafij play football?

3.

Salma Cooks rice.

=

Does Salma cook rice?

4.

I eat rice

=

Do I eat rice?

jÿbxq Interrogative sentence Gi ci Aek¨B cÖkœ‡evaK wPý (?) emv‡Z n‡e|

2. Assertive