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# A.

Pre
sent
Tense
(Time)
a. Sim
ple
Present Tense (Time Simple)
Example:
(+) Niken Reads book
everyday
(-) Niken does not Read book
everyday
(?) Read book Niken does
everyday ?
He does Yes / No He does not
(does)
For I, We, You, They = do
He, She, It = Does
Example sentence:
(+) She is a new people here.
(+) He plays football every
morning
(-) She is not a new people
here.
(-) He does not playing
football every morning.
(?) Is she a new people here?
(?) How playing football every
morning?

b. Pr
esent

## Continuous Tense (Running

Time Now)
(+) S + Be + V1 + ing + O / C
(+) They are now playing
(-) S + Be + not + V1 + ing +
O/C
(-) They are not playing now
(?) Be + S + V1 + ing + O / C
(?) Badmintoon palaying} Are
They Now?
They are yes / no They are not
For I = am
They, we, you = are
He, She, It = Is
Example in the sentence:
(+) He is playing badminton
now
(-) He is not playing
(?) Is he playing badminton
now.

## c. Present Perfect (Perfect

Time Now)
Example:
(+) You have eaten mine.
(-) She has not been to Rome
(?) Have you finished?
d. Present Perfect Continuous
Tense (Running Time Perfect
Present)
Example:
(+) She has been going to
Malang since evening.
(+) We have been riding a
horse for three days
(-) She has not been going to
Malang since evening.
(-) We have not been riding a
horse for three days.
(?) Has she been going to
Malaysia?
(?) Have been riding a horse
He for three days?
2. Past Tense (Past Time)
a. Simple Past Tense (Simple
Past Time)
Example:
(+) We were at school
yesterday
(-) We were not at school
yesterday
(?) We were at school
yesterday?
For I, He, She, It = Was
They, we, you = were
Example:
(+) I saw a good film last
night
(+) He Came here last month
(-) I saw not a good film last
night
(-) He CAME not last month
(?) I Saw a good film last night
(?) He Came here last month

## b. Past Continuous Tense

(Past Running Time)
Example:
(+) He was watching
television all afternoon last
week
(+) They were talking about
sports when I met him
(-) He Was not watching
television all afternoon last
week
(-) They Were not talking
about sports when I met him
(?) Was He watching
television all afternoon last
week
(?) They Were talking about
sports when I met him
c. Past Perfect Tense (Past
Perfect Time)
Example:
(+) When my brother arrived,
I had painted my bike cycle
(+) The ship had left before I
arrived
(-) When my brother arrived, I
hadn't painted my bike cycle
(-) The ship left before I
(?) Had I cycle my bike, when
my brother arrived?
(?) Had the ship left before I
arrived?
d. Past Perfect Continuous
Tense (Past Perfect Running
Time)
Example:
(+) They had been living there
for two weeks
(+) When They washed my
(-) They hadn't been living
there for two weeks
(-) When They washed my

## (?) Had They been living there

for two weeks?
(?) When They washed my
3. Future Tense (Will Come)
a. Simple Future Tense (Time
Will Come Simplified)
Example:
(+) I will visit to Yogyakarta
tomorrow.
(+) Girl friend he will met by
seven o'clock
(?) Will he go to America next
month?
(+) President shall at
Nederland the day after
tomorrow.
(-) President shall not at
Nederland the day after
tomorrow.
(?) Shall President at
Nederland the day after
tomorrow?
b. Future Continuous Tense
(Running Time to Come)
Example:
(+) I will be writing a comic.
(+) I will be studying
tomorrow night.
(-) I will not writing a comic.
(-) I will not be studying
tomorrow night.
(?) Will I be writing a comic?
(?) Will I be studying
tomorrow night?
c. Future Perfect Tense
(Perfect Time to Come)
Example:
(+) Iwill havefinishedby 10am.
(+) You will have forgotten me
by then.
(-) She will not have gone to
school.
(-) We will not have left.
(?) Will you have arrived?
(?) Will they have receivedit?

## d. Future Perfect Continuous

Tense (Perfect Running Time
to Come)
Example:
(+) I will have been reading a
news paper.
(+) He will have been
listening music.
(-) I will have not been
reading a news paper.
(-) He will have not a music
listening.
(?) Will I have been riding a
news paper?
(?) Will He have a music
listening?
4. Future Past Tense (Will
Come In Time Past)
a. Future Past Tense (Time
Will Come In Time Past)
Example:
(+) He would come if you
invited him.
(+) They would buy a home
the previous day.
(-) He would not come if
invited him.
(-) They would not buy a home
the previous day.
(?) Would He come if invited
him?
(?) Would They buy a home
the previous day?
b. Future Past Continuous
Tense (Time Will Happen At a
time when Old Medium)
Example:
(+) I should be swimming at
this time the Following day.
(+) I shall be sliping at 10
o'clock tomorrow.
(-) I should not be swimming
at this time the Following day.
(-) I shalln't be sleeping at 10
o'clock tomorrow.
(?) Shall I be swimming at this

## time the Following day?

(?) Shall I be sleeping at10
o'clock tomorrow?
c. Past Perfect Future Tense
(Time Will It End In Past Time)
Example:
(+) He would have graduated
if he had studies hard.
(+) Niken will have studied
moth by the end of this week.
(-) He would not have gone if
he had met his darling
(-) Niken will have not studied
month by the end of this week
(?) Would He have gone if he
had met his darling?

## (?) Will Niken have studied

month by the end of this
week?

## d. Future Past Perfect

Continuous Tense
(Time Is Already Are
Underway In Past Time)
Example:
Rianawati would have been
speaking English for two
years
(+) Mrs. Niken Yuanita would
have been walking here for
seventeen years
(+) Anita would have been
speaking English for two
years
(-) Mrs. Niken Yuanita would
not have been walking here

## for seventeen year

(-) Anita would not have been
speaking English for two
years
(?) Would Mrs. Niken Yuanita
have been walking here for
seventeen years?
(?) Would have been speaking
English Anita for two years?

TENSES
1.

## This tense used to talk about the action

that running out or planning in the future.

## Simple Preset Tense

Use

Formula

(+)= S+is/am/are+V.ing+O
This tense used to explain of fact, habit,
and event which happen now.

(-)= S+is/am/are+not+V1+O
(?)=

Formula

(+)= S+V1(es/s)+O
(-)=

S+Do/does+Not+V1+O

is/am/are+S+V1+O

(?)= Do/does+S+V1+O

Example Tense

Positive sentence:

Negative sentence:

Interrogative sentence:

Positive sentence:

Negative sentence:

Example Tense

## We agrees with the speakers opinion

Interrogative sentence:

3.
2.

Use

Use

## This tense use to give expression to

something activity or situation that already
begins in the last time and finish has been
done in the past time or see continues until
now.

Formula

(+) S+have/has+V3+O

## He have been going to Indrayanti beach for my holiday sin

Example Tense

Positive sentence:

## I have lived in Pedan for 3 months

Negative sentence:

Interrogative sentence:

## Have I lived in Pedan for 3 months?

Interrogative sentence:

5.

Use

## This tense used to explain event that

happen in the past time.

## I have not lived in Pedan for 3 months

Negative sentence:

## He have not been going to Indrayanti beach for my holiday

2010

(-) S+have/has+not+V3+O
(?) Have/has+S+V3+O

Positive sentence:

Formula

(+) S+V2+O
(-) S+did+not+V2+O
(?) Did+S+V2+O

4.
Present Perfect Continuous
Tense

Use

## This tense uses to talk about action that

already finish in the past time or the action
already begin and still continue until now.

Formula

(?) Have/has+S+been+V.ing+O

Example Tense

Example Tense

Positive sentence:

## He went to the party last night

Negative sentence:

## He did not go to the party last night

(+) S+have/has+been+V.ing+O
(-) S+have/has+not+been+V.ing

Interrogative sentence:

6.

Use

## This tense used to say what were in the

middle of doing at a particular moment in
the past.

Formula

## The train had not left before I arrived

(+) S+was/were+V.ing+O
(-) S+was/were+not+V.ing+O
(?) Was/were+S+V.ing+O

Example Tense

Positive sentence:

8.

Use

## The past perfect continuous tense is like

the past perfect tense, but it expresses
longer actions in the past before another
action in the past.

Formula

Interrogative sentence:

Example Tense

Use

Positive tense

## The past perfect tense expresses action in

the past before another action in the past.

## Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Negative sentence:

## Was he playing football yesterday?

7.

Interrogative sentence:

## He was not playing football yesterday

Negative sentence:

Formula

## She had not been cooking a vegetable when he come

Example Tense

Positive sentence:

## The train had left before I arrived

Negative sentence:

Interrogative sentence:

9.

Use

## This tense used to explain a certain actions

that happen in the future.

Formula

## I will be writing a comic

(+) S+Will+V1
(-) S+Will+not+V1

(?) Will+S+V1?

Example Tense

Positive tense

Negative tense

Interrogative

Negative tense

## 11. Future Perfect Tense

President will not at Nederland the day after tomorrow
Use
Interrogative
This tense is used when we talk about the
Will President at Nederland he day after tomorrow?past in the future.

Formula

(+) S+Will+Have+V3
(-) S+Will+not+Have+V3
10. Future Continuous Tense

Use

## This tense used to expressing action that

will happen in a certain time in the future.

(?) Will+S+Have+V3

Formula

(+) S+Will+be+V.ing
(-) S+Will+not+be+V.ing
(?) Will+S+be+V.ing

Example Tense

Positive tense

Example Tense

Positive tense

Negative tense

course

Interrogative

## Will this time they have finished my English course?

Formula

(+) S+Would+V1
(-) S+would+not+ V1
12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Use

## The Future perfect continuous tense used

to talk about a long action before some
point future.

(?) Would+S+V1

Formula

(+) S+Will+Have+been+V.ing
(-) S+Will+not+Have+been+V.ing
(?) Will+S+Have+been+V.ing

Example Tense

Positive tense

Example Tense

Positive tense

Negative tense

Interrogative

## Oka will have been drawing the sketch

Negative tense
14. Past Future Continuous Tense

Use

Interrogative

## Past future continuous tense tell an action

would be in progress in the past.

Formula

## (+) S+Was/were+Going to be+V.ing

(-) S+Was/were+not+Going to be+V.ing
13. Past Future Tense

Use

## This tense is used to express the events

that will be done, but in the past, not the
present.

Example Tense

Positive tense

Interrogative

## She was going to be cooking this morning

Would you have drunk the milk last night?

Negative tense

Interrogative

Tense

Use

## This tense is restates the action stated in

future perfect tense but with different time
dimension, it is in past time whilst the
future perfect is in future time (not happen
yet).

Formula

Use

## Past future continuous tense emphasizes

on the course and the duration of the
action. Past future perfect continuous tense
is used to tell an action which would have
been happening until the certain time in
the past.

Formula

## (+) S+would+Have been+V.ing

(-) S+would+not Have been+V.ing
(?) Would+S+Have been+V.ing?

(+) S+Would+Have+V3
(-) S+would+not+Have+V3
(?) Would+S+Have+V3

Example Tense

Positive tense

Negative tense

## I would not have drunk the milk last night

Example Tense

Positive tense

Modal Verbs
Modal and Modal Phrases (Semi-Modals)
A modal is a type of auxiliary (helping) verb that is used to express: ability, possibility,
permission or obligation. Modal phrases (or semi-modals) are used to express the same things
as modals, but are a combination of auxiliary verbs and the preposition to. The modals and
semi-modals in English are:
1. Can/could/be able to
2. May/might
3. Shall/should
4. Must/have to
5. Will/would

## Can, Could, Be Able To

Can, could and be able to are used to express a variety of ideas in English:

Ability/Lack of Ability
Present and Future:
can/cant + base form of the verb
1. Tom can write poetry very well.
2. I can help you with that next week.
3. Lisa cant speak French.
am / is / are / will be + able to + base form of the verb
am not/ isnt / arent/ wont be + able to + base form of the verb
1. Mike is able to solve complicated math equations
2. The support team will be able to help you in about ten minutes.
3. I wont be able to visit you next summer.

Past:
could / couldnt + base form of the verb
1. When I was a child I could climb trees.
was / were + able to + base form of the verb
wasnt / werent + able to + base form of the verb
hasnt / havent + been able to + base form of the verb
1. I wasnt able to visit her in the hospital.
2. He hasnt been able to get in touch with the client yet.
Note: Can and could do not take an infinitive (to verb) and do not take the future auxiliary
will.

## Correct: I will (Ill) be able to help you this afternoon.

Possibility / Impossibility
can / cant + base form of the verb
1. You can catch that train at 10:43.
2. He cant see you right now. Hes in surgery.
could + base form of the verb
1. I could fly via Amsterdam if I leave the day before.

## Ask Permission / Give Permission

Can + Subject + base form of the verb (informal)
1. Can you lend me ten dollars?
Can + base form of the verb (informal)
1. You can borrow my car.
Could + subject + base form of the verb (polite)
1. Could I have your number?

## Make a suggestion To make a suggestion use:

Could + base form of the verb (informal)
1. You could take the tour of the castle tomorrow.

## Exercises: Can, Could, Be able to

Fill in the correct form of can, could or be able to as in the examples.
1. Ben could not help his little brother with his homework yesterday.
2. Can I call you later tonight?
1. _______ Tony run long distances when he was a boy?
2. ______ you please call a tow truck for me? My car broke down. (polite)
3. The students _______ to buy their textbooks today. The bookstore is all out of them.
4. ______ you teach me how to fix my computer? Youre so good at it.
5. ______ you ______ reach the customer if you call him at 4:00 his time?
1. Could
2. Could
3. arent able
4. Can
5. Will/be able to

May, Might
Formal Permission / Formal Prohibition
may / may not + base form of the verb
1. You may start your exam now.
2. You may not wear sandals to work.
Polite Request

## May + subject + base form of the verb

Possibility / Negative Possibility
may/ might + base form of the verb
1. We may go out dinner tonight. Do you want to join us?
2. Our company might get the order if the client agrees to the price.
may not / might not + base form of the verb
1. Adam and Sue may not buy that house. Its very expensive.
2. They might not buy a house at all.
To Make a Suggestion (when there is no better alternative)
may as well / might as well + base form of the verb
1. You may as well come inside. John will be home soon.
2. We might as well take Friday off. Theres no work to be done anyway.
Polite Suggestion
might + base form of the verb
1. You might like to try the salmon fillet. Its our special today.

## Exercises: May / Might

Fill in the correct form of may or might as in the example.
1. May I sit here?
1. They ______ finish the project on time. The main engineer is ill.
2. You _____ want to stop by the museum gift shop on your way out.
3. _____ I have your autograph?
4. He _______ visit the Louvre. Hes in Paris anyway.
5. You ______ park your car here. Its reserved for guests of the hotel only.

1. might not
2. might
3. May
4. may as well
5. may not

## Shall, Should, Ought to

To Offer of Assistance or Polite Suggestion (When you are quite sure of a positive
Shall + subject + base form of the verb
1. Shall we go for a walk?
Note: Shall is only used with I or we. It is used instead of will only in formal English.
To Offer of Assistance or Polite Suggestion (When you are not sure of a positive answer)
Should + subject + base form of the verb
1. Should I call a doctor?
A Prediction or Expectation that Something Will Happen
should/shouldnt + base form of the verb
1. The proposal should be finished on time.
2. I shouldnt be late. The train usually arrives on time.
should / ought to + base form of the verb
1. You should check that document before you send it out.
2. You ought to have your car serviced before the winter.
To Give Advice (about something you think wrong or unacceptable)
shouldnt + base form of the verb
1. James shouldnt teach him words like those.

## Exercises: Should, Shouldnt, Ought To

Fill in should, shouldnt or ought in the following sentences as in the example.
1. He shouldnt encourage such bad behavior.
1. You _____ get your teeth cleaned at least once a year.
2. The house ______ be ready to move into by next month. Its almost finished.
3. Ron ________ to improve his attitude. If he doesnt, he might get fired.
4. ________ I get your jacket? Its cold in here.
5. You ________ put your feet on the table. Its not polite.
1. should
2. should
3. ought
4. shall
5. shouldnt

## Must, Have to, Need to, Dont have to, Neednt

Necessity or Requirement
Present and Future:
must / have to / need to + base form of the verb
1. You must have a passport to cross the border.
2. Elisabeth has to apply for her visa by March 10th.
3. I need to drop by his room to pick up a book.
Past:
had to / needed to + base form of the verb
1. I had to work late last night.
2. I needed to drink a few cups of coffee in order to stay awake.

Note: have to and need to are often used in the same context, but many times, need to is used
to express something that is less urgent, something in which you have a choice.

## Almost 100% Certain

must + base form of the verb
1. Thomas has lived in Paris for years. His French must be very good.

must / have to + base form of the verb
1. You must try this wine. Its excellent.
2. You have to visit us while youre in town.

Prohibited or Forbidden
must not / mustnt + base form of the verb
1. You must not drive over the speed limit.
2. You mustnt leave medicines where children can get to them.

Lack of Necessity
dont /doesnt /didnt + have to + base form of the verb
1. You dont have to park the car. The hotel valet will do it for you.
2. Tim doesnt have to go to school today. Its a holiday.
3. You didnt have to shout. Everyone could hear you.
neednt + base form of the verb
1. You neednt worry about me. Ill be fine.

Exercises: Must, Have to, Need to, Dont Have to, Neednt
Fill in the blanks with one of these modals:
must, must not, have to, has to, dont have to, doesnt have to, neednt as in the examples.
There may be more than one correct answer.
1. Shira doesnt have to drive to the airport. Shes going by taxi.
2. You must speak politely to the customers.

1. You ______ tell Anna about the party tomorrow night. Its a surprise! (must not, need
to, doesnt have to)
2. Tina _______ register for her classes on Monday, otherwise she wont get a place in
them. (doesnt have to, mustnt, has to)
3. You ________ send that fax. Ive already sent it. (must, will have to, dont have to)
4. A dog ______ get special training in order to be a guide dog. (must, need to, dont
have to)
5. Jeremy _______ get up early tomorrow. His class was cancelled. (mustnt, doesnt
have to, dont need to)
1. must not
2. has to
3. dont have to
4. must
5. doesnt have to

## Modals: Will / Would

will / wont + base form of the verb
1. John will pick you up at 7:00am.
2. Beth wont be happy with the results of the exam.

## Polite Request or Statement

Will / Would + base form of the verb
1. Will you please take the trash out?
2. Would you mind if I sat here?
3. Id (I would) like to sign up for your workshop.

## Habitual Past Action

Would/Wouldnt + base form of the verb
1. When I was a child, I would spend hours playing with my train set.

## Exercises: will, would

Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: will, wont, would, wouldnt.
1. I ______ like to order the onion soup please.
2. The manager _______ be pleased to hear that a customer slipped on the wet floor.
3. _______ it be okay if I slept here tonight?
4. When Igor lived in Russia, he ________ call his mother as often as he does now.
5. I can assure you sir, the order ______ be shipped out tonight.
1. would
2. wont
3. would
4. wouldnt
5. will

## Exercises All Modals

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the following modals:
can, could, be able to, may, might, shall, should, must, have to, dont have to, need to
- You may have to make the modals negative according to the context of the sentence.
- There may be more than one possibility.
1. He has to take his car to be serviced. The brakes are squeaking.
2. Would you please save me a seat at the dinner event.
1. If you are sick, you ________ go to work. Youll infect everyone there.
2. Drivers _______ stop at red lights.
3. You _______ finish the proposal today. You can finish it tomorrow.
4. She ______ hear much better with her new hearing aids.

## 5. ______ I order us a bottle of wine?

6. Sam ______ pick his daughter up from school. Shes taking the bus home.
7. You _____________ smoke here. Its a smoke-free building.
8. You ________ eat so many sweets. They are bad for you.
9. _________ you mind walking a little faster? Were going to be late.
10. Im sorry. I _______ help you. I dont know how to do it.

1. shouldnt
2. must
3. dont have to
4. can
5. shall
6. neednt
7. mustnt
8. shouldnt
9. would
10.

cant

TENSES AND
AUXILARY