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1st Session

Today we discussed some paradigms on BPR and scenarios for which it is still relevant.
detailed the discussion on practical definition of business process reengineering
Referred the conceptual distinction of TQM and Six Sigma with BPR concept with few examples
We discussed with examples "What BPR is not?"
We shared on the aspect of three C's in past and present time and how they put impetus on undertaking
BPR initiatives.
Customer, Competitor, Change
The objectives, components of BPR, commonalities in re-engineered process and new world after BPR
have been discussed with sharing some examples.
In today's discussion we emphasized the view on Process in organization, evolution of complexity in
process and illustrated BPR with a case study of Ford (A/c payable).
Before the case study we shared our view based on query of students that every process is not candidate
of BPR.
Based on student query we also complied the BPR notion with examples that IT is an enabler of BPR and
both are helping each other in pay off.
One student also queried on impact of BPR on Organisational Structure and we shared our views in this

2nd Session
We discussed two classical video cases on BPR in Ford and Insurance companies
Kodak case discussed with a slide
Kodak case:
In 1987
Kodaks arch-rival, Fuji came up with a new 35mm single-use camera
Kodak has no competitive offering
Kodaks Traditional Product Development Process
Slow: would take 70 weeks to produce a rival to Fujis camera!
Result:the new process, Concurrent Engineering
Reduce turnaround time to 38 weeks
Key Redesign Strategy

Apply innovative use of CAD/CAM + integrated product design database Allow engineer to design at
computer workstations
Database collect each engineers work and combines into overall design
Each morning, problems are resolved immediately
Manufacturing can begin tooling design just 10 weeks into product design instead of 38 weeks in the
Reduced cost of single use camera by 25%
A company
that can not change the way it thinks about IT can not reengineer.
that equates technology with automation can not reengineer.
that looks for problems first then seeks technology solutions for them can not reengineer
IBM credit company, by computerizing the process might have achieved a 10% performance
improvement, instead of more than 90% performance achieved by reengineering
Ford might have computerized its accounts payable system to eliminate 20% of 500 jobs, instead they
eliminated 80% of jobs by undertaking reengineering
Using only CAD station Kodak could have saved a few days but would never achieved 50% time
reduction without the effort of reengineering
Information Technology and RE
From inception RE has been a close partner of IT
Technology enables processes-the essence of RE to be redesigned
IT and RE-symbiotic relationships
Without RE, IT delivers little payoff and vice versa
ERP and RE was a successful marriage shown by IBM, Owens Corning, Amoco, General Mills etc.
In absence of robust, Reengineering processes, e-Commerce is a nightmare, not a dream.
Business Week recognised the term e-engineering
Internet demands new way of working and RE is a tool that can create it
We discussed Learning to think Inductively
To recognise the power of IT and visualise application of IT, businesspeople usually dont learn and may
feel uncomfortable
Managers know how to think deductively. They are good at defining problem, then seeking and
evaluating different solutions to it.
But applying IT to RE demands inductive thinking-the ability to first recognise a powerful solution and
then seek the prolems it might solve, problems the company probably doesnt even know that it has.
Ford originally thought their problem was to find a method for processing vendor invoices quicker and
with fewer people.
What they found instead was a solution that let them do away with invoices entirely.
IBM credits executives thought their problem was how to speed the movement of information among
various groups of specialists.
IT allowed the company to eliminate the specialists so that it did not need to move the information around
at all.
Kodak thought its problem was pushing designers to work faster so that succeeding design steps could
start sooner.
Its technology solution virtually eliminated the need for sequential design.
Fundamental error-looking at technology through the lens of existing process.

They ask, how can we use these new technological capabilities to enhance or streamline or improve
what we are doing?
Instead, they should be asking, how can we use technology to allow us to do things that we are not
already doing?
RE, unlike automation, is about innovation.
It is about exploring the latest capabilities of technology to achieve entirely new goals.
Hardest part of RE is recognizing the new, unfamiliar capabilities of technologies instead of familiar ones.
Intention of technology and Innovative Application in new process
Thomas J. Watson of IBM-shortsightedness(<50 dtop)
Pc+telecommunication to store data
Telephone-loneliness of farmers wife
Thomas Edison, dying gentleman to record last wishes-phonograph
Marconi-radio as wireless telegraph-broadcast media
Xerox-IBM offered patent of 914-FUND shortage-replace carbon paper
Says law: supply creates its own demand
We see that IBM credit, Ford, Kodak used technology to break rules
The rules, explicit or not were neither frivolous nor absurd when they were first articulated.
They were expressions of wisdom people had derived from experience
A smart plant manager runs short of parts only for few times due to unexpected demand before he
learns to order a little extra.
Advent of forecasting technology breaks the reigning rules for safety stocks to buffer demand
It is this disruptive power of technology, in its ability to break the rules that limit how we conduct our work,
that makes it critical to companies looking for competitive advantage.
The next discussion was on Enabling role of Information Technology
Old Rule: Information can appear in only one place at one time
Disruptive technology: Shared databases
New rule: making information available at many places
Old Rule: Only expert can perform complex work
Disruptive technology: Expert systems
New rule: allowing generalists to perform specialist tasks
Old rule: business must choose between centralisation and decentralisation
Disruptive technology: Telecommunication networks
New rule: allowing organisations to be centralised and decentralised at the same time
Old rule: managers make all decisions
Disruptive technologies: Decision support tools, modeling, database access
New rule: allowing decision making to be a part of everybodys job
Old rule: field personnel need offices where they can receive, store, retrieve, and transmit information
Disruptive technologies: Wireless data communication and portable computers

New rule: allowing field personnel to work office independent

Old rule: the best contact with a potential buyer is personnel contact
Disruptive technologies: Interactive videodisk
New rule: to get in immediate contact with potential buyers
Old rule: you have to find out where things are
Disruptive technologies: Automatic identification and tracking technology
New rule: allowing things to tell where they are instead of requiring to be found
Old rule: plans get revised annually
Disruptive technologies: High performance computing
New rules: allowing on-the-fly planning and revisioning
It should be clear from examples we discussed today that further advances in technology will break more
rules about how we conduct business. Rules that still appear inviolate today may become obsolete in a
year or less.
Exploiting potential of tech to change a companys business process and move it dramatically ahead of its
competitors is not a one time event. Nor is it something a company can do occasionally, say once a
On the contrary, staying on top of new tech and learning how to recognize and incorporate it into an
organization must be an ongoing effort different from R &D or marketing. It takes a practice eye and
imaginative mind to spot the potential in a tech that does not at first appear to have any obvious
application to a companys work or to see past the obvious to the novel applications of a tech that
superficially seems useful only for marginally improving the status quo.
Companies need to make technology exploitation one of their core competencies if they are to succeed in
a period of ongoing tech change. Those better able to recognise and realise the potentials of new tech will
enjoy a continuing and growing advantage over their competitors.
If you can buy a technology, it is not new.
The greatest hockey player, Gretzky once asked about his success and he exceptionally
answered, because I go where the puck is going to be, not where it is. The same rule is applied to
the technology. Building a strategy around what what one can buy in the market today means that a
company will always be playing catch up with competitors who have already anticipated it. These
competitors know what they are going to do with tech before it becomes available.
Companies successfully applied tech like American Express for example, used image processing system
allows it to send digitized copies of original receipts to both corporate card holder and their a/c dept.
Chrysler with its satellite communication systems for helping dealers manage their parts inventory were
asking for the tech they needed well before it appeared in the market. Year after year, Chrysler sent out
RFPs that outlined what it wanted; when a vendor eventually responded with the needed capabilities,
Chrysler was ready to implement. Management knew what rules they wanted to break with the technology
before the technology was even at hand.
Companies cannot see or read about a new technology today and deploy it tomorrow. It takes time
to study it, to understand its significance, to conceptualise its potential uses, to sell those uses
inside the company and to plan the deployment. An organisation that can execute these

preliminaries before the techno actually becomes available will inevitably gain a significant lead
on its competition-in many cases, three or more years.
It is entirely possible to stay 3 years ahead of market, there does not exist a technology that will become
important in three years that is not yet demonstrable today. Smart companies can be figuring out how they
will use a tech, even while its developers are still polishing their prototypes.
As an essential enabler in RE, modern IT has an importance to the RE process that is difficult to
overstate. But companies need to beware of thinking that tech is the only essential element in RE.
To RE a company is to take a journey from familiar into the unknown. This journey has to begin
somewhere and with someone. Where and with whom?
That is the question we addressed in the session.
Today two students asked to repeat BPR and we discussed two video cases to give an earlier overview
on BPR
One student asked on difference between CPI and BPR-I have tried to contextualized the same in todays
session, what we already discussed on last session I could not repeated on the same.
Based on students query, we discussed on process complexity also discussed on last session in a real life
organization context--the basic processes how they added exception/special provision etc with the
increase in growth of the organisation and turned into a bureaucratic process/organization--thus emerging
into a complex process((Indian Railway example cited as huge complexity from its basic processes of
reservation). We also discussed the underlying problem, to which bureaucracy has been and
remains a solution , is that of fragmented processes. the way to eliminate bureaucracy and flatten
the organisation is by RE the processes so that they are no longer fragmented. Then the company
can manage nicely without its bureaucracy.
A discussion has been invited on "If you can buy a technology, it is not new. "-Students came up
spontaneously with their views correctly linking technology as enabler of BPR
A view was sought on "Companies cannot see or read about a new technology today and deploy it
tomorrow" and the essence of discussion correctly reflected the discussion made today.
Student's query on situation of BPR implementation has been partly answered as in a separate
session we will have dedicated discussion on these aspects.

Benchmarking: looking for companies that are doing something best and learning how they do it in order
to emulate them.
Business Process: collection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input that is of value to the
Case for action: a dramatically persuasive argument, supported by evidence, that spells out the cost of
doing anything short of reengineering.
Deductive thinking: defining problems then seeking and evaluating different solutions to the problems.

Delinearizing: speeding up processes by eliminating the straight line sequence in which tasks must be
done in order so that various tasks can be done simultaneously whenever possible.
Discontinuous thinking : identifying and abandoning the outdated rules and fundamental assumptions
that underlie current business operations.
Humpty Dumpty School of Management : companies break processes up into lots of little pieces (or
tasks) then has to hire all the kings horses and all the kings men to paste the fragmented work back
together again.
Inductive thinking : recognize a powerful solution and then seek the problems it might solve.
Insiders : members of the reengineering team who currently work inside the process undergoing
Leader : in the reengineering process, a senior executive who authorizes and motivates the overall
reengineering efforts.
Outsiders : members of the reengineering team that dont work in the process thats undergoing
reengineering or the company.
Process maps : a picture of how work flows through the company, thus creating a vocabulary for the
reengineering team to work with.
Process owner : a manager with responsibility for a specific process and the reengineering effort
focused on it.
Process Team : a unit that naturally falls together to complete a whole piece of worka process.
Reengineering : the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve
dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service,
and speed.
Reengineering czar : an individual responsible for developing reengineering techniques and tools within
the company and for achieving synergy across the companys separate reengineering projects.
Reengineering team : a group of individuals dedicated to the reengineering of a particular process, who
diagnose the existing process and oversees its redesign and implementation.
Says Law : supply creates its own demand.
Signals : explicit messages that the leader sends to the organization about reengineering: what it means,
why we are doing it, how we are going about it, and what it will take.

Steering Committee : a policy making body of senior managers who develop the organizations overall
reengineering strategy and monitor its process.
Symbols : actions that the leader performs to reinforce the content of the signals, to demonstrate that he
or she lives by his or her words.
Systems : management systems must measure and reward peoples performance in ways that
encourage then to attempt major change.
Triage : the initial step in a process that determines which of the (usually three) different versions of a
process the customer should be carried through.
Vision statement : a qualitative and quantitative statement of the kind of organization the management
believes the company needs to become

3rd Session
Processes not organisations are object of RE.
Organizations dont RE their sales/mnfg/mktg dept rather they RE the work that the people in those depts.
Dept/division/groups are familiar to people in business but processes are not
Organizational lines are visible, plainly drawn on organizational chart and processes are not
Organizational units have names, processes most often do not
Every company on earth consists of processes-these are what companies do
Processes can have process map
Texas Instrument Process map:strategy development(creates strategy), product development(generates
overall product design), customer design and support(produces a custom design), order
fulfillment(delivers what customers want) are main processes. TI process map displays a clear,
comprehensive picture of work at texas instrument semiconductor business.
TI process maps displa something that never comes in orgn chart
No company can RE all its high level processes simultaneously, there are three criteria to help them make
their choices: dysfunction, importance, feasibility
Dysfunction: broken processes(product development process hasnt hatch any new product in last 5 year),
employee spend typing in a terminal from a computer generated printout, to remind on wall
of cubicle in front of a pc
A Process Excellence maxim is treat the disease, not the symptoms. There are several common
symptoms that correspond to underlying process diseases.
Symptom: Extensive information exchange, data redundancy, rekeying.
Disease: Arbitrary fragmentation of a natural process.
Treatment: Share data among organizational units, and/or reintegrate tasks into a process.

Symptom: Complexity, exceptions and special cases.

Disease: Accumulation onto a simple base, in which a process starts out being simple, but grows more
complex due to new variations.
Treatment: Dont try to handle all situations with one process; use different versions of a process.
Symptom: Excessive inventory and inventory buffers.
Disease: System slack to cope with uncertainty.
Treatment: Remove uncertainty by sharing information (for example, coordinating production planning
across suppliers and customers), and thereby reduce the need for inventory.
Symptom: High ratio of checking and control activity to value-added activity.
Disease: Fragmentation. Organizations perform checking and control due to the errors and mistrust that
are the result of fragmentation.
Treatment: Remove the fragmentation; integrate activities that make up the process.
Symptom: Rework and iteration.
Disease: Inadequate feedback along chains. Problems are not caught when they happen, but later in the
process, requiring more than one step to be redone.
Treatment: Increase feedback and communication, and simplify the process if possible.
We also discussed:
About process/types of process/Four Perspective of Business Processes
Implication of four process perspective:
Mechanistic view: analysis and improvement of technical, well-defined process
Discrete even simulation: unpredictable, complex interaction
Feed back loop: system dynamic approach
Social construction: problematic human processes
Students participated on identification of "flow units" in a process they know
A detailed Concept of Performance of Process and numerical illustration were discussed
Students also given independent task of two problems in this regard.

4th Session

We started our session on Business Framework Versus Model
A framework is a set of principles, standards, and rules which provides the support system. It might not be
the whole picture but it provides a strong base to build upon.
A framework has a variety of components that are used to construct models.
An example : The CMMI framework is process improvement approach that provides organizations with
the essential elements of effective processes. Using the CMMI framework different models can be
generated based on the needs of the organization using it. Hence, the phrase CMMI models refers to all
possible models that can be generated from the CMMI framework. There are fi ve maturity levels in this

framework numbered one to fi ve. Each maturity level comprises a prede fi ned set of process areas.
Each maturity level stabilizes an important part of the organizations processes.
Business Process Model
A business process model illustrates how the diverse managerial activities like marketing, selling, human
resources, manufacturing, strategizing, fi nancial arrangements, etc. work together in an interconnected
consistent manner to generate the bottom-line pro fi ts from a business initiative:
A model for each business process enhances the understanding of the owners and the managers
regarding the operations of the company and hence aids in the decision-making process.
A model captures the business processes very well and helps in getting idea regarding the best tools
and methodologies.
In order to create a process model, a few steps need to be followed. In step the knowledge of the
process gets better and better. The importance of that process to the functioning of the business is
A detailed, accurate business process model will be able to explain the strengths, the weaknesses, and
the bottlenecks in the existing operations.
An example: The following is an example of a business process model. Here the goal is to take the
customer orders. Then these orders are shipped out. The process begins with an inquiry. Later the
shopping cart, book catalogue, warehouse inventory, and online pages get involved. In this stage the
customer order is of signi fi cance.
In the second half the process is required to respond to the order and then ship it. This calls for the
involvement of the shipping company. The process ends when the customer receives what he had
ordered for.
Students also have explained few of the business process models on e-commerce, manufacturing etc.
Next we discussed the participants in BPR, Basic Phases of BPR: The 3 Rs of Reengineering
Re-design, Re-tool, Re-Orchestrate
We entered into the main topic by discussing some basic frameworks and models, with examples how
they work.
We identified some commonalities and distinct points from the models of champions/proponents like
Hammer & Champy, Davenport, KODAK etc.
A possible common framework of BPR has been explained to be derived from the frameworks discussed.
The consolidated framework has been detailed with respect to five phases:
1. Preparation for reengineering
2. Map and analyze As-Is process
3. Design to-be process
4. Implement reengineered process
5. Improve process continuously
Last part of our discussion was on BPR Implementation and as it is a critical step we discussed various
issues on it.
From the notes Reengineering Design is radical; Reengineering Change is Not! we tried to built up
the concept and understanding on:

Revolutions are disruptive, costly, risky and counter cultural

Organ facing crisis have little choice and take revolutionary path but the orgn do not face crisis may harm
themselves more than good by undertaking radical changes in a revolutionary fashion.
By taking evolutionary path firms initially compromise their radical vision but after gaining direct
measurable benefits in short term and learn how to change (so as to continue change).
Over time, the firm move toward the radical vision through incremental cumulative changes.
Thus we discussed the advantages and disadvantages on radical and evolutionary BPR implementation.
We shared how the biological punctuated equilibria is relating with the BPR implementation.
In the light of examples case study from the notes we explained the situation when the radical redesign be
implemented using the approach either revolutionary or evolutionary.
The success of Revolutionary path assumes quick implementation of radical designs.
There are three conditions of success we discussed:
1) change takes place in a small self-contained unit
2) a true business performance crisis exists and
3) the organisation has deep pockets
Today students are also guided on presentation/participation(mandatory)/submission of assigned case
analysis for each group including assessment criteria and norms to be followed

5th Session
First of all we discussed the formality to be followed in case analysis, presentation, participation and
scribe etc. and evaluation of case analysis for the assigned group and other students and assignment to
be submitted by today evening.
Then we start our session on what businesses expect with an African proverb and graphical illustration.
Our main topic of discussion held on session 5 was on Tools for BPR and following tools we discussed
with active participation from students.
What is an Operational Definition?
Context for a clean table
elements of operational definition(criteria,test and decision)
examples discussed:we develop a 50% woolen blanket/Rust free/fast in pharmacy service
We also discussed the same operational word "Sale" means different to sales/distribution and finance
Students also opined views on: Secured IIM campus/ Good Internet speed" and agreed to derive
respective operational definitions
Next tool was well known Brainstorming.
Two decision making tools were discussed and illustrated with examples: Multivoting and Nominal Group
Multivoting reduces long lists of ideas and identifies important items
NGT is used for generating ideas and prioritizing items
Details of them can be found at

A detail application was discussed for both of them with examples

We discussed Affinity Diagram as a tool that collects large amounts of data related to ideas, opinions,
issues and organizes them into groupings based on their natural relationships.
We have shown how to create Affinity Diagram and a related practical example has been illustrated
followed at our Institute few months back
How to generate information required for any kind of implementation like ERP/change
In this context we discussed an interesting tool Force Field Analysis
Force Field Analysis is a useful decision-making technique.
It helps to make a decision by analyzing the forces for and against a change, and it helps to
communicate the reasoning behind the decision.
One can use it for two purposes:
to decide whether to go ahead with the change; and
to increase your chances of success, by strengthening the forces supporting change and weakening
those against it.
Describe your plan or proposal for change in a box in the middle of the paper.
List the forces for change in a column on the left-hand side, and the forces against change in a column
on the right-hand side.
As you do this, consider the following questions:
What business benefit will the change deliver?
Who supports the change? Who is against it? Why?
How easy will it be to make the change? Do you have enough time and resources to make it work?
What costs are involved?
What other business processes will be affected by the change?
What are the risks ?
An example about academic change initiative has been discussed with the force field analysis.
Next Case 1 was presented by Group 1 and approx 5 students actively put their major/minor observations
on the case analysis

This note is an explanation in detail how practically you will apply and connect various BPR tools
for documenting "As-is" processes mapping
What is Process Mapping?
Process mapping is a technique of diagrammatical modelling.
The diagram represents a series of processes and how they are related.
Process mapping provides a representation of who does what and in what order.
Why and when is process mapping used?
Process mapping helps to clarify the steps involved in a particular process.
It is used for:
understanding the current processes

clarifying responsibilities
identifying process inefficiencies
designing new procedures
How to produce a process map
Consult with the experts. These are the people managing and working with the process.
Identify the boundaries. Where does the process begin? where does it end?
Identify the participants. What roles are involved in the processes?
Hand draw the process in front of the expert, getting then to confirm the steps.
Identify the steps. What is done first? What is done next? By who?
Identify the decision points. What are the alternatives? What determines which alternative is chosen?
Draw an initial process flow. Draw and label the swim lanes (see next slide for details) using standard
Check for completeness. Are all participants represented?
Are all processes shown? Are there any alternatives that
have not been considered? Refine and finalise.
Review with the experts to ensure completeness.
Let Discuss Process Mapping required in business Processes for Government
Services (ref: National Institute for Smart Government, on behalf of the Department of
Electronics & Information Technology, Government of India)
As understood Process Mapping is the process of documenting various aspects of business processes
with the intention of developing a correct understanding of how things happen actually.
Process Mapping is necessitated in the business processes of government scenario due to the
following reasons:
Government service delivery evolves over time
First a good process is established for a small set-up; it is usually efficient and responsive
As the demand for the service grows, more people, functions and hierarchies are involved in a process
Government needs from time to time gradually change the process
Some changes are not always for the better
Everyone tries to do their best but the process evolves over a period of time to the current state (in some
cases these are person-specific)
Rich experiences of people are lost when they leave the organization / function Additionally, government
processes have certain unique attributes, which need to be kept in mind while documenting the
Processes are usually derived from the underlying set of laws and regulations
Compliance and control requirements are higher than in business processes, due to increased levels of
accountability and need for transparency
Changing processes radically might take longer timeframe than in business processed, as it may require
legal & regulatory changes
Objectives of Process Mapping
Following are the objectives behind undertaking the activity of process mapping:
To understand how do we actually work as opposed to how are we supposed to work
To understand the four attributes of process:


Process flow

Policies, Standards and Responsibilities

Phases with clear start & end-points and process time-lines

To identify the Critical to Process metrics

To identify Quick Wins in the process
To understand response time & cycle time
To determine process efficiency

Value-added activities and Non value-added activities

To estimate the cost of the process o The concept of waste

Thus process mapping provides a holistic view of the process. Different types of process mapping are
used, based on the level of detail required. The common types of process mapping are:
Value Stream Mapping

Mapping the entire value stream of the process on a single page

Supplier - Input - Process - Output - Customer (SIPOC) Map

Mapping the key constituents of the process and their interactions


Detailed activity / task level graphical representation of the process These techniques are
described in detail

in the following sections.

Value Stream Mapping

Value Stream Mapping represents the entire business in one page. The Map is used to analyze the flow
of materials and information required to bring a product or service to a consumer. It does not delve into
details of the sub processes. An illustrative Value Stream Map is given below.

The Map shows the different steps which happen in the overall business process, with the actual Hands
on Time (HoT) and waiting time before the next step. The total Turn Around Time (TAT) for the sub
process is the sum of HoT and wait time. The sub processes in Value Stream Map are further drilled down
using flow charting techniques.

A SIPOC map helps in creating common understanding of the scope of the focused improvement project
from an end to end perspective. It provides visual depiction of how a business works and all players &
processes involved.
The SIPOC Map lists the following:
The suppliers of these inputs (S)
The inputs required to these processes (I)
The processes that deliver these outputs (P)
The outputs provided to them (O)
All the customers (C)
An example SIPOC Map for the photocopying process is given below:

The example SIPOC Map explains the various components of S-I-P-O-C and lists the sub processes. The
steps involved in the SIPOC Map preparation are the following:
i. Agree on the Name for the Process

Use a verb + noun format (e.g. making a photocopy

ii. Define Outputs of the process tangible things that the process produces

e.g. a document, a railway ticket

iii. Define the Customers of the process people who receive outputs
iv. Define the Inputs of the process things that trigger the process and goes into making the output

e.g. filled application form, pre-printed stationery

v. Define the Suppliers of the process people who supply the various inputs
vi. Define the sub processes that make up the process activities that are carried out in converting the
inputs to outputs
SIPOC Maps are used for obtaining a high level understanding of the process. The Map helps process
owners and those working on the process to agree on the boundaries of the process. It also provides a
structured way to discuss the process and get consensus on what it involves before rushing off and
drawing process maps. In the next step, the sub processes identified in the SIPOC are developed into
process maps.
Flow Charting
Flowcharts are used to represent the process steps graphically, using common agreed upon symbols.
Flowcharts are prepared based on process walkthroughs with the teams involved in the process.

The common symbols used in flowcharting are shown below:

A number of other symbols are also used, to depict input / output, wait time, manual operation etc. Flow
Charts are usually prepared using Computer Tools, using the four field mapping template. The template
as shown below captures the following:
Phase / which process group the current process belongs to

Standards / Policies and Templates

Players involved in the Process
Actual Process Flow
The four field mapping template is shown below:

The steps involved in the preparation of process maps are listed below:
i. Get a cross-functional team of all front-line process players to participate
ii. Discuss & define the start and end-points accurately
iii. List all the players in field 1
iv. Start mapping the process activities one after the other clearly marking the flow of the activities with
arrows in field 2

What happens next?


Decisions (yes/ no, if possible)

Identify/ emphasize wait times

v. Ground rule The activity is not an exception & occurs at least in 20% cases
vi. Note down the relevant policies (rules governing the process activity), the standards (formats,
templates used for the process activity) and any responsibility for the particular process activity in field 3
vii. Keep building the time-line in field 4 and finish with end-point; mark completion of any phase with
distinct end-points viii. Allocate time for each process activity on the map

All team members must agree on time

ix. Total the time of each activity x. Do a reality check does it make sense?
xi. At the end of each phase, discuss & affix the appropriate process mapping notation
xii. Discuss & map process Problems, Issues and Expectations (PIEs)
xiii. Locate process hand-offs & disconnects xiv. Review the process map with peers, management and
other players involved

Is the map a true reflection of the As Is process?

Are there additional issues?

A sample process map, developed for the Railway Reservation system (manual) is provided

The following supplementary information shall also be captured along with the flow chart:
Time taken for each step (including hands on time and wait time)
Process owner (one person responsible for entire process)
Actors in the process, and their roles
Pre-conditions, if any (e.g. applicant should be an Indian, residing in a specific jurisdiction etc)
Business Rules, if any (If a previous passport application was rejected, period of time for which the
citizen has to wait till next application)
Alternate flows, if any
Once the flowcharting is completed accurately, the team should be able to undertake the following from
the process depiction:
Identify time lags and non-value-adding steps.
Identify responsibility for each step.
Brainstorm for problems in the process.
Determine major and minor inputs into the process with a cause & effect diagram.
Choose the most likely trouble spots with the consensus builder. The next step after process mapping is
the identification of Problems, Issues and Expectations (PIE).
Problems are non-conformance to defined processes and procedures due to skill gaps, lack of common
understanding, resource constraints, etc.
E.g. documentation not completed as per checklist
Issues are systemic gaps where processes and procedures are not defined or are illdefined
E.g. giving a loan to 5 family members
Expectations are the expectations of that process owners, users and other stakeholders have from
world-class best practices
E.g. loan should be given in 2 days Once the PIEs are identified, they are logically grouped.
The next step is to brain-storm Quick Wins & change possibilities in the process. Key PIEs, especially
related to process, are analyzed for root causes in the Analyze phase. Other PIEs are reviewed in the
process design phase to ensure that the new process addresses all or most of them

6th Session