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SURNAME; MERULE

FIRST NAMES; GRANNY RATANG

ID NUMBER; 201203123

EXPERIMENT NO; 2

EXPERIMENT TITLE; DETERMINATION OF HEAT OF SOLUTION FROM


MEASUREMENT OF SOLUBILITY

DAY; WEDNESDAY

DATE; 05 FEBRUARY 2014

PARTNERS NAME AND ID; MOTLHAGODI RAYMOND P, 2011014292

AIM
Aim of this experiment is to find the enthalpy of solution for the dissolution of benzoic acid
in water.

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURE
150 ml of saturated benzoic acid was transferred to a 250 ml conical flask and few grams of
undissolved benzoic acid were added to the flask. The flask was placed in a 50C water bath
and kept there until its temperature reached the same temperature as the surrounding. The
flask was transferred to a 40C water bath and kept until it reached the same temperature. The
actual temperature of the content was recorded. The 100 ml beaker was weighed and the
crude glass pipette was warmed in a Bunsen flame to avoid crystals from separating out. It
was used to transfer 10 ml of the solution into the measured flask. The flask with the solution
was weighed and the solution titrated with a 0.01515M of NaOH, phenolthalein was used as
an indicator the same procedure was followed at 40, 35, 30 and 25C. All the results were
recorded in the Data sheet.

RESULTA AND ANALYSIS

TABLE WITH DATA


Table 1; shows data collected at different temperatures of the saturated benzoic acid.

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
Sample calculations for table 1
1. The molarity and of NaOH and its volume were used to calculate its mole.
=0.01515M (20.4510-3)
=4.00710-4 mol
2. The mole of benzoic acid was determined using mole ratio from the following equation;
NaOH(aq) +C6H5COOH(aq) NaC6H5Coo(aq) + H2O(L)
NaOH: C6H5COOH
1:1
4.00710-4;X
X= 4.00710-4 moles
3. The mass of benzoic acid was found by multiplying its mole by Molar mass.
122.12 g/mol 4.00710-4 mole=0.049g
4. The mass of solvent was found by subtracting the mass of benzoic acid from mass of the
solution
9.47g-0.049g= 9.42g
5. Temperature in Kelvin was found by adding 273.15 to temperature in degrees Celsius
35.1C+273.15=308.3K
6. 1 was divided by temperature in Kelvin to get K-1.
1/308.3=0.003244
7. Solubility was found by dividing the mass of solvent by 1000 to change it to Kg and then
divide the mole of benzoic acid by the answer.
9.42g/1000=0.00942 kg
4.00710-4 mole/0.0092kg=0.043 mol kg-1
In (s/s) was found by taking the natural logarithm of the solubility =In 0.043 mol kg-1=-3.15.

Graph 1 shows a plot of ln s vs 1/T of benzoic acid in water. The graph is a straight line. Its
slope is the quotient of enthalpy of solution and its R. Using the graph the enthalpy of the
solution was found to be;2 787.4.

CALCULATIONS
Slope= -2 901.4 and R= 0.995
From the equation M= H/R the enthalpy was made the subject of the formula and the
following was obtained;
H=MR =-2 801.40.0995= 2 787.4
The sign of H is correct according to Le Chateliers principle because the principle predicts
that an equilibrium is expected to shift in the exothermic direction if the temperature is
lowered, for the energy is released and the reduction in temperature is opposed.
DISCUSSION
Precision
The correlation coefficient, R2 was close to 1 and the points are not scattered which indicates
a good precision of the results looking at the line of best fit.
ACCURACY
R from literature was found to be 0.997 and the experimental one was found to be 0.995, their
difference was 0.2% the results were more accurate as their difference does not succeed 1%.
The results also agrees to Le Chateliers principle which states that te equlibrium shift to the
exothermic direction if the temperature is lowered by having H which is positive which
shows exothermic direction.
EXPERIMENTAL ERRORS
Experimental errors might be mostly from the uncertainities of the instruments used, and also
it might be because of parallax error when measuring the benzoic acid when its amount was
estimated using the graduation marks on the conical flask. The other error might be taking the
temperature while the tip of the thermometer is in contact with the walls of the flask. The
experiment could be improved by using more precise instruments such as pipettes and by
using a colourless container for the water bath so that the person carrying the experiment will
be able to see the position of the thermometer clearly.

CONCLUSION
The aim of the experiment was reached because the enthalpy of the solution was found to be
2 787.4, and the experimental results were also accurate as their difference as compared to the
Literature values were no exceeding 1%.
REFERENCES
Evenson J. Chemistry Education.79.822 (2002)
Gupta.J.Chemistry. Soc. Dalton Trans, 9, 1873 (1984)
Huil R.E, Clifton, J, Physical chemistry, 94, 8561(1990)