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# 2.

10

## Standard sizes of pipes:

An important application of fluid flow: flow inside circular conduits, pipes,
and tubes.
Sizes of commercial standard steel pipe are given in A.5.
There are two main schedule numbers; schedule 40 and schedule 80.
Schedule 80 has a thicker wall and will hold about twice the pressure of
schedule 40.
Both have the same outside diameter so they will fit the same fittings.
Schedule 40 is usually used.
2.10A Velocity Profiles in Pipes
In both laminar and turbulent flow, fluid in the centre of the pipe is moving
faster than the fluid near the walls (see the Figure below). The figure is a
plot of the relative distance from the centre of the pipe (r/R) vs. the fraction
of maximum velocity (v/vmax); v being the local velocity and vmax is the
velocity at centre (r = 0).
Laminar flow profile can be obtained from the following equation (see sec
2.9B):
v/vmax = (1-(r/R)2)
Similarly, turbulent flow profile can be obtained from the following equation
(see sec 2.7D):
v/vmax = (1-(r/R))1/7
In many engineering applications, the relation between the average
velocity and the maximum velocity is useful, where the velocity ( i.e. vmax) is
the only one measured velocity.
Figure 2.10-2 (see the textbook) represents experimental relationships
between vav/vmax and the Reynolds numbers, Dvav / and Dvmax /.
For laminar flow in a pipe (see sec 2.9B): vav
For turbulent flow in a pipe: vav 0.8vmax

vmax
2

## 2.10B Pressure Drop and Friction Loss in Laminar Flow

1. Pressure Drop and Loss Due to Friction
From sec. 2.9B, the Hagen-Poiseuille eqn., for laminar flow in a circular tube,
can be rearranged as:
32 v( L2 L1 )
(2.10-2)
D2
Where pf is the pressure loss due to skin friction, p1 is upstream pressure,
p2is pressure at point 2, v is average velocity in pipe, D and (L2-L1) are the
inside diameter and the length of the pipe, respectively.
(Note: The above eqn. could be used to experimentally measure the
viscosity.)
For constant density, the friction loss, Ff, is:
p f ( p1 p2 ) f

Ff

p1 p2 f

## pipe. Ff is part of the frictional losses term, F, in the MEB eqn.

Example 2.10-1: (See the textbook or write down from the board).
2. Use of Friction Factor for Friction Loss in Laminar Flow

## Fanning friction factor, f, is a common parameter used in both laminar and

turbulent flow.
f is defined as drag force per wetted surface unit area (s at the surface
area) divided by the product of density times the velocity head ( v2/2):
f

s
v2
2

## The force is pf times the cross-sectional area, R2.

Force = pf R2
The wetted surface area is 2R L. therefore,

p f R 2
Force

p f R 2

Therefore,

p f 4 f

Ff

p f

f 2 RL

v2
2

## , rearranging this relationship to give:

L v 2
L v 2
(SI) or p f 4 f
D 2gc
D 2

4f

(English)

(2.10-5)

p f
L v 2
L v 2
4f
(SI) or Ff
(English) (2.10-6)

D 2 gc
D 2

for laminar flow only, combining eqns 2.10-2 and 2.10-5 gives:
f

16
16

N Re Dv

(2.10-7)

Note that eqns. 2.10-2 and 2.10-7 hold for laminar flow only, while eqns. 210.5 and 2-10.6 hold for both laminar and turbulent flow.
Example 2.10-2: (see the textbook or write down from the board).
2.10C Pressure Drop and Friction Factor in Turbulent Flow
In turbulent flow, the friction factor also depends on NRe. Fanning friction
factor (f) is, however, determined experimentally as in Figure 2.10-3.
Friction factor depends upon both NRe and the surface roughness ratio of
the pipe, /D.

## Another way of calculating (f) is by using the following Colebrook and

White Eqn:

1
4.67
4.0 log10

2.28
D N
f
f
Re

For special cases, the Blasius eqn. can be used for turbulent flow:
1

f 0.079 N Re 4
Once f is calculated, Eqns. 2.10-5 and 2.10-6 are valid for turbulent flow.
Example 2.10-3 (refer to the textbook)
Trial-and-Error Solution
If the diameter or the velocity is the unknown, then the solution is a trialand-error solution. This is because velocity appears in both NRe and f.
Example 2.10-4: (see the textbook or write down from the board).
2.10D Pressure drop and friction factor in flow of gases
Example 2.10-5
2.10F Friction losses in expansion, contraction, and pipe Fittings
Skin friction losses flow through straight pipe are calculated by using the fanning friction
factor. However, if the velocity of the fluid is changed in direction or magnitude, additional
friction losses occur. This results from additional turbulence which develops because of vortices
and other factors. Methods for estimating these losses are discussed below.
1.

## . If the cross section of a pipe enlarges very gradually, very little

or no extra losses are incurred.

hex =

=Kex

Where hex is the friction loss in J/kg, Kex is the expansion-loss coefficient and equals
,

## 1 is the upstream velocity in the smaller area in m/s,

2 is the downstream

velocity, and =1.0. If the flow is laminar in both sections, the factor in the equation
becomes

hc = 0.55(1-

2.

=K

## smaller or downstream section, and Kc is the contraction-loss coefficient (P1) and

approximately equals 0.55(1-A2/A1). For laminar flow, the same equation can be used with ,
= (S2).
3.

. Pipe fittings and valves also disturb the normal flow lines in a
pipe and cause additional frication losses.

Where

## flow (P1) and in Table 2.10-2 for laminar flow.

4.

.
The frictional losses from the friction in the straight pipe (Fanning friction), enlargement
losses , contraction losses ,and losses in fitting and valves are all incorporated in the

and

case.

## 2.10G Friction loss in Noncircular Conduits.

The friction loss in long, straight channels or conduits of noncircular cross section can be
estimated by using the same equations employed for circular pipes if the diameter in the in the
Reynolds number and the friction-factor equation (2.10-6) is taken as the equivalent diameter.
The equivalent diameter D is defined as four times the hydraulic radius H. The hydraulic radius
is defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the channel to the wetted perimeter of the
channel for turbulent flow only. Hence,
= 4rH = 4

=

=

= 1-2

## For a rectangular duct of sides and ft,

For open channels and partly filled ducts in turbulent flow, For a rectangle with depth of liquid
and width ,
=
For a wide, shallow stream of depth ,
=4y
For laminar flow in ducts running full and in open channels with various cross-sectional shapes
other than circular, equations are given elsewhere (P1).