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RulesofCourtCriminalProceedure

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Rules110127
REVISEDRULESOFCRIMINALPROCEDURE

THEREVISEDRULESOFCRIMINALPROCEDURE
(Asamended,December1,2000)

RULE110
ProsecutionofOffenses
Section1.Institutionofcriminalactions.Criminalactionsshallbeinstitutedasfollows:
(a)Foroffenseswhereapreliminaryinvestigationisrequiredpursuanttosection1ofRule112,byfilingthecomplaint
withtheproperofficerforthepurposeofconductingtherequisitepreliminaryinvestigation.
(b)Forallotheroffenses,byfilingthecomplaintorinformationdirectlywiththeMunicipalTrialCourtsandMunicipal
Circuit Trial Courts, or the complaint with the office of the prosecutor. In Manila and other chartered cities, the
complaintshallbefiledwiththeofficeoftheprosecutorunlessotherwiseprovidedintheircharters.
Theinstitutionofthecriminalactionshallinterrupttherunningperiodofprescriptionoftheoffensechargedunlessotherwise
providedinspeciallaws.(1a)
Section2.TheComplaintorinformation.Thecomplaintorinformationshallbeinwriting,inthenameofthePeopleofthe
Philippinesandagainstallpersonswhoappeartoberesponsiblefortheoffenseinvolved.(2a)
Section3.Complaintdefined.Acomplaintisaswornwrittenstatementchargingapersonwithanoffense,subscribedby
theoffendedparty,anypeaceofficer,orotherpublicofficerchargedwiththeenforcementofthelawviolated.(3)
Section4.Informationdefined.Aninformationisanaccusationinwritingchargingapersonwithanoffense,subscribedby
theprosecutorandfiledwiththecourt.(4a)
Section5.Whomustprosecutecriminalactions.Allcriminalactionscommencedbyacomplaintorinformationshallbe
prosecutedunderthedirectionandcontroloftheprosecutor.However,inMunicipalTrialCourtsorMunicipalCircuitTrial
Courtswhentheprosecutorassignedtheretoortothecaseisnotavailable,theoffendedparty,anypeaceofficer,orpublic
officer charged with the enforcement of the law violated may prosecute the case. This authority cease upon actual
interventionoftheprosecutororuponelevationofthecasetotheRegionalTrialCourt.(ThisSectionwasrepealedby

A.M.

No.02207SCeffectiveMay1,2002)

Thecrimesofadulteryandconcubinageshallnotbeprosecutedexceptuponacomplaintfiledbytheoffendedspouse.The
offendedpartycannotinstitutecriminalprosecutionwithoutincludingtheguiltyparties,ifbothalive,nor,inanycase,ifthe
offendedpartyhasconsentedtotheoffenseorpardonedtheoffenders.
Theoffensesofseduction,abductionandactsoflasciviousnessshallnotbeprosecutedexceptuponacomplaintfiledbythe
offendedpartyorherparents,grandparentsorguardian,nor,inanycase,iftheoffenderhasbeenexpresslypardonedby
anyofthem.Iftheoffendedpartydiesorbecomesincapacitatedbeforeshecanfilethecomplaint,andshehasnoknown
parents,grandparentsorguardian,theStateshallinitiatethecriminalactioninherbehalf.
Theoffendedparty,evenifaminor,hastherighttoinitiatetheprosecutionoftheoffensesofseduction,abductionandactsof
lasciviousnessindependentlyofherparents,grandparents,orguardian,unlesssheisincompetentorincapableofdoingso.
Wheretheoffendedparty,whoisaminor,failstofilethecomplaint,herparents,grandparents,orguardianmayfilethesame.
Therighttofiletheactiongrantedtoparents,grandparentsorguardianshallbeexclusiveofallotherpersonsandshallbe
exercisedsuccessivelyintheorderhereinprovided,exceptasstatedintheprecedingparagraph.
Nocriminalactionfordefamationwhichconsistsintheimputationoftheoffensesmentionedaboveshallbebroughtexceptat
theinstanceofanduponcomplaintfiledbytheoffendedparty.(5a)
Theprosecutionforviolationofspeciallawsshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsthereof.(n)
Section 6. Sufficiency of complaint or information. A complaint or information is sufficient if it states the name of the
accusedthedesignationoftheoffensegivenbythestatutetheactsoromissionscomplainedofasconstitutingtheoffense
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thenameoftheoffendedpartytheapproximatedateofthecommissionoftheoffenseandtheplacewheretheoffensewas
committed.
Whenanoffenseiscommittedbymorethanoneperson,allofthemshallbeincludedinthecomplaintorinformation.(6a)
Section7.Nameoftheaccused.Thecomplaintorinformationmuststatethenameandsurnameoftheaccusedorany
appellationornicknamebywhichhehasbeenorisknown.Ifhisnamecannotbeascertained,hemustbedescribedundera
fictitiousnamewithastatementthathistruenameisunknown.
Ifthetruenameoftheaccusedisthereafterdisclosedbyhimorappearsinsomeothermannertothecourt,suchtruename
shallbeinsertedinthecomplaintorinformationandrecord.(7a)
Section8.Designationoftheoffense.Thecomplaintorinformationshallstatethedesignationoftheoffensegivenbythe
statute,avertheactsoromissionsconstitutingtheoffense,andspecifyitsqualifyingandaggravatingcircumstances.Ifthere
isnodesignationoftheoffense,referenceshallbemadetothesectionorsubsectionofthestatutepunishingit.(8a)
Section9.Causeoftheaccusation.Theactsoromissionscomplainedofasconstitutingtheoffenseandthequalifyingand
aggravatingcircumstancesmustbestatedinordinaryandconciselanguageandnotnecessarilyinthelanguageusedinthe
statutebutintermssufficienttoenableapersonofcommonunderstandingtoknowwhatoffenseisbeingchargedaswellas
itsqualifyingandaggravatingcircumstancesandforthecourttopronouncejudgment.(9a)
Section10.Placeofcommissionoftheoffense.Thecomplaintorinformationissufficientifitcanbeunderstoodfromits
allegationsthattheoffensewascommittedorsomeoftheessentialingredientsoccurredatsomeplacewithinthejurisdiction
ofthecourt,unlesstheparticularplacewhereitwascommittedconstitutesanessentialelementoftheoffenseorisnecessary
foritsidentification.(10a)
Section11.Dateofcommissionoftheoffense.Itisnotnecessarytostateinthecomplaintorinformationtheprecisedate
theoffensewascommittedexceptwhenitisamaterialingredientoftheoffense.Theoffensemaybeallegedtohavebeen
committedonadateasnearaspossibletotheactualdateofitscommission.(11a)
Section12.Nameoftheoffendedparty.Thecomplaintorinformationmuststatethenameandsurnameoftheperson
againstwhomoragainstwhosepropertytheoffensewascommitted,oranyappellationornicknamebywhichsuchperson
hasbeenorisknown.Ifthereisnobetterwayofidentifyinghim,hemustbedescribedunderafictitiousname.
(a)Inoffensesagainstproperty,ifthenameoftheoffendedpartyisunknown,thepropertymustbedescribedwith
suchparticularityastoproperlyidentifytheoffensecharged.
(b) If the true name of the of the person against whom or against whose properly the offense was committed is
thereafterdisclosedorascertained,thecourtmustcausethetruenametobeinsertedinthecomplaintorinformation
andtherecord.
(c)Iftheoffendedpartyisajuridicalperson,itissufficienttostateitsname,oranynameordesignationbywhichitis
knownorbywhichitmaybeidentified,withoutneedofaverringthatitisajuridicalpersonorthatitisorganizedin
accordancewithlaw.(12a)
Section 13. Duplicity of the offense. A complaint or information must charge but one offense, except when the law
prescribesasinglepunishmentforvariousoffenses.(13a)
Section14.Amendmentorsubstitution. A complaint or information may be amended, in form or in substance, without
leaveofcourt,atanytimebeforetheaccusedentershisplea.Afterthepleaandduringthetrial,aformalamendmentmay
onlybemadewithleaveofcourtandwhenitcanbedonewithoutcausingprejudicetotherightsoftheaccused.
However,anyamendmentbeforeplea,whichdowngradesthenatureoftheoffensechargedinorexcludesanyaccusedfrom
thecomplaintorinformation,canbemadeonlyuponmotionbytheprosecutor,withnoticetotheoffendedpartyandwith
leaveofcourt.Thecourtshallstateitsreasonsinresolvingthemotionandcopiesofitsordershallbefurnishedallparties,
especiallytheoffendedparty.(n)
Ifitappearsatanytimebeforejudgmentthatamistakehasbeenmadeinchargingtheproperoffense,thecourtshalldismiss
theoriginalcomplaintorinformationuponthefilingofanewonechargingtheproperoffenseinaccordancewithsection19,
Rule119,providedtheaccusedshallnotbeplacedindoublejeopardy.Thecourtmayrequirethewitnessestogivebailfor
theirappearanceatthetrial.(14a)
Section15.Placewhereactionistobeinstituted.
(a)Subjecttoexistinglaws,thecriminalactionshallbeinstitutedandtriedinthecourtofthemunicipalityorterritory
wheretheoffensewascommittedorwhereanyofitsessentialingredientsoccurred.
(b)Whereanoffenseiscommittedinatrain,aircraft,orotherpublicorprivatevehiclewhileinthecourseofitstrip,the
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criminalactionshallbeinstitutedandtriedinthecourtofanymunicipalityorterritorywheresuchtrain,aircraftorother
vehiclepassedduringsuchitstrip,includingtheplaceofitsdepartureandarrival.
(c)Whereanoffenseiscommittedonboardavesselinthecourseofitsvoyage,thecriminalactionshallbeinstituted
andtriedinthecourtofthefirstportofentryorofanymunicipalityorterritorywherethevesselpassedduringsuch
voyage,subjecttothegenerallyacceptedprinciplesofinternationallaw.
(d) Crimes committed outside the Philippines but punishable under Article 2 of the Revised Penal Code shall be
cognizablebythecourtwherethecriminalactionisfirstfiled.(15a)
Section 16. Intervention of the offended party in criminal action. Where the civil action for recovery of civil liability is
institutedinthecriminalactionpursuanttoRule111,theoffendedpartymayintervenebycounselintheprosecutionofthe
offense.(16a)

RULE111
ProsecutionofCivilAction
Section1.Institutionofcriminalandcivilactions.(a)Whenacriminalactionisinstituted,thecivilactionfortherecoveryof
civilliabilityarisingfromtheoffensechargedshallbedeemedinstitutedwiththecriminalactionunlesstheoffendedparty
waivesthecivilaction,reservestherighttoinstituteitseparatelyorinstitutesthecivilactionpriortothecriminalaction.
Thereservationoftherighttoinstituteseparatelythecivilactionshallbemadebeforetheprosecutionstartspresentingits
evidenceandundercircumstancesaffordingtheoffendedpartyareasonableopportunitytomakesuchreservation.
When the offended party seeks to enforce civil liability against the accused by way of moral, nominal, temperate, or
exemplary damages without specifying the amount thereof in the complaint or information, the filing fees thereof shall
constituteafirstlienonthejudgmentawardingsuchdamages.
Wheretheamountofdamages,otherthanactual,isspecifiedinthecomplaintorinformation,thecorrespondingfilingfees
shallbepaidbytheoffendedpartyuponthefilingthereofincourt.
ExceptasotherwiseprovidedintheseRules,nofilingfeesshallberequiredforactualdamages.
No counterclaim, crossclaim or thirdparty complaint may be filed by the accused in the criminal case, but any cause of
actionwhichcouldhavebeenthesubjectthereofmaybelitigatedinaseparatecivilaction.(1a)
(b)ThecriminalactionforviolationofBatasPambansaBlg.22shallbedeemedtoincludethecorrespondingcivilaction.No
reservationtofilesuchcivilactionseparatelyshallbeallowed.
Uponfilingoftheaforesaidjointcriminalandcivilactions,theoffendedpartyshallpayinfullthefilingfeesbasedonthe
amountofthecheckinvolved,whichshallbeconsideredastheactualdamagesclaimed.Wherethecomplaintorinformation
alsoseekstorecoverliquidated,moral,nominal,temperateorexemplarydamages,theoffendedpartyshallpayadditional
filing fees based on the amounts alleged therein. If the amounts are not so alleged but any of these damages are
subsequentlyawardedbythecourt,thefilingfeesbasedontheamountawardedshallconstituteafirstlienonthejudgment.
Wherethecivilactionhasbeenfiledseparatelyandtrialthereofhasnotyetcommenced,itmaybeconsolidatedwiththe
criminalactionuponapplicationwiththecourttryingthelattercase.Iftheapplicationisgranted,thetrialofbothactionsshall
proceedinaccordancewithsection2ofthisRulegoverningconsolidationofthecivilandcriminalactions.(cir.5797)
Section2.When separate civil action is suspended. After the criminal action has been commenced, the separate civil
actionarisingtherefromcannotbeinstituteduntilfinaljudgmenthasbeenenteredinthecriminalaction.
Ifthecriminalactionisfiledafterthesaidcivilactionhasalreadybeeninstituted,thelattershallbesuspendedinwhatever
stageitmaybefoundbeforejudgmentonthemerits.Thesuspensionshalllastuntilfinaljudgmentisrenderedinthecriminal
action.Nevertheless,beforejudgmentonthemeritsisrenderedinthecivilaction,thesamemay,uponmotionoftheoffended
party,beconsolidatedwiththecriminalactioninthecourttryingthecriminalaction.Incaseofconsolidation,theevidence
alreadyadducedinthecivilactionshallbedeemedautomaticallyreproducedinthecriminalactionwithoutprejudicetothe
rightoftheprosecutiontocrossexaminethewitnessespresentedbytheoffendedpartyinthecriminalcaseandoftheparties
topresentadditionalevidence.Theconsolidatedcriminalandcivilactionsshallbetriedanddecidedjointly.
During the pendency of the criminal action, the running of the period of prescription of the civil action which cannot be
institutedseparatelyorwhoseproceedinghasbeensuspendedshallbetolled.(n)
Theextinctionofthepenalactiondoesnotcarrywithitextinctionofthecivilaction.However,thecivilactionbasedondelict
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shallbedeemedextinguishedifthereisafindinginafinaljudgmentinthecriminalactionthattheactoromissionfromwhich
thecivilliabilitymayarisedidnotexist.(2a)
Section3.Whencivilactionmayproceededindependently.InthecasesprovidedforinArticles32,33,34and2176ofthe
Civil Code of the Philippines, the independent civil action may be brought by the offended party. It shall proceed
independently of the criminal action and shall require only a preponderance of evidence. In no case, however, may the
offendedpartyrecoverdamagestwiceforthesameactoromissionchargedinthecriminalaction.(3a)
Section4.Effectofdeathoncivilactions. The death of the accused after arraignment and during the pendency of the
criminalactionshallextinguishthecivilliabilityarisingfromthedelict.However,theindependentcivilactioninstitutedunder
section 3 of this Rule or which thereafter is instituted to enforce liability arising from other sources of obligation may be
continued against the estate or legal representative of the accused after proper substitution or against said estate, as the
casemaybe.Theheirsoftheaccusedmaybesubstitutedforthedeceasedwithoutrequiringtheappointmentofanexecutor
oradministratorandthecourtmayappointaguardianadlitemfortheminorheirs.
Thecourtshallforthwithordersaidlegalrepresentativeorrepresentativestoappearandbesubstitutedwithinaperiodof
thirty(30)daysfromnotice.
Afinaljudgmententeredinfavoroftheoffendedpartyshallbeenforcedinthemannerespeciallyprovidedintheserulesfor
prosecutingclaimsagainsttheestateofthedeceased.
Iftheaccuseddiesbeforearraignment,thecaseshallbedismissedwithoutprejudicetoanycivilactiontheoffendedparty
mayfileagainsttheestateofthedeceased.(n)
Section5.Judgmentincivilactionnotabar.Afinaljudgmentrenderedinacivilactionabsolvingthedefendantfromcivil
liabilityisnotabartoacriminalactionagainstthedefendantforthesameactoromissionsubjectofthecivilaction.(4a)
Section6.Suspensionbyreasonofprejudicialquestion.Apetitionforsuspensionofthecriminalactionbaseduponthe
pendencyofaprejudicialquestioninacivilactionmaybefiledintheofficeoftheprosecutororthecourtconductingthe
preliminaryinvestigation.Whenthecriminalactionhasbeenfiledincourtfortrial,thepetitiontosuspendshallbefiledinthe
samecriminalactionatanytimebeforetheprosecutionrests.(6a)
Section7.Elementsofprejudicialquestion.Theelementsofaprejudicialquestionare:(a)thepreviouslyinstitutedcivil
action involves an issue similar or intimately related to the issue raised in the subsequent criminal action, and (b) the
resolutionofsuchissuedetermineswhetherornotthecriminalactionmayproceed.(5a)

RULE112
PreliminaryInvestigation
Section 1. Preliminary investigation defined when required. Preliminary investigation is an inquiry or proceeding to
determine whether there is sufficient ground to engender a wellfounded belief that a crime has been committed and the
respondentisprobablyguiltythereof,andshouldbeheldfortrial.
Except as provided in section 7 of this Rule, a preliminary investigation is required to be conducted before the filing of a
complaintorinformationforanoffensewherethepenaltyprescribedbylawisatleastfour(4)years,two(2)monthsandone
(1)daywithoutregardtothefine.(1a)
Section2.Officersauthorizedtoconductpreliminaryinvestigations.
Thefollowingmayconductpreliminaryinvestigations:
(a)ProvincialorCityProsecutorsandtheirassistants
(b)JudgesoftheMunicipalTrialCourtsandMunicipalCircuitTrialCourts
(c)NationalandRegionalStateProsecutorsand
(d)Otherofficersasmaybeauthorizedbylaw.
Theirauthoritytoconductpreliminaryinvestigationsshallincludeallcrimescognizablebythepropercourtintheirrespective
territorialjurisdictions.(2a)
Section3.Procedure.Thepreliminaryinvestigationshallbeconductedinthefollowingmanner:
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(a) The complaint shall state the address of the respondent and shall be accompanied by the affidavits of the
complainantandhiswitnesses,aswellasothersupportingdocumentstoestablishprobablecause.Theyshallbein
such number of copies as there are respondents, plus two (2) copies for the official file. The affidavits shall be
subscribed and sworn to before any prosecutor or government official authorized to administer oath, or, in their
absenceorunavailability,beforeanotarypublic,eachofwhomustcertifythathepersonallyexaminedtheaffiants
andthatheissatisfiedthattheyvoluntarilyexecutedandunderstoodtheiraffidavits.
(b)Withinten(10)daysafterthefilingofthecomplaint,theinvestigatingofficershalleitherdismissitifhefindsno
groundtocontinuewiththeinvestigation,orissueasubpoenatotherespondentattachingtoitacopyofthecomplaint
anditssupportingaffidavitsanddocuments.
Therespondentshallhavetherighttoexaminetheevidencesubmittedbythecomplainantwhichhemaynothave
beenfurnishedandtocopythemathisexpense.Iftheevidenceisvoluminous,thecomplainantmayberequiredto
specifythosewhichheintendstopresentagainsttherespondent,andtheseshallbemadeavailableforexamination
orcopyingbytherespondentathisexpense.
Objects as evidence need not be furnished a party but shall be made available for examination, copying, or
photographingattheexpenseoftherequestingparty.
(c)Withinten(10)daysfromreceiptofthesubpoenawiththecomplaintandsupportingaffidavitsanddocuments,the
respondentshallsubmithiscounteraffidavitandthatofhiswitnessesandothersupportingdocumentsrelieduponfor
hisdefense.Thecounteraffidavitsshallbesubscribedandsworntoandcertifiedasprovidedinparagraph(a)ofthis
section,withcopiesthereoffurnishedbyhimtothecomplainant.Therespondentshallnotbeallowedtofileamotion
todismissinlieuofacounteraffidavit.
(d)Iftherespondentcannotbesubpoenaed,orifsubpoenaed,doesnotsubmitcounteraffidavitswithintheten(10)
dayperiod,theinvestigatingofficershallresolvethecomplaintbasedontheevidencepresentedbythecomplainant.
(e)Theinvestigatingofficermaysetahearingiftherearefactsandissuestobeclarifiedfromapartyorawitness.The
partiescanbepresentatthehearingbutwithouttherighttoexamineorcrossexamine.Theymay,however,submitto
theinvestigatingofficerquestionswhichmaybeaskedtothepartyorwitnessconcerned.
Thehearingshallbeheldwithinten(10)daysfromsubmissionofthecounteraffidavitsandotherdocumentsorfrom
theexpirationoftheperiodfortheirsubmission.Itshallbeterminatedwithinfive(5)days.
(f)Withinten(10)daysaftertheinvestigation,theinvestigatingofficershalldeterminewhetherornotthereissufficient
groundtoholdtherespondentfortrial.(3a)
Section4.Resolution of investigating prosecutor and its review. If the investigating prosecutor finds cause to hold the
respondentfortrial,heshallpreparetheresolutionandinformation.Heshallcertifyunderoathintheinformationthathe,or
as shown by the record, an authorized officer, has personally examined the complainant and his witnesses that there is
reasonable ground to believe that a crime has been committed and that the accused is probably guilty thereof that the
accusedwasinformedofthecomplaintandoftheevidencesubmittedagainsthimandthathewasgivenanopportunityto
submitcontrovertingevidence.Otherwise,heshallrecommendthedismissalofthecomplaint.
Withinfive(5)daysfromhisresolution,heshallforwardtherecordofthecasetotheprovincialorcityprosecutororchiefstate
prosecutor,ortotheOmbudsmanorhisdeputyincasesofoffensescognizablebytheSandiganbayanintheexerciseofits
original jurisdiction. They shall act on the resolution within ten (10) days from their receipt thereof and shall immediately
informthepartiesofsuchaction.
Nocomplaintorinformationmaybefiledordismissedbyaninvestigatingprosecutorwithoutthepriorwrittenauthorityor
approvaloftheprovincialorcityprosecutororchiefstateprosecutorortheOmbudsmanorhisdeputy.
Wheretheinvestigatingprosecutorrecommendsthedismissalofthecomplaintbuthisrecommendationisdisapprovedby
the provincial or city prosecutor or chief state prosecutor or the Ombudsman or his deputy on the ground that a probable
causeexists,thelattermay,byhimself,filetheinformationagainsttherespondent,ordirectanyotherassistantprosecutoror
stateprosecutortodosowithoutconductinganotherpreliminaryinvestigation.
IfuponpetitionbyaproperpartyundersuchrulesastheDepartmentofJusticemayprescribeormotuproprio,theSecretary
ofJusticereversesormodifiestheresolutionoftheprovincialorcityprosecutororchiefstateprosecutor,heshalldirectthe
prosecutorconcernedeithertofilethecorrespondinginformationwithoutconductinganotherpreliminaryinvestigation,orto
dismiss or move for dismissal of the complaint or information with notice to the parties. The same rule shall apply in
preliminaryinvestigationsconductedbytheofficersoftheOfficeoftheOmbudsman.(4a)
Section5.Resolutionofinvestigatingjudgeanditsreview. Within ten (10) days after the preliminary investigation, the
investigatingjudgeshalltransmittheresolutionofthecasetotheprovincialorcityprosecutor,ortotheOmbudsmanorhis
deputyincasesofoffensescognizablebytheSandiganbayanintheexerciseofitsoriginaljurisdiction,forappropriateaction.
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Theresolutionshallstatethefindingsoffactsandthelawsupportinghisaction,togetherwiththerecordofthecasewhich
shallinclude:(a)thewarrant,ifthearrestisbyvirtueofawarrant(b)theaffidavits,counteraffidavitsandothersupporting
evidence of the parties (c) the undertaking or bail of the accused and the order for his release (d) the transcripts of the
proceedingsduringthepreliminaryinvestigationand(e)theorderofcancellationofhisbailbond,iftheresolutionisforthe
dismissalofthecomplaint.
Withinthirty(30)daysfromreceiptoftherecords,theprovincialorcityprosecutor,ortheOmbudsmanorhisdeputy,asthe
case may be, shall review the resolution of the investigating judge on the existence of probable cause. Their ruling shall
expresslyandclearlystatethefactsandthelawonwhichitisbasedandthepartiesshallbefurnishedwithcopiesthereof.
Theyshallorderthereleaseofanaccusedwhoisdetainedifnoprobablecauseisfoundagainsthim.(5a)
Section6.Whenwarrantofarrestmayissue.(a)BytheRegionalTrialCourt.Withinten(10)daysfromthefilingofthe
complaintorinformation,thejudgeshallpersonallyevaluatetheresolutionoftheprosecutoranditssupportingevidence.He
mayimmediatelydismissthecaseiftheevidenceonrecordclearlyfailstoestablishprobablecause.Ifhefindsprobable
cause, he shall issue a warrant of arrest, or a commitment order if the accused has already been arrested pursuant to a
warrant issued by the judge who conducted the preliminary investigation or when the complaint or information was filed
pursuanttosection7ofthisRule.Incaseofdoubtontheexistenceofprobablecause,thejudgemayordertheprosecutorto
presentadditionalevidencewithinfive(5)daysfromnoticeandtheissuemustberesolvedbythecourtwithinthirty(30)days
fromthefilingofthecomplaintofinformation.
(b)BytheMunicipalTrialCourt.Whenrequiredpursuanttothesecondparagraphofsection1ofthisRule,thepreliminary
investigation of cases falling under the original jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Trial Court, Municipal Trial Court in Cities,
Municipal Trial Court, or Municipal Circuit Trial Court may be conducted by either the judge or the prosecutor. When
conducted by the prosecutor, the procedure for the issuance of a warrant or arrest by the judge shall be governed by
paragraph (a) of this section. When the investigation is conducted by the judge himself, he shall follow the procedure
providedinsection3ofthisRule.Ifthefindingsandrecommendationsareaffirmedbytheprovincialorcityprosecutor,orby
theOmbudsmanorhisdeputy,andthecorrespondinginformationisfiled,heshallissueawarrantofarrest.However,without
waiting for the conclusion of the investigation, the judge may issue a warrant of arrest if he finds after an examination in
writingandunderoathofthecomplainantandhiswitnessesintheformofsearchingquestionandanswers,thataprobable
causeexistsandthatthereisanecessityofplacingtherespondentunderimmediatecustodyinordernottofrustratetheends
ofjustice.
(c)When warrant of arrest not necessary. A warrant of arrest shall not issue if the accused is already under detention
pursuanttoawarrantissuedbythemunicipaltrialcourtinaccordancewithparagraph(b)ofthissection,orifthecomplaintor
information was filed pursuant to section 7 of this Rule or is for an offense penalized by fine only. The court shall then
proceedintheexerciseofitsoriginaljurisdiction.(6a)
Section7.Whenaccusedlawfullyarrestedwithoutwarrant.Whenapersonislawfullyarrestedwithoutawarrantinvolving
anoffensewhichrequiresapreliminaryinvestigation,thecomplaintorinformationmaybefiledbyaprosecutorwithoutneed
of such investigation provided an inquest has been conducted in accordance with existing rules. In the absence or
unavailabilityofaninquestprosecutor,thecomplaintmaybefiledbytheoffendedpartyorapeaceofficedirectlywiththe
propercourtonthebasisoftheaffidavitoftheoffendedpartyorarrestingofficerorperson.
Beforethecomplaintorinformationisfiled,thepersonarrestedmayaskforapreliminaryinvestigationinaccordancewith
thisRule,buthemustsignawaiveroftheprovisionsofArticle125oftheRevisedPenalCode,asamended,inthepresence
ofhiscounsel.Notwithstandingthewaiver,hemayapplyforbailandtheinvestigationmustbeterminatedwithinfifteen(15)
daysfromitsinception.
Afterthefilingofthecomplaintorinformationincourtwithoutapreliminaryinvestigation,theaccusedmay,withinfive(5)days
fromthetimehelearnsofitsfiling,askforapreliminaryinvestigationwiththesamerighttoadduceevidenceinhisdefense
asprovidedinthisRule.(7asec.2,R.A.No.7438)
Section8.Records.(a)Recordssupportingtheinformationorcomplaint.Aninformationorcomplaintfiledincourtshall
be supported by the affidavits and counteraffidavits of the parties and their witnesses, together with the other supporting
evidenceandtheresolutiononthecase.
(b)Recordofpreliminaryinvestigation. The record of the preliminary investigation, whether conducted by a judge or a
fiscal,shallnotformpartoftherecordofthecase.However,thecourt,onitsowninitiativeoronmotionofanyparty,may
ordertheproductionoftherecordoranyitspartwhennecessaryintheresolutionofthecaseoranyincidenttherein,orwhen
itistobeintroducedasanevidenceinthecasebytherequestingparty.(8a)
Section9.CasesnotrequiringapreliminaryinvestigationnorcoveredbytheRuleonSummaryProcedure.
(a)Iffiledwiththeprosecutor.Ifthecomplaintisfileddirectlywiththeprosecutorinvolvinganoffensepunishableby
imprisonmentoflessfour(4)years,two(2)monthsandone(1)day,theprocedureoutlinedinsection3(a)ofthisRule
shallbeobserved.Theprosecutorshallactonthecomplaintbasedontheaffidavitsandothersupportingdocuments
submittedbythecomplainantwithinten(10)daysfromitsfiling.
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(b)IffiledwiththeMunicipalTrialCourt.IfthecomplaintorinformationisfileddirectlywiththeMunicipalTrialCourt
orMunicipalCircuitTrialCourtforanoffensecoveredbythissection,theprocedureinsection3(a)ofthisRuleshall
beobserved.Ifwithinten(10)daysafterthefilingofthecomplaintorinformation,thejudgefindsnoprobablecause
afterpersonallyevaluatingtheevidence,orafterpersonallyexamininginwritingandunderoaththecomplainantand
hiswitnessesintheformofsearchingquestionandanswers,heshalldismissthesame.Hemay,however,require
thesubmissionofadditionalevidence,withinten(10)daysfromnotice,todeterminefurthertheexistenceofprobable
cause.Ifthejudgestillfindsnoprobablecausedespitetheadditionalevidence,heshall,withinten(10)daysfromits
submissionorexpirationofsaidperiod,dismissthecase.Whenhefindsprobablecause,heshallissueawarrantof
arrest,oracommitmentorderiftheaccusedhadalreadybeenarrested,andholdhimfortrial.However,ifthejudgeis
satisfiedthatthereisnonecessityforplacingtheaccusedundercustody,hemayissuesummonsinsteadofawarrant
ofarrest.(9a)

RULE113
Arrest
Section1.Definitionofarrest.Arrestisthetakingofapersonintocustodyinorderthathemaybeboundtoanswerforthe
commissionofanoffense.(1)
Section2.Arresthowmade.Anarrestismadebyanactualrestraintofapersontobearrested,orbyhissubmissionto
thecustodyofthepersonmakingthearrest.
Noviolenceorunnecessaryforceshallbeusedinmakinganarrest.Thepersonarrestedshallnotbesubjecttoagreater
restraintthanisnecessaryforhisdetention.(2a)
Section3.Dutyofarrestingofficer.Itshallbethedutyoftheofficerexecutingthewarranttoarresttheaccusedandto
deliverhimtothenearestpolicestationorjailwithoutunnecessarydelay.(3a)
Section4.Executionofwarrant.Theheadoftheofficetowhomthewarrantofarrestwasdeliveredforexecutionshall
causethewarranttobeexecutedwithinten(10)daysfromitsreceipt.Withinten(10)daysaftertheexpirationoftheperiod,
theofficertowhomitwasassignedforexecutionshallmakeareporttothejudgewhoissuedthewarrant.Incaseofhis
failuretoexecutethewarrant,heshallstatethereasonstherefor.(4a)
Section5.Arrestwithoutwarrantwhenlawful.Apeaceofficeroraprivatepersonmay,withoutawarrant,arrestaperson:
(a)When,inhispresence,thepersontobearrestedhascommitted,isactuallycommitting,orisattemptingtocommit
anoffense
(b)Whenanoffensehasjustbeencommitted,andhehasprobablecausetobelievebasedonpersonalknowledgeof
factsorcircumstancesthatthepersontobearrestedhascommitteditand
(c)Whenthepersontobearrestedisaprisonerwhohasescapedfromapenalestablishmentorplacewhereheis
servingfinaljudgmentoristemporarilyconfinedwhilehiscaseispending,orhasescapedwhilebeingtransferred
fromoneconfinementtoanother.
Incasesfallingunderparagraph(a)and(b)above,thepersonarrestedwithoutawarrantshallbeforthwithdeliveredtothe
nearestpolicestationorjailandshallbeproceededagainstinaccordancewithsection7ofRule112.(5a)
Section6.Timeofmakingarrest.Anarrestmaybemadeonanydayandatanytimeofthedayornight.(6)
Section7.Methodofarrestbyofficerbyvirtueofwarrant.Whenmakinganarrestbyvirtueofawarrant,theofficershall
informthepersontobearrestedofthecauseofthearrestandofthefactthatawarranthasbeenissuedforhisarrest,except
whenhefleesorforciblyresistsbeforetheofficerhasopportunitytosoinformhim,orwhenthegivingofsuchinformationwill
imperilthearrest.Theofficerneednothavethewarrantinhispossessionatthetimeofthearrestbutafterthearrest,ifthe
personarrestedsorequires,thewarrantshallbeshowntohimassoonaspracticable.(7a)
Section8.Methodofarrestbyofficerwithoutwarrant.Whenmakinganarrestwithoutawarrant,theofficershallinformthe
persontobearrestedofhisauthorityandthecauseofthearrest,unlessthelatteriseitherengagedinthecommissionofan
offense,ispursuedimmediatelyafteritscommission,hasescaped,fleesorforciblyresistsbeforetheofficerhasopportunity
sotoinformhim,orwhenthegivingofsuchinformationwillimperilthearrest.(8a)
Section9.Method of arrest by private person. When making an arrest, a private person shall inform the person to be
arrestedoftheintentiontoarresthimandcauseofthearrest,unlessthelatteriseitherengagedinthecommissionofan
offense,ispursuedimmediatelyafteritscommission,orhasescaped,flees,orforciblyresistsbeforethepersonmakingthe
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arresthasopportunitytosoinformhim,orwhenthegivingofsuchinformationwillimperilthearrest.(9a)
Section10.Officermaysummonassistance.Anofficermakingalawfularrestmayorallysummonasmanypersonsashe
deemsnecessarytoassisthimineffectingthearrest.Everypersonsosummonedbyanofficershallassisthimineffectingthe
arrestwhenhecanrendersuchassistancewithoutdetrimenttohimself.(10a)
Section11.Rightofofficertobreakintobuildingorenclosure.Anofficer,inordertomakeanarresteitherbyvirtueofa
warrant, or without a warrant as provided in section 5, may break into any building or enclosure where the person to be
arrestedisorisreasonablybelievedtobe,ifheisrefusedadmittancethereto,afterannouncinghisauthorityandpurpose.
(11a)
Section12.Righttobreakoutfrombuildingorenclosure.Wheneveranofficerhasenteredthebuildingorenclosurein
accordancewiththeprecedingsection,hemaybreakouttherefromwhennecessarytoliberatehimself.(12a)
Section13.Arrestafterescapeorrescue.Ifapersonlawfullyarrestedescapesorisrescued,anypersonmayimmediately
pursueorretakehimwithoutawarrantatanytimeandinanyplacewithinthePhilippines.(13)
Section14.Rightofattorneyorrelativetovisitpersonarrested.AnymemberofthePhilippineBarshall,attherequestof
thepersonarrestedorofanotheractinginhisbehalf,havetherighttovisitandconferprivatelywithsuchpersoninthejailor
anyotherplaceofcustodyatanyhourofthedayornight.Subjecttoreasonableregulations,arelativeofthepersonarrested
canalsoexercisethesameright.(14a)

RULE114
Bail
Section1.Baildefined.Bailisthesecuritygivenforthereleaseofapersonincustodyofthelaw,furnishedbyhimora
bondsman,toguaranteehisappearancebeforeanycourtasrequiredundertheconditionshereinafterspecified.Bailmaybe
givenintheformofcorporatesurety,propertybond,cashdeposit,orrecognizance.(1a)
Section2.Conditionsofthebailrequirements.Allkindsofbailaresubjecttothefollowingconditions:
(a)Theundertakingshallbeeffectiveuponapproval,andunlesscancelled,shallremaininforceatallstagesofthe
caseuntilpromulgationofthejudgmentoftheRegionalTrialCourt,irrespectiveofwhetherthecasewasoriginally
filedinorappealedtoit
(b)TheaccusedshallappearbeforethepropercourtwheneverrequiredbythecourtoftheseRules
(c) The failure of the accused to appear at the trial without justification and despite due notice shall be deemed a
waiverofhisrighttobepresentthereat.Insuchcase,thetrialmayproceedinabsentiaand
(d)Thebondsmanshallsurrendertheaccusedtothecourtforexecutionofthefinaljudgment.
Theoriginalpapersshallstatethefullnameandaddressoftheaccused,theamountoftheundertakingandtheconditions
hereinrequired.Photographs(passportsize)takenwithinthelastsix(6)monthsshowingtheface,leftandrightprofilesofthe
accusedmustbeattachedtothebail.(2a)
Section3.No release or transfer except on court order or bail. No person under detention by legal process shall be
releasedortransferredexceptuponorderofthecourtorwhenheisadmittedtobail.(3a)
Section4. Bail, a matter of right exception. All persons in custody shall be admitted to bail as a matter of right, with
sufficient sureties, or released on recognize as prescribed by law or this Rule (a) before or after conviction by the
MetropolitanTrialCourt,MunicipalTrialCourt,MunicipalTrialCourtinCities,orMunicipalCircuitTrialCourt,and(b)before
convictionbytheRegionalTrialCourtofanoffensenotpunishablebydeath,reclusionperpetua,orlifeimprisonment.(4a)
Section5.Bail,whendiscretionary.UponconvictionbytheRegionalTrialCourtofanoffensenotpunishablebydeath,
reclusionperpetua,orlifeimprisonment,admissiontobailisdiscretionary.Theapplicationforbailmaybefiledandacted
upon by the trial court despite the filing of a notice of appeal, provided it has not transmitted the original record to the
appellatecourt.However,ifthedecisionofthetrialcourtconvictingtheaccusedchangedthenatureoftheoffensefromnon
bailabletobailable,theapplicationforbailcanonlybefiledwithandresolvedbytheappellatecourt.
Shouldthecourtgranttheapplication,theaccusedmaybeallowedtocontinueonprovisionallibertyduringthependencyof
theappealunderthesamebailsubjecttotheconsentofthebondsman.
Ifthepenaltyimposedbythetrialcourtisimprisonmentexceedingsix(6)years,theaccusedshallbedeniedbail,orhisbail
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shall be cancelled upon a showing by the prosecution, with notice to the accused, of the following or other similar
circumstances:
(a) That he is a recidivist, quasirecidivist, or habitual delinquent, or has committed the crime aggravated by the
circumstanceofreiteration
(b)Thathehaspreviouslyescapedfromlegalconfinement,evadedsentence,orviolatedtheconditionsofhisbail
withoutvalidjustification
(c)Thathecommittedtheoffensewhileunderprobation,parole,orconditionalpardon
(d)Thatthecircumstancesofhiscaseindicatetheprobabilityofflightifreleasedonbailor
(e)Thatthereisundueriskthathemaycommitanothercrimeduringthependencyoftheappeal.
Theappellatecourtmay,motupropriooronmotionofanyparty,reviewtheresolutionoftheRegionalTrialCourtafternotice
totheadversepartyineithercase.(5a)
Section 6. Capital offense defined. A capital offense is an offense which, under the law existing at the time of its
commissionandoftheapplicationforadmissiontobail,maybepunishedwithdeath.(6a)
Section7.Capitaloffenseofanoffensepunishablebyreclusionperpetuaorlifeimprisonment,notbailable.Noperson
chargedwithacapitaloffense,oranoffensepunishablebyreclusionperpetuaorlifeimprisonment,shallbeadmittedtobail
whenevidenceofguiltisstrong,regardlessofthestageofthecriminalprosecution.(7a)
Section8.Burdenofproofinbailapplication.Atthehearingofanapplicationforbailfiledbyapersonwhoisincustody
for the commission of an offense punishable by death, reclusion perpetua, or life imprisonment, the prosecution has the
burden of showing that evidence of guilt is strong. The evidence presented during the bail hearing shall be considered
automatically reproduced at the trial, but upon motion of either party, the court may recall any witness for additional
examinationunlessthelatterisdead,outsidethePhilippines,orotherwiseunabletotestify.(8a)
Section9.Amountofbailguidelines.Thejudgewhoissuedthewarrantorgrantedtheapplicationshallfixareasonable
amountofbailconsideringprimarily,butnotlimitedto,thefollowingfactors:
(a)Financialabilityoftheaccusedtogivebail
(b)Natureandcircumstancesoftheoffense
(c)Penaltyfortheoffensecharged
(d)Characterandreputationoftheaccused
(e)Ageandhealthoftheaccused
(f)Weightoftheevidenceagainsttheaccused
(g)Probabilityoftheaccusedappearingatthetrial
(h)Forfeitureofotherbail
(i)Thefactthataccusedwasafugitivefromjusticewhenarrestedand
(j)Pendencyofothercaseswheretheaccusedisonbail.
Excessivebailshallnotberequired.(9a)
Section 10. Corporate surety. Any domestic or foreign corporation, licensed as a surety in accordance with law and
currently authorized to act as such, may provide bail by a bond subscribed jointly by the accused and an officer of the
corporationdulyauthorizedbyitsboardofdirectors.(10a)
Section11.Propertybond,howposted.Apropertybondisanundertakingconstitutedaslienontherealpropertygivenas
securityfortheamountofthebail.Withinten(10)daysaftertheapprovalofthebond,theaccusedshallcausetheannotation
of the lien on the certificate of title on file with the Register of Deeds if the land is registered, or if unregistered, in the
RegistrationBookonthespaceprovidedtherefor,intheRegistryofDeedsfortheprovinceorcitywherethelandlies,andon
thecorrespondingtaxdeclarationintheofficeoftheprovincial,cityandmunicipalassessorconcerned.
Withinthesameperiod,theaccusedshallsubmittothecourthiscomplianceandhisfailuretodososhallbesufficientcause
forthecancellationofthepropertybondandhisrearrestanddetention.(11a)
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Section12.Qualificationsofsuretiesinpropertybond.Thequalificationofsuretiesinapropertybondshallbeasfollows:
(a)EachmustbearesidentownerofrealestatewithinthePhilippines
(b)Wherethereisonlyonesurety,hisrealestatemustbeworthatleasttheamountoftheundertaking
(c)Iftherearetwoormoresureties,eachmayjustifyinanamountlessthanthatexpressedintheundertakingbutthe
aggregateofthejustifiedsumsmustbeequivalenttothewholeamountofbaildemanded.
In all cases, every surety must be worth the amount specified in his own undertaking over and above all just debts,
obligationsandpropertiesexemptfromexecution.(12a)
Section13.Justificationofsureties. Every surety shall justify by affidavit taken before the judge that he possesses the
qualificationsprescribedintheprecedingsection.Heshalldescribethepropertygivenassecurity,statingthenatureofhis
title, its encumbrances, the number and amount of other bails entered into by him and still undischarged, and his other
liabilities.Thecourtmayexaminethesuretiesuponoathconcerningtheirsufficiencyinsuchmannerasitmaydeemproper.
Nobailshallbeapprovedunlessthesuretyisqualified.(13a)
Section14.Depositofcashasbail.Theaccusedoranypersonactinginhisbehalfmaydepositincashwiththenearest
collectororinternalrevenueorprovincial,city,ormunicipaltreasurertheamountofbailfixedbythecourt,orrecommended
by the prosecutor who investigated or filed the case. Upon submission of a proper certificate of deposit and a written
undertaking showing compliance with the requirements of section 2 of this Rule, the accused shall be discharged from
custody.Themoneydepositedshallbeconsideredasbailandappliedtothepaymentoffineandcostswhiletheexcess,if
any,shallbereturnedtotheaccusedortowhoevermadethedeposit.(14a)
Section15.Recognizance.WheneverallowedbylawortheseRules,thecourtmayreleaseapersonincustodytohis
ownrecognizanceorthatofaresponsibleperson.(15a)
Section16.Bail,whennotrequiredreducedbailorrecognizance.NobailshallberequiredwhenthelawortheseRules
soprovide.
Whenapersonhasbeenincustodyforaperiodequaltoormorethanthepossiblemaximumimprisonmentprescribeforthe
offensecharged,heshallbereleasedimmediately,withoutprejudicetothecontinuationofthetrialortheproceedingson
appeal.Ifthemaximumpenaltytowhichtheaccusedmaybesentencedisdestierro,heshallbereleasedafterthirty(30)
daysofpreventiveimprisonment.
A person in custody for a period equal to or more than the minimum of the principal penalty prescribed for the offense
charged, without application of the Indeterminate Sentence Law or any modifying circumstance, shall be released on a
reducedbailoronhisownrecognizance,atthediscretionofthecourt.(16a)
Section17.Bail,wherefiled.(a)Bailintheamountfixedmaybefiledwiththecourtwherethecaseispending,orinthe
absenceorunavailabilityofthejudgethereof,withanyregionaltrialjudge,metropolitantrialjudge,municipaltrialjudge,or
municipalcircuittrialjudgeintheprovince,city,ormunicipality.Iftheaccusedisarrestedinaprovince,city,ormunicipality
otherthanwherethecaseispending,bailmayalsobefiledwithanyregionaltrialcourtofsaidplace,orifnojudgethereofis
available,withanymetropolitantrialjudge,municipaltrialjudge,ormunicipalcircuittrialjudgetherein.
(b) Where the grant of bail is a matter of discretion, or the accused seeks to be released on recognizance, the
applicationmayonlybefiledinthecourtwherethecaseispending,whetheronpreliminaryinvestigation,trial,oron
appeal.
(c)Anypersonincustodywhoisnotyetchargedincourtmayapplyforbailwithanycourtintheprovince,city,or
municipalitywhereheisheld.(17a)
Section18.Noticeofapplicationtoprosecutor.Intheapplicationforbailundersection8ofthisRule,thecourtmustgive
reasonablenoticeofthehearingtotheprosecutororrequirehimtosubmithisrecommendation.(18a)
Section19.Releaseonbail.Theaccusedmustbedischargeduponapprovalofthebailbythejudgewithwhomitwas
filedinaccordancewithsection17ofthisRule.
Wheneverbailisfiledwithacourtotherthanwherethecaseispending,thejudgewhoacceptedthebailshallforwardit,
togetherwiththeorderofreleaseandothersupportingpapers,tothecourtwherethecaseispending,whichmay,forgood
reason,requireadifferentonetobefiled.(19a)
Section20.Increaseorreductionofbail.Aftertheaccusedisadmittedtobail,thecourtmay,upongoodcause,either
increaseorreduceitsamount.Whenincreased,theaccusedmaybecommittedtocustodyifhedoesnotgivebailinthe
increasedamountwithinareasonableperiod.Anaccusedheldtoansweracriminalcharge,whoisreleasedwithoutbail
uponfilingofthecomplaintorinformation,may,atanysubsequentstageoftheproceedingsandwheneverastrongshowing
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ofguiltappearstothecourt,berequiredtogivebailintheamountfixed,orinlieuthereof,committedtocustody.(20a)
Section21.Forfeitureofbond.WhenthepresenceoftheaccusedisrequiredbythecourtortheseRules,hisbondsmen
shall be notified to produce him before the court on a given date and time. If the accused fails to appear in person as
required,hisbailshallbedeclaredforfeitedandthebondsmengiventhirty(30)dayswithinwhichtoproducetheirprincipal
andtoshowcausewhynojudgmentshouldberenderedagainstthemfortheamountoftheirbail.Withinthesaidperiod,the
bondsmenmust:
(a)producethebodyoftheirprincipalorgivethereasonforhisnonproductionand
(b)explainwhytheaccuseddidnotappearbeforethecourtwhenfirstrequiredtodoso.
Failinginthesetworequisites,ajudgmentshallberenderedagainstthebondsmen,jointlyandseverally,fortheamountof
the bail. The court shall not reduce or otherwise mitigate the liability of the bondsmen, unless the accused has been
surrenderedorisacquitted.(21a)
Section22.Cancellationofbail.Uponapplicationofthebondsmen,withduenoticetotheprosecutor,thebailmaybe
cancelleduponsurrenderoftheaccusedorproofofhisdeath.
Thebailshallbedeemedautomaticallycancelleduponacquittaloftheaccused,dismissalofthecase,orexecutionofthe
judgmentofconviction.
Inallinstances,thecancellationshallbewithoutprejudicetoanyliabilityonthebond.(22a)
Section23.Arrestofaccusedoutonbail.Forthepurposeofsurrenderingtheaccused,thebondsmenmayarresthimor,
uponwrittenauthorityendorsedonacertifiedcopyoftheundertaking,causehimtobearrestedbyapoliceofficerorany
otherpersonofsuitableageanddiscretion.
An accused released on bail may be rearrested without the necessity of a warrant if he attempts to depart from the
Philippineswithoutpermissionofthecourtwherethecaseispending.(23a)
Section24.Nobailafterfinaljudgmentexception.Nobailshallbeallowedafterthejudgmentofconvictionhasbecome
final.Ifbeforesuchfinality,theaccusedhasappliesforprobation,hemaybeallowedtemporarylibertyunderhisbail.When
nobailwasfiledortheaccusedisincapableoffilingone,thecourtmayallowhisreleaseonrecognizancetothecustodyofa
responsiblememberofthecommunity.Innocaseshallbailbeallowedaftertheaccusedhascommencedtoservesentence.
(24a)
Section 25. Court supervision of detainees. The court shall exercise supervision over all persons in custody for the
purpose of eliminating unnecessary detention. The executive judges of the Regional Trial Courts shall conduct monthly
personalinspectionsofprovincial,city,andmunicipaljailsandtheirprisonerswithintheirrespectivejurisdictions.Theyshall
ascertainthenumberofdetainees,inquireontheirproperaccommodationandhealthandexaminetheconditionofthejail
facilities.Theyshallorderthesegregationofsexesandofminorsfromadults,ensuretheobservanceoftherightofdetainees
toconferprivatelywithcounsel,andstrivetoeliminateconditionsinimicaltothedetainees.
IncitiesandmunicipalitiestobespecifiedbytheSupremeCourt,themunicipaltrialjudgesormunicipalcircuittrialjudges
shallconductmonthlypersonalinspectionsofthemunicipaljailsintheirrespectivemunicipalitiesandsubmitareporttothe
executivejudgeoftheRegionalTrialCourthavingjurisdictiontherein.
AmonthlyreportofsuchvisitationshallbesubmittedbytheexecutivejudgestotheCourtAdministratorwhichshallstatethe
totalnumberofdetainees,thenamesofthoseheldformorethanthirty(30)days,thedurationofdetention,thecrimecharged,
thestatusofthecase,thecausefordetention,andotherpertinentinformation.(25a)
Section26.Bailnotabartoobjectionsonillegalarrest,lackoforirregularpreliminaryinvestigation.Anapplicationforor
admission to bail shall not bar the accused from challenging the validity of his arrest or the legality of the warrant issued
therefor,orfromassailingtheregularityorquestioningtheabsenceofapreliminaryinvestigationofthechargeagainsthim,
providedthatheraisesthembeforeenteringhisplea.Thecourtshallresolvethematterasearlyaspracticablebutnotlater
thanthestartofthetrialofthecase.(n)

RULE115
RightsofAccused
Section1.Rightsofaccusedatthetrial.Inallcriminalprosecutions,theaccusedshallbeentitledtothefollowingrights:
(a)Tobepresumedinnocentuntilthecontraryisprovedbeyondreasonabledoubt.
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(b)Tobeinformedofthenatureandcauseoftheaccusationagainsthim.
(c) To be present and defend in person and by counsel at every stage of the proceedings, from arraignment to
promulgationofthejudgment.Theaccusedmay,however,waivehispresenceatthetrialpursuanttothestipulations
setforthinhisbail,unlesshispresenceisspecificallyorderedbythecourtforpurposesofidentification.Theabsence
oftheaccusedwithoutjustifiablecauseatthetrialofwhichhehadnoticeshallbeconsideredawaiverofhisrightto
be present thereat. When an accused under custody escapes, he shall be deemed to have waived his right to be
presentonallsubsequenttrialdatesuntilcustodyoverhimisregained.Uponmotion,theaccusedmaybeallowedto
defend himself in person when it sufficiently appears to the court that he can properly protect his right without the
assistanceofcounsel.
(d) To testify as a witness in his own behalf but subject to crossexamination on matters covered by direct
examination.Hissilenceshallnotinanymannerprejudicehim.
(e)Tobeexemptfrombeingcompelledtobeawitnessagainsthimself.
(f)Toconfrontandcrossexaminethewitnessesagainsthimatthetrial.Eitherpartymayutilizeaspartofitsevidence
the testimony of a witness who is deceased, out of or can not with due diligence be found in the Philippines,
unavailableorotherwiseunabletotestify,giveninanothercaseorproceeding,judicialoradministrative,involvingthe
samepartiesandsubjectmatter,theadversepartyhavingtheopportunitytocrossexaminehim.
(g)Tohavecompulsoryprocessissuedtosecuretheattendanceofwitnessesandproductionofotherevidenceinhis
behalf.
(h)Tohavespeedy,impartialandpublictrial.
(i)Toappealinallcasesallowedandinthemannerprescribedbylaw.(1a)

RULE116
ArraignmentandPlea
Section1.Arraignmentandpleahowmade.
(a)Theaccusedmustbearraignedbeforethecourtwherethecomplaintorinformationwasfiledorassignedfortrial.
The arraignment shall be made in open court by the judge or clerk by furnishing the accused with a copy of the
complaint or information, reading the same in the language or dialect known to him, and asking him whether he
pleadsguiltyornotguilty.Theprosecutionmaycallatthetrialwitnessesotherthanthosenamedinthecomplaintor
information.
(b)Theaccusedmustbepresentatthearraignmentandmustpersonallyenterhisplea.Botharraignmentandplea
shallbemadeofrecord,butfailuretodososhallnotaffectthevalidityoftheproceedings.
(c)Whentheaccusedrefusestopleadormakesaconditionalplea,apleaofnotguiltyshallbeenteredforhim.(1a)
(d)Whentheaccusedpleadsguiltybutpresentsexculpatoryevidence,hispleashallbedeemedwithdrawnanda
pleaofnotguiltyshallbeenteredforhim.(n)
(e)Whentheaccusedisunderpreventivedetention,hiscaseshallberaffledanditsrecordstransmittedtothejudge
towhomthecasewasraffledwithinthree(3)daysfromthefilingoftheinformationorcomplaint.Theaccusedshallbe
arraignedwithinten(10)daysfromthedateoftheraffle.Thepretrialconferenceofhiscaseshallbeheldwithinten
(10)daysafterarraignment.(n)
(f) The private offended party shall be required to appear at the arraignment for purposes of plea bargaining,
determination of civil liability, and other matters requiring his presence. In case of failure of the offended party to
appear despite due notice, the court may allow the accused to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser offense which is
necessarilyincludedintheoffensechargedwiththeconformityofthetrialprosecutoralone.(cir.189)
(g)UnlessashorterperiodisprovidedbyspeciallaworSupremeCourtcircular,thearraignmentshallbeheldwithin
thirty(30)daysfromthedatethecourtacquiresjurisdictionoverthepersonoftheaccused.Thetimeofthependency
of a motion to quash or for a bill of particulars or other causes justifying suspension of the arraignment shall be
excludedincomputingtheperiod.(sec.2,cir.3898)
Section2.Pleaofguiltytoalesseroffense.Atarraignment,theaccused,withtheconsentoftheoffendedpartyandthe
prosecutor,maybeallowedbythetrialcourttopleadguiltytoalesseroffensewhichisnecessarilyincludedintheoffense
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charged. After arraignment but before trial, the accused may still be allowed to plead guilty to said lesser offense after
withdrawinghispleaofnotguilty.Noamendmentofthecomplaintorinformationisnecessary.(sec.4,circ.3898)
Section3.Pleaofguiltytocapitaloffensereceptionofevidence.Whentheaccusedpleadsguiltytoacapitaloffense,the
courtshallconductasearchinginquiryintothevoluntarinessandfullcomprehensionoftheconsequencesofhispleaand
requiretheprosecutiontoprovehisguiltandtheprecisedegreeofculpability.Theaccusedmaypresentevidenceinhis
behalf.(3a)
Section4.Pleaofguiltytononcapitaloffensereceptionofevidence,discretionary.Whentheaccusedpleadsguiltytoa
noncapitaloffense,thecourtmayreceiveevidencefromthepartiestodeterminethepenaltytobeimposed.(4)
Section5.Withdrawalofimprovidentpleaofguilty.Atanytimebeforethejudgmentofconvictionbecomesfinal,thecourt
maypermitanimprovidentpleaofguiltytobewithdrawnandbesubstitutedbyapleaofnotguilty.(5)
Section6.Dutyofcourttoinformaccusedofhisrighttocounsel.Beforearraignment,thecourtshallinformtheaccusedof
hisrighttocounselandaskhimifhedesirestohaveone.Unlesstheaccusedisallowedtodefendhimselfinpersonorhas
employedacounselofhischoice,thecourtmustassignacounseldeoficiotodefendhim.(6a)
Section 7. Appointment of counsel de oficio. The court, considering the gravity of the offense and the difficulty of the
questionsthatmayarise,shallappointascounseldeoficioonlysuchmembersofthebaringoodstandingwho,byreasonof
theirexperienceandability,cancompetentlydefendtheaccused.Butinlocalitieswheresuchmembersofthebararenot
available,thecourtmayappointanyperson,residentoftheprovinceandofgoodreputeforprobityandability,todefendthe
accused.(7a)
Section8.Timeforcounseldeoficiotoprepareforarraignment.Wheneveracounseldeoficioisappointedbythecourtto
defendtheaccusedatthearraignment,heshallbegivenareasonabletimetoconsultwiththeaccusedastohispleabefore
proceedingwiththearraignment.(8)
Section9.Billofparticulars.Theaccusedmay,beforearraignment,moveforabillofparticularstoenablehimproperlyto
pleadandtopreparefortrial.Themotionshallspecifytheallegeddefectsofthecomplaintorinformationandthedetails
desired.(10a)
Section 10. Production or inspection of material evidence in possession of prosecution. Upon motion of the accused
showinggoodcauseandwithnoticetotheparties,thecourt,inordertopreventsurprise,suppression,oralteration,may
ordertheprosecutiontoproduceandpermittheinspectionandcopyingorphotographingofanywrittenstatementgivenby
thecomplainantandotherwitnessesinanyinvestigationoftheoffenseconductedbytheprosecutionorotherinvestigating
officers,aswellasanydesignateddocuments,papers,books,accounts,letters,photographs,objectsortangiblethingsnot
otherwiseprivileged,whichconstituteorcontainevidencematerialtoanymatterinvolvedinthecaseandwhichareinthe
possessionorunderthecontroloftheprosecution,police,orotherlawinvestigatingagencies.(11a)
Section11.Suspensionofarraignment. Upon motion by the proper party, the arraignment shall be suspended in the
followingcases:
(a)Theaccusedappearstobesufferingfromanunsoundmentalconditionwhicheffectiverendershimunabletofully
understandthechargeagainsthimandtopleadintelligentlythereto.Insuchcase,thecourtshallorderhismental
examinationand,ifnecessary,hisconfinementforsuchpurpose
(b)Thereexistsaprejudicialquestionand
(c)ApetitionforreviewoftheresolutionoftheprosecutorispendingateithertheDepartmentofJustice,ortheOffice
ofthePresidentprovided,thattheperiodofsuspensionshallnotexceedsixty(60)dayscountedfromthefilingofthe
petitionwiththereviewingoffice.(12a)

RULE117
MotiontoQuash
Section1.Timetomovetoquash.Atanytimebeforeenteringhisplea,theaccusedmaymovetoquashthecomplaintor
information.(1)
Section2.Formandcontents.Themotiontoquashshallbeinwriting,signedbytheaccusedorhiscounselandshall
distinctly specify its factual and legal grounds. The court shall consider no ground other than those stated in the motion,
exceptlackofjurisdictionovertheoffensecharged.(2a)

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Section3.Grounds.Theaccusedmaymovetoquashthecomplaintorinformationonanyofthefollowinggrounds:
(a)Thatthefactschargeddonotconstituteanoffense
(b)Thatthecourttryingthecasehasnojurisdictionovertheoffensecharged
(c)Thatthecourttryingthecasehasnojurisdictionoverthepersonoftheaccused
(d)Thattheofficerwhofiledtheinformationhadnoauthoritytodoso
(e)Thatitdoesnotconformsubstantiallytotheprescribedform
(f)Thatmorethanoneoffenseischargedexceptwhenasinglepunishmentforvariousoffensesisprescribedbylaw
(g)Thatthecriminalactionorliabilityhasbeenextinguished
(h)Thatitcontainsavermentswhich,iftrue,wouldconstitutealegalexcuseorjustificationand
(i)Thattheaccusedhasbeenpreviouslyconvictedoracquittedoftheoffensecharged,orthecaseagainsthimwas
dismissedorotherwiseterminatedwithouthisexpressconsent.(3a)
Section 4. Amendment of the complaint or information. If the motion to quash is based on an alleged defect of the
complaintorinformationwhichcanbecuredbyamendment,thecourtshallorderthatanamendmentbemade.(4a)
Ifitisbasedonthegroundthatthefactschargeddonotconstituteanoffense,theprosecutionshallbegivenbythecourtan
opportunitytocorrectthedefectbyamendment.Themotionshallbegrantediftheprosecutionfailstomaketheamendment,
orthecomplaintorinformationstillsuffersfromthesamedefectdespitetheamendment.(n)
Section5.Effectofsustainingthemotiontoquash.Ifthemotiontoquashissustained,thecourtmayorderthatanother
complaintorinformationbefiledexceptasprovidedinsection6ofthisrule.Iftheorderismade,theaccused,ifincustody,
shallnotbedischargedunlessadmittedtobail.Ifnoorderismadeorifhavingbeenmade,nonewinformationisfiledwithin
thetimespecifiedintheorderorwithinsuchfurthertimeasthecourtmayallowforgoodcause,theaccused,ifincustody,
shallbedischargedunlessheisalsoincustodyforanothercharge.(5a)
Section6.Order sustaining the motion to quash not a bar to another prosecution exception. An order sustaining the
motion to quash is not a bar to another prosecution for the same offense unless the motion was based on the grounds
specifiedinsection3(g)and(i)ofthisRule.(6a)
Section7.Formerconvictionoracquittaldoublejeopardy.Whenanaccusedhasbeenconvictedoracquitted,orthecase
againsthimdismissedorotherwiseterminatedwithouthisexpressconsentbyacourtofcompetentjurisdiction,uponavalid
complaintorinformationorotherformalchargesufficientinformandsubstancetosustainaconvictionandaftertheaccused
hadpleadedtothecharge,theconvictionoracquittaloftheaccusedorthedismissalofthecaseshallbeabartoanother
prosecutionfortheoffensecharged,orforanyattempttocommitthesameorfrustrationthereof,orforanyoffensewhich
necessarilyincludesorisnecessarilyincludedintheoffensechargedintheformercomplaintorinformation.
However,theconvictionoftheaccusedshallnotbeabartoanotherprosecutionforanoffensewhichnecessarilyincludes
theoffensechargedintheformercomplaintorinformationunderanyofthefollowinginstances:
(a) the graver offense developed due to supervening facts arising from the same act or omission constituting the
formercharge
(b)thefactsconstitutingthegraverchargebecameknownorwerediscoveredonlyafterapleawasenteredinthe
formercomplaintorinformationor
(c)thepleaofguiltytothelesseroffensewasmadewithouttheconsentoftheprosecutorandoftheoffendedparty
exceptasprovidedinsection1(f)ofRule116.
Inanyoftheforegoingcases,wheretheaccusedsatisfiesorservesinwholeorinpartthejudgment,heshallbecreditedwith
thesameintheeventofconvictionforthegraveroffense.(7a)
Section 8. Provisional dismissal. A case shall not be provisionally dismissed except with the express consent of the
accusedandwithnoticetotheoffendedparty.
Theprovisionaldismissalofoffensespunishablebyimprisonmentnotexceedingsix(6)yearsorafineofanyamount,or
both,shallbecomepermanentone(1)yearafterissuanceoftheorderwithoutthecasehavingbeenrevived.Withrespectto
offensespunishablebyimprisonmentofmorethansix(6)years,theirprovisionaldismissalshallbecomepermanenttwo(2)
yearsafterissuanceoftheorderwithoutthecasehavingbeenrevived.(n)
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Section9.Failuretomovetoquashortoallegeanygroundtherefor.Thefailureoftheaccusedtoassertanygroundofa
motiontoquashbeforehepleadstothecomplaintorinformation,eitherbecausehedidnotfileamotiontoquashorfailedto
allegethesameinsaidmotion,shallbedeemedawaiverofanyobjectionsbasedonthegroundsprovidedforinparagraphs
(a),(b),(g),and(i)ofsection3ofthisRule.(8)

RULE118
PreTrial
Section1.Pretrialmandatoryincriminalcases.InallcriminalcasescognizablebytheSandiganbayan,RegionalTrial
Court, Metropolitan Trial Court, Municipal Trial Court in Cities, Municipal Trial Court and Municipal Circuit Trial Court, the
courtshallafterarraignmentandwithinthirty(30)daysfromthedatethecourtacquiresjurisdictionoverthepersonofthe
accused,unlessashorterperiodisprovidedforinspeciallawsorcircularsoftheSupremeCourt,orderapretrialconference
toconsiderthefollowing:
(a)pleabargaining
(b)stipulationoffacts
(c)markingforidentificationofevidenceoftheparties
(d)waiverofobjectionstoadmissibilityofevidence
(e)modificationoftheorderoftrialiftheaccusedadmitsthechargebutinterposesalawfuldefenseand
(f)suchothermattersaswillpromoteafairandexpeditioustrialofthecriminalandcivilaspectsofthecase.(secs.2
and3,cir.3898)
Section2.Pretrialagreement. All agreements or admissions made or entered during the pretrial conference shall be
reduced in writing and signed by the accused and counsel, otherwise, they cannot be used against the accused. The
agreementscoveringthemattersreferredtoinsection1ofthisRuleshallbeapprovedbythecourt.(sec.4,cir.3898)
Section3.Nonappearanceatpretrialconference.Ifthecounselfortheaccusedortheprosecutordoesnotappearatthe
pretrial conference and does not offer an acceptable excuse for his lack of cooperation, the court may impose proper
sanctionsorpenalties.(se.5,cir.3898)
Section4.Pretrialorder.Afterthepretrialconference,thecourtshallissueanorderrecitingtheactionstaken,thefacts
stipulated,andevidencemarked.Suchordershallbindtheparties,limitthetrialtomattersnotdisposedof,andcontrolthe
courseoftheactionduringthetrial,unlessmodifiedbythecourttopreventmanifestinjustice.(3)

RULE119
Trial
Section1.Timetopreparefortrial.Afterapleaofnotguiltyisentered,theaccusedshallhaveatleastfifteen(15)daysto
preparefortrial.Thetrialshallcommencewithinthirty(30)daysfromreceiptofthepretrialorder.(sec.6,cir.3898)
Section2.Continuoustrialuntilterminatedpostponements.Trialoncecommencedshallcontinuefromdaytodayasfar
aspracticableuntilterminated.Itmaybepostponedforareasonableperiodoftimeforgoodcause.(2a)
Thecourtshall,afterconsultationwiththeprosecutoranddefensecounsel,setthecaseforcontinuoustrialonaweeklyor
othershorttermtrialcalendarattheearliestpossibletimesoastoensurespeedytrial.Innocaseshalltheentiretrialperiod
exceedonehundredeighty(180)daysfromthefirstdayoftrial,exceptasotherwiseauthorizedbytheSupremeCourt.(sec.
8,cir.3898).
Thetimelimitationsprovidedunderthissectionandtheprecedingsectionshallnotapplywherespeciallawsorcircularsof
theSupremeCourtprovideforashorterperiodoftrial.(n)
Section3.Exclusions. The following periods of delay shall be excluded in computing the time within which trial must
commence:
(a)Anyperiodofdelayresultingfromotherproceedingsconcerningtheaccused,includingbutnotlimitedtothefollowing:
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(1)Delayresultingfromanexaminationofthephysicalandmentalconditionoftheaccused
(2)Delayresultingfromproceedingswithrespecttoothercriminalchargesagainsttheaccused
(3)Delayresultingfromextraordinaryremediesagainstinterlocutoryorders
(4)Delayresultingfrompretrialproceedingsprovided,thatthedelaydoesnotexceedthirty(30)days
(5)Delayresultingfromordersofinhibition,orproceedingsrelatingtochangeofvenueofcasesortransferfromother
courts
(6)Delayresultingfromafindingoftheexistenceofaprejudicialquestionand
(7)Delayreasonablyattributabletoanyperiod,notexceedthirty(30)days,duringwhichanyproceedingwhichany
proceedingconcerningtheaccusedisactuallyunderadvisement.
(b)Anyperiodofdelayresultingfromtheabsenceorunavailabilityofanessentialwitness.
Forpurposesofthissubparagraph,anessentialwitnessshallbeconsideredabsentwhenhiswhereaboutsareunknownor
hiswhereaboutscannotbedeterminedbyduediligence.Heshallbeconsideredunavailablewheneverhiswhereaboutsare
knownbuthispresencefortrialcannotbeobtainedbyduediligence.
(c)Anyperiodofdelayresultingfromthementalincompetenceorphysicalinabilityoftheaccusedtostandtrial.
(d)Iftheinformationisdismisseduponmotionoftheprosecutionandthereafterachargeisfiledagainsttheaccusedforthe
sameoffense,anyperiodofdelayfromthedatethechargewasdismissedtothedatethetimelimitationwouldcommenceto
runastothesubsequentchargehadtherebeennopreviouscharge.
(e)Areasonableperiodofdelaywhentheaccusedisjoinedfortrialwithacoaccusedoverwhomthecourthasnotacquired
jurisdiction,or,astowhomthetimefortrialhasnotrunandnomotionforseparatetrialhasbeengranted.
(f)Anyperiodofdelayresultingfromacontinuancegrantedbyanycourtmotuproprio,oronmotionofeithertheaccusedor
hiscounsel,ortheprosecution,ifthecourtgrantedthecontinuanceonthebasisofitsfindingssetforthintheorderthatthe
endsofjusticeservedbytakingsuchactionoutweighthebestinterestofthepublicandtheaccusedinaspeedytrial.(sec.9,
cir.3898)
Section 4. Factors for granting continuance. The following factors, among others, shall be considered by a court in
determiningwhethertograntacontinuanceundersection3(f)ofthisRule.
(a) Whether or not the failure to grant a continuance in the proceeding would likely make a continuation of such
proceedingimpossibleorresultinamiscarriageofjusticeand
(b)Whetherornotthecasetakenasawholeissonovel,unusualandcomplex,duetothenumberofaccusedorthe
nature of the prosecution, or that it is unreasonable to expect adequate preparation within the periods of time
establishedtherein.
Inaddition,nocontinuanceundersection3(f)ofthisRuleshallbegrantedbecauseofcongestionofthecourt'scalendaror
lackofdiligentpreparationorfailuretoobtainavailablewitnessesonthepartoftheprosecutor.(sec.10,cir.3898)
Section5.Timelimitfollowinganorderfornewtrial.Iftheaccusedistobetriedagainpursuanttoanorderforanewtrial,
thetrialshallcommencewithinthirty(30)daysfromnoticeoftheorder,providedthatiftheperiodbecomesimpracticaldueto
unavailabilityofwitnessesandotherfactors,thecourtmayextenditbutnottoexceedonehundredeighty(180)daysfrom
noticeofsaidorderforanewtrial.(sec.11,cir.3898)
Section6.Extendedtimelimit.Notwithstandingtheprovisionsofsection1(g),Rule116andtheprecedingsection1,for
thefirsttwelvecalendarmonthperiodfollowingitseffectivityonSeptember15,1998,thetimelimitwithrespecttotheperiod
fromarraignmenttotrialimposedbysaidprovisionshallbeonehundredeighty(180)days.Forthesecondtwelvemonth
period,thelimitshallbeonehundredtwenty(120)days,andforthethirdtwelvemonthperiod,thetimelimitshallbeeighty
(80)days.(sec.7,cir.3898)
Section 7. Public attorney's duties where accused is imprisoned. If the public attorney assigned to defend a person
chargedwithacrimeknowsthatthelatterispreventivelydetained,eitherbecauseheischargedwithabailablecrimebut
has no means to post bail, or, is charged with a nonbailable crime, or, is serving a term of imprisonment in any penal
institution,itshallbehisdutytodothefollowing:
(a) Shall promptly undertake to obtain the presence of the prisoner for trial or cause a notice to be served on the
personhavingcustodyoftheprisonerrequiringsuchpersontosoadvisetheprisonerofhisrighttodemandtrial.
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(b)Uponreceiptofthatnotice,thecustodianoftheprisonershallpromptlyadvisetheprisonerofthechargeandofhis
righttodemandtrial.Ifatanytimethereaftertheprisonerinformshiscustodianthathedemandssuchtrial,thelatter
shallcausenoticetothateffecttosentpromptlytothepublicattorney.
(c)Uponreceiptofsuchnotice,thepublicattorneyshallpromptlyseektoobtainthepresenceoftheprisonerfortrial.
(d) When the custodian of the prisoner receives from the public attorney a properly supported request for the
availabilityoftheprisonerforpurposesoftrial,theprisonershallbemadeavailableaccordingly.(sec.12,cir.3898)
Section8.Sanctions.Inanycaseinwhichprivatecounselfortheaccused,thepublicattorney,ortheprosecutor.
(a)Knowinglyallowsthecasetobesetfortrialwithoutdisclosingthatanecessarywitnesswouldbeunavailablefor
trial
(b)Filesamotionsolelyfordelaywhichheknowsistotallyfrivolousandwithoutmerit
(c)Makesastatementforthepurposeofobtainingcontinuancewhichheknowstobefalseandwhichismaterialto
thegrantingofacontinuanceor
(d)Willfullyfailstoproceedtotrialwithoutjustificationconsistentwiththeprovisionshereof,thecourtmaypunishsuch
counsel,attorney,orprosecution,asfollows:
(1) By imposing on a counsel privately retained in connection with the defense of an accused, a fine not
exceedingtwentythousandpesos(P20,000.00)
(2)Byimposingonanyappointedcounseldeoficio,publicattorney,orprosecutorafinenotexceedingfive
thousandpesos(P5,000.00)and
(3)Bydenyinganydefensecounselorprosecutortherighttopracticebeforethecourttryingthecasefora
periodnotexceedingthirty(30)days.Thepunishmentprovidedforbythissectionshallbewithoutprejudiceto
anyappropriatecriminalactionorothersanctionauthorizedundertheserules.(sec.13,cir.3898)
Section9.Remedywhereaccusedisnotbroughttotrialwithinthetimelimit.Iftheaccusedisnotbroughttotrialwithinthe
timelimitrequiredbySection1(g),Rule116andSection1,asextendedbySection6ofthisrule,theinformationmaybe
dismissedonmotionoftheaccusedonthegroundofdenialofhisrightofspeedytrial.Theaccusedshallhavetheburdenof
provingthemotionbuttheprosecutionshallhavetheburdenofgoingforwardwiththeevidencetoestablishtheexclusionof
timeundersection3ofthisrule.Thedismissalshallbesubjecttotherulesondoublejeopardy.
Failureoftheaccusedtomovefordismissalpriortotrialshallconstituteawaiveroftherighttodismissunderthissection.
(sec.14,cir.3898)
Section10.LawonspeedytrialnotabartoprovisiononspeedytrialintheConstitution.Noprovisionoflawonspeedy
trial and no rule implementing the same shall be interpreted as a bar to any charge of denial of the right to speedy trial
guaranteedbysection14(2),articleIII,ofthe1987Constitution.(sec.15,cir.3898)
Section11.Orderoftrial.Thetrialshallproceedinthefollowingorder:
(a)Theprosecutionshallpresentevidencetoprovethechargeand,inthepropercase,thecivilliability.
(b) The accused may present evidence to prove his defense, and damages, if any, arising from the issuance of a
provisionalremedyinthecase.
(c)Theprosecutionandthedefensemay,inthatorder,presentrebuttalandsurrebuttalevidenceunlessthecourt,in
furtheranceofjustice,permitsthemtopresentadditionalevidencebearinguponthemainissue.
(d)Uponadmissionoftheevidenceoftheparties,thecaseshallbedeemedsubmittedfordecisionunlessthecourt
directsthemtoargueorallyortosubmitwrittenmemoranda.
(e) When the accused admits the act or omission charged in the complaint or information but interposes a lawful
defense,theorderoftrialmaybemodified.(3a)
Section12.Applicationforexaminationofwitnessforaccusedbeforetrial.Whentheaccusedhasbeenheldtoanswerfor
anoffense,hemay,uponmotionwithnoticetotheotherparties,havewitnessesconditionallyexaminedinhisbehalf.The
motionshallstate:(a)thenameandresidenceofthewitness(b)thesubstanceofhistestimonyand(c)thatthewitnessis
sickorinfirmastoaffordreasonablegroundforbelievingthathewillnotbeabletoattendthetrial,orresidesmorethanone
hundred(100)kilometersfromtheplaceoftrialandhasnomeanstoattendthesame,orthatothersimilarcircumstances
existthatwouldmakehimunavailableorpreventhimfromattendingthetrial.Themotionshallbesupportedbyanaffidavitof
theaccusedandsuchotherevidenceasthecourtmayrequire.(4a)
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Section13.Examinationofdefensewitnesshowmade.Ifthecourtissatisfiedthattheexaminationofawitnessforthe
accusedisnecessary,anorderwillbemadedirectingthatthewitnessbeexaminedataspecifieddate,timeandplaceand
that a copy of the order be served on the prosecutor at least three (3) days before the scheduled examination. The
examinationshallbetakenbeforeajudge,or,ifnotpracticable,amemberoftheBaringoodstandingsodesignatedbythe
judgeintheorder,oriftheorderbemadebyacourtofsuperiorjurisdiction,beforeaninferiorcourttobedesignatedtherein.
Theexaminationshallproceednotwithstandingtheabsenceoftheprosecutorprovidedhewasdulynotifiedofthehearing.A
writtenrecordofthetestimonyshallbetaken.(5a)
Section14.Bailtosecureappearanceofmaterialwitness.Whenthecourtissatisfied,uponprooforoath,thatamaterial
witnesswillnottestifywhenrequired,itmay,uponmotionofeitherparty,orderthewitnesstopostbailinsuchsumasmaybe
deemedproper.Uponrefusaltopostbail,thecourtshallcommithimtoprisonuntilhecompliesorislegallydischargedafter
histestimonyhasbeentaken.(6a)
Section15.Examinationofwitnessfortheprosecution.Whenitsatisfactorilyappearsthatawitnessfortheprosecutionis
toosickorinfirmtoappearatthetrialasdirectedbytheorderofthecourt,orhastoleavethePhilippineswithnodefinitedate
ofreturning,hemayforthwithbeconditionallyexaminedbeforethecourtwherethecaseispending.Suchexamination,inthe
presenceoftheaccused,orinhisabsenceafterreasonablenoticetoattendtheexaminationhasbeenservedonhim,shall
beconductedinthesamemannerasanexaminationatthetrial.Failureorrefusaloftheaccusedtoattendtheexamination
afternoticeshallbeconsideredawaiver.Thestatementtakenmaybeadmittedinbehalfoforagainsttheaccused.(7a)
Section16.Trialofseveralaccused.Whentwoormoreaccusedarejointlychargedwithanyoffense,theyshallbetried
jointlyunlessthecourt,initsdiscretionanduponmotionoftheprosecutororanyaccused,ordersseparatetrialforoneor
moreaccused.(8a)
Section17.Dischargeofaccusedtobestatewitness.Whentwoormorepersonsarejointlychargedwiththecommission
ofanyoffense,uponmotionoftheprosecutionbeforerestingitscase,thecourtmaydirectoneormoreoftheaccusedtobe
dischargedwiththeirconsentsothattheymaybewitnessesforthestatewhen,afterrequiringtheprosecutiontopresent
evidence and the sworn statement of each proposed state witness at a hearing in support of the discharge, the court is
satisfiedthat:
(a)Thereisabsolutenecessityforthetestimonyoftheaccusedwhosedischargeisrequested
(b)Theisnootherdirectevidenceavailablefortheproperprosecutionoftheoffensecommitted,exceptthetestimony
ofsaidaccused
(c)Thetestimonyofsaidaccusedcanbesubstantiallycorroboratedinitsmaterialpoints
(d)Saidaccuseddoesnotappeartobethemostguiltyand
(e)Saidaccusedhasnotatanytimebeenconvictedofanyoffenseinvolvingmoralturpitude.
Evidence adduced in support of the discharge shall automatically form part of the trial. If the court denies the motion for
dischargeoftheaccusedasstatewitness,hisswornstatementshallbeinadmissibleinevidence.(9a)
Section18.Dischargeofaccusedoperatesasacquittal.Theorderindicatedintheprecedingsectionshallamounttoan
acquittalofthedischargedaccusedandshallbeabartofutureprosecutionforthesameoffense,unlesstheaccusedfailsor
refusestotestifyagainsthiscoaccusedinaccordancewithhisswornstatementconstitutingthebasisforthedischarge.(10a)
Section19.Whenmistakehasbeenmadeinchargingtheproperoffense.Whenitbecomesmanifestatanytimebefore
judgmentthatamistakehasbeenmadeinchargingtheproperoffenseandtheaccusedcannotbeconvictedoftheoffense
chargedoranyotheroffensenecessarilyincludedtherein,theaccusedshallnotbedischargedifthereappearsgoodcause
todetainhim.Insuchcase,thecourtshallcommittheaccusedtoanswerfortheproperoffenseanddismisstheoriginalcase
uponthefilingoftheproperinformation.(11a)
Section20.Appointmentofactingprosecutor.Whenaprosecutor,hisassistantordeputyisdisqualifiedtoactduetoany
ofthegroundsstatedinsection1ofRule137orforanyotherreasons,thejudgeortheprosecutorshallcommunicatewith
theSecretaryofJusticeinorderthatthelattermayappointanactingprosecutor.(12a)
Section21.Exclusionofthepublic.Thejudgemay,motuproprio,excludethepublicfromthecourtroomiftheevidenceto
beproducedduringthetrialisoffensivetodecencyorpublicmorals.Hemayalso,onmotionoftheaccused,excludethe
publicfromthetrial,exceptcourtpersonnelandthecounseloftheparties.(13a)
Section22.Consolidationoftrialsofrelatedoffenses.Chargesforoffensesfoundedonthesamefactsorformingpartofa
seriesofoffensesofsimilarcharactermaybetriedjointlyatthediscretionofthecourt.(14a)
Section23.Demurrertoevidence.Aftertheprosecutionrestsitscase,thecourtmaydismisstheactiononthegroundof
insufficiencyofevidence(1)onitsowninitiativeaftergivingtheprosecutiontheopportunitytobeheardor(2)upondemurrer
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toevidencefiledbytheaccusedwithorwithoutleaveofcourt.
Ifthecourtdeniesthedemurrertoevidencefiledwithleaveofcourt,theaccusedmayadduceevidenceinhisdefense.When
thedemurrertoevidenceisfiledwithoutleaveofcourt,theaccusedwaivestherighttopresentevidenceandsubmitsthe
caseforjudgmentonthebasisoftheevidencefortheprosecution.(15a)
Themotionforleaveofcourttofiledemurrertoevidenceshallspecificallystateitsgroundsandshallbefiledwithinanon
extendibleperiodoffive(5)daysaftertheprosecutionrestsitscase.Theprosecutionmayopposethemotionwithinanon
extendibleperiodoffive(5)daysfromitsreceipt.
Ifleaveofcourtisgranted,theaccusedshallfilethedemurrertoevidencewithinanonextendibleperiodoften(10)days
fromnotice.Theprosecutionmayopposethedemurrertoevidencewithinasimilarperiodfromitsreceipt.
Theorderdenyingthemotionforleaveofcourttofiledemurrertoevidenceorthedemurreritselfshallnotbereviewableby
appealorbycertioraribeforejudgment.(n)
Section24.Reopening. At any time before finality of the judgment of conviction, the judge may, motuproprio or upon
motion, with hearing in either case, reopen the proceedings to avoid a miscarrage of justice. The proceedings shall be
terminatedwithinthirty(30)daysfromtheordergratingit.(n)

RULE120
Judgment
Section1.Judgmentdefinitionandform.Judgmentistheadjudicationbythecourtthattheaccusedisguiltyornotguiltyof
theoffensechargedandtheimpositiononhimoftheproperpenaltyandcivilliability,ifany.Itmustbewrittenintheofficial
language, personally and directly prepared by the judge and signed by him and shall contain clearly and distinctly a
statementofthefactsandthelawuponwhichitisbased.(1a)
Section2.Contentsofthejudgment.Ifthejudgmentisofconviction,itshallstate(1)thelegalqualificationoftheoffense
constituted by the acts committed by the accused and the aggravating or mitigating circumstances which attended its
commission(2)theparticipationoftheaccusedintheoffense,whetherasprincipal,accomplice,oraccessoryafterthefact
(3)thepenaltyimposedupontheaccusedand(4)thecivilliabilityordamagescausedbyhiswrongfulactoromissiontobe
recoveredfromtheaccusedbytheoffendedparty,ifthereisany,unlesstheenforcementofthecivilliabilitybyaseparate
civilactionhasbeenreservedorwaived.
Incasethejudgmentisofacquittal,itshallstatewhethertheevidenceoftheprosecutionabsolutelyfailedtoprovetheguiltof
theaccusedormerelyfailedtoprovehisguiltbeyondreasonabledoubt.Ineithercase,thejudgmentshalldetermineifthe
actoromissionfromwhichthecivilliabilitymightarisedidnotexist.(2a)
Section3.Judgmentfortwoormoreoffenses.Whentwoormoreoffensesarechargedinasinglecomplaintorinformation
buttheaccusedfailstoobjecttoitbeforetrial,thecourtmayconvicthimofasmanyoffensesasarechargedandproved,and
imposeonhimthepenaltyforeachoffense,settingoutseparatelythefindingsoffactandlawineachoffense.(3a)
Section 4. Judgment in case of variance between allegation and proof. When there is variance between the offense
chargedinthecomplaintorinformationandthatproved,andtheoffenseaschargedisincludedinornecessarilyincludesthe
offense proved, the accused shall be convicted of the offense proved which is included in the offense charged, or of the
offensechargedwhichisincludedintheoffenseproved.(4a)
Section 5. When an offense includes or is included in another. An offense charged necessarily includes the offense
proved when some of the essential elements or ingredients of the former, as alleged in the complaint or information,
constitutethelatter.Andanoffensechargedisnecessarilyincludedintheoffenseproved,whentheessentialingredientsof
theformerconstituteorformapartofthoseconstitutingthelatter.(5a)
Section6.Promulgationofjudgment.Thejudgmentispromulgatedbyreadingitinthepresenceoftheaccusedandany
judgeofthecourtinwhichitwasrendered.However,iftheconvictionisforalightoffense,thejudgmentmaybepronounced
inthepresenceofhiscounselorrepresentative.Whenthejudgeisabsentoroutsideoftheprovinceorcity,thejudgment
maybepromulgatedbytheclerkofcourt.
Iftheaccusedisconfinedordetainedinanotherprovinceorcity,thejudgmentmaybepromulgatedbytheexecutivejudgeof
the Regional Trial Court having jurisdiction over the place of confinement or detention upon request of the court which
rendered the judgment. The court promulgating the judgment shall have authority to accept the notice of appeal and to
approvethebailbondpendingappealprovided,thatifthedecisionofthetrialcourtconvictingtheaccusedchangedthe
natureoftheoffensefromnonbailabletobailable,theapplicationforbailcanonlybefiledandresolvedbytheappellate
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court.
The proper clerk of court shall give notice to the accused personally or through his bondsman or warden and counsel,
requiringhimtobepresentatthepromulgationofthedecision.Iftheaccusedtriedinabsentiabecausehejumpedbailor
escapedfromprison,thenoticetohimshallbeservedathislastknownaddress.
Incasetheaccusedfailstoappearatthescheduleddateofpromulgationofjudgmentdespitenotice,thepromulgationshall
bemadebyrecordingthejudgmentinthecriminaldocketandservinghimacopythereofathislastknownaddressorthru
hiscounsel.
If the judgment is for conviction and the failure of the accused to appear was without justifiable cause, he shall lose the
remedies available in these rules against the judgment and the court shall order his arrest. Within fifteen (15) days from
promulgationofjudgment,however,theaccusedmaysurrenderandfileamotionforleaveofcourttoavailoftheseremedies.
He shall state the reasons for his absence at the scheduled promulgation and if he proves that his absence was for a
justifiablecause,heshallbeallowedtoavailofsaidremedieswithinfifteen(15)daysfromnotice.(6a)
Section7.Modificationofjudgment.Ajudgmentofconvictionmay,uponmotionoftheaccused,bemodifiedorsetaside
beforeitbecomesfinalorbeforeappealisperfected.Exceptwherethedeathpenaltyisimposed,ajudgmentbecomesfinal
afterthelapseoftheperiodforperfectinganappeal,orwhenthesentencehasbeenpartiallyortotallysatisfiedorserved,or
whentheaccusedhaswaivedinwritinghisrighttoappeal,orhasappliedforprobation.(7a)
Section8.Entryofjudgment.Afterajudgmenthasbecomefinal,itshallbeenteredinaccordancewithRule36.(8)
Section9.Existingprovisionsgoverningsuspensionofsentence,probationandparolenotaffectedbythisRule.Nothing
inthisRuleshallaffectanyexistingprovisionsinthelawsgoverningsuspensionofsentence,probationorparole.(9a)

RULE121
NewTrialorReconsideration
Section1.New trial or reconsideration. At any time before a judgment of conviction becomes final, the court may, on
motionoftheaccusedoratitsowninstancebutwiththeconsentoftheaccused,grantanewtrialorreconsideration.(1a)
Section2.Groundsforanewtrial.Thecourtshallgrantanewtrialonanyofthefollowinggrounds:
(a)Theerrorsoflaworirregularitiesprejudicialtothesubstantialrightsoftheaccusedhavebeencommittedduring
thetrial
(b)Thenewandmaterialevidencehasbeendiscoveredwhichtheaccusedcouldnotwithreasonablediligencehave
discoveredandproducedatthetrialandwhichifintroducedandadmittedwouldprobablychangethejudgment.(2a)
Section3.Groundforreconsideration.Thecourtshallgrantreconsiderationonthegroundoferrorsoflaworfactinthe
judgment,whichrequiresnofurtherproceedings.(3a)
Section4.Formofmotionandnoticetotheprosecutor.Themotionforanewtrialorreconsiderationshallbeinwritingand
shall state the grounds on which it is based. If based on a newlydiscovered evidence, the motion must be supported by
affidavitsofwitnessesbywhomsuchevidenceisexpectedtobegivenorbydulyauthenticatedcopiesofdocumentswhich
are proposed to be introduced in evidence. Notice of the motion for new trial or reconsideration shall be given to the
prosecutor.(4a)
Section5.Hearingonmotion.Whereamotionforanewtrialcallsforresolutionofanyquestionoffact,thecourtmayhear
evidencethereonbyaffidavitsorotherwise.(5a)
Section6.Effectsofgrantinganewtrialorreconsideration.Theeffectsofgrantinganewtrialorreconsiderationarethe
following:
(a) When a new trial is granted on the ground of errors of law or irregularities committed during the trial, all
proceedings and evidence affected thereby shall be set aside and taken anew. The court may, in the interest of
justice,allowtheintroductionofadditionalevidence.
(b) When a new trial is granted on the ground of newlydiscovered evidence, the evidence already adduced shall
stand and the newlydiscovered and such other evidence as the court may, in the interest of justice, allow to be
introducedshallbetakenandconsideredtogetherwiththeevidencealreadyintherecord.
(c)Inallcases,whenthecourtgrantsnewtrialorreconsideration,theoriginaljudgmentshallbesetasideorvacated
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andanewjudgmentrenderedaccordingly.(6a)

RULE122
Appeal
Section1.Whomayappeal.Anypartymayappealfromajudgmentorfinalorder,unlesstheaccusedwillbeplacedin
doublejeopardy.(2a)
Section2.Wheretoappeal.Theappealmaybetakenasfollows:
(a) To the Regional Trial Court, in cases decided by the Metropolitan Trial Court, Municipal Trial Court in Cities,
MunicipalTrialCourt,orMunicipalCircuitTrialCourt
(b)TotheCourtofAppealsortotheSupremeCourtinthepropercasesprovidedbylaw,incasesdecidedbythe
RegionalTrialCourtand
(c)TotheSupremeCourt,incasesdecidedbytheCourtofAppeals.(1a)
Section3.Howappealtaken.
(a)TheappealtotheRegionalTrialCourt,ortotheCourtofAppealsincasesdecidedbytheRegionalTrialCourtin
theexerciseofitsoriginaljurisdiction,shallbetakenbyfilinganoticeofappealwiththecourtwhichrenderedthe
judgmentorfinalorderappealedfromandbyservingacopythereofupontheadverseparty.
(b)TheappealtotheCourtofAppealsincasesdecidedbytheRegionalTrialCourtintheexerciseofitsappellate
jurisdictionshallbebypetitionforreviewunderRule42.
(c) The appeal to the Supreme Court in cases where the penalty imposed by the Regional Trial Court is death,
reclusionperpetua,orlifeimprisonment,orwherealesserpenaltyisimposedbutforoffensescommittedonthesame
occasionorwhicharoseoutofthesameoccurrencethatgaverisetothemoreseriousoffenseforwhichthepenaltyof
death,reclusionperpetua,orlifeimprisonmentisimposed,shallbebyfilinganoticeofappealinaccordancewith
paragraph(a)ofthissection.
(d)NonoticeofappealisnecessaryincaseswherethedeathpenaltyisimposedbytheRegionalTrialCourt.The
sameshallbeautomaticallyreviewedbytheSupremeCourtasprovidedinsection10ofthisRule.
(e)Exceptasprovidedinthelastparagraphofsection13,Rule124,allotherappealstotheSupremeCourtshallbe
bypetitionforreviewoncertiorariunderRules45.(3a)
Section4.Publicationofnoticeofappeal.Ifpersonalserviceofthecopyofthenoticeofappealcannotbemadeuponthe
adversepartyorhiscounsel,servicemaybedonebyregisteredmailorbysubstitutedservicepursuanttosections7and8of
Rule13.(4a)
Section5.Waiverofnotice.Theappelleemaywaivehisrighttoanoticethatanappealhasbeentaken.Theappellate
courtmay,initsdiscretion,entertainanappealnotwithstandingfailuretogivesuchnoticeiftheinterestsofjusticesorequire.
(5a)
Section6.Whenappealtobetaken.Anappealmustbetakenwithinfifteen(15)daysfrompromulgationofthejudgment
or from notice of the final order appealed from. This period for perfecting an appeal shall be suspended from the time a
motionfornewtrialorreconsiderationisfileduntilnoticeoftheorderoverrulingthemotionshallhavebeenserveduponthe
accusedorhiscounselatwhichtimethebalanceoftheperiodbeginstorun.(6a)
Section 7. Transcribing and filing notes of stenographic reporter upon appeal. When notice of appeal is filed by the
accused,thetrialcourtshalldirectthestenographicreportertotranscribehisnotesoftheproceedings.Whenfiledbythe
PeopleofthePhilippines,thetrialcourtshalldirectthestenographicreportertotranscribesuchportionofhisnotesofthe
proceedingsasthecourt,uponmotion,shallspecifyinwriting.Thestenographicreportershallcertifytothecorrectnessofthe
notesandthetranscriptthereof,whichshallconsistoftheoriginalandfourcopies,andshallfiletheoriginalandfourcopies
withtheclerkwithoutunnecessarydelay.
Ifdeathpenaltyisimposed,thestenographicreportershall,withinthirty(30)daysfrompromulgationofthesentence,filewith
theclerkoriginalandfourcopiesofthedulycertifiedtranscriptofhisnotesoftheproceedings.Noextensionoftimeforfiling
ofsaidtranscriptofstenographicnotesshallbegrantedexceptbytheSupremeCourtandonlyuponjustifiablegrounds.(7a)
Section8.Transmission of papers to appellate court upon appeal. Within five (5) days from the filing of the notice of
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appeal,theclerkofthecourtwithwhomthenoticeofappealwasfiledmusttransmittotheclerkofcourtoftheappellatecourt
the complete record of the case, together with said notice. The original and three copies of the transcript of stenographic
notes,togetherwiththerecords,shallalsobetransmittedtotheclerkoftheappellatecourtwithoutunduedelay.Theother
copyofthetranscriptshallremaininthelowercourt.(8a)
Section9.AppealtotheRegionalTrialCourts.
(a) Within five (5) days from perfection of the appeal, the clerk of court shall transmit the original record to the
appropriateRegionalTrialCourt.
(b)Uponreceiptofthecompleterecordofthecase,transcriptsandexhibits,theclerkofcourtoftheRegionalTrial
Courtshallnotifythepartiesofsuchfact.
(c)Withinfifteen(15)daysfromreceiptofthesaidnotice,thepartiesmaysubmitmemorandaorbriefs,ormaybe
required by the Regional Trial Court to do so. After the submission of such memoranda or briefs, or upon the
expiration of the period to file the same, the Regional Trial Court shall decide the case on the basis of the entire
recordofthecaseandofsuchmemorandaorbriefsasmayhavebeenfiled.(9a)
Section10.Transmissionofrecordsincaseofdeathpenalty.Inallcaseswherethedeathpenaltyisimposedbythetrial
court,therecordsshallbeforwardedtotheSupremeCourtforautomaticreviewandjudgmentwithinfive(5)daysafterthe
fifteenth(15)dayfollowingthepromulgationofthejudgmentornoticeofdenialofamotionfornewtrialorreconsideration.
Thetranscriptshallalsobeforwardedwithinten(10)daysafterthefilingthereofbythestenographicreporter.(10a)
Section11.Effectofappealbyanyofseveralaccused.
(a)Anappealtakenbyoneormoreofseveralaccusedshallnotaffectthosewhodidnotappeal,exceptinsofarasthe
judgmentoftheappellatecourtisfavorableandapplicabletothelatter
(b)Theappealoftheoffendedpartyfromthecivilaspectshallnotaffectthecriminalaspectofthejudgmentororder
appealedfrom.
(c)Uponperfectionoftheappeal,theexecutionofthejudgmentorfinalorderappealedfromshallbestayedastothe
appealingparty.(11a)
Section12.Withdrawalofappeal. Notwithstanding the perfection of the appeal, the Regional Trial Court, Metropolitan
TrialCourt,MunicipalTrialCourtinCities,MunicipalTrialCourt,orMunicipalCircuitTrialCourt,asthecasemaybe,may
allowtheappellanttowithdrawhisappealbeforetherecordhasbeenforwardedbytheclerkofcourttotheproperappellate
court as provided in section 8, in which case the judgment shall become final. The Regional Trial Court may also, in its
discretion,allowtheappellantfromthejudgmentofaMetropolitanTrialCourt,MunicipalTrialCourtinCities,MunicipalTrial
Court,orMunicipalCircuitTrialCourttowithdrawhisappeal,providedamotiontothateffectisfiledbeforerenditionofthe
judgmentinthecaseonappeal,inwhichcasethejudgmentofthecourtoforiginshallbecomefinalandthecaseshallbe
remandedtothelattercourtforexecutionofthejudgment.(12a)
Section13.Appointmentofcounseldeoficioforaccusedonappeal.Itshallbethedutyoftheclerkofthetrialcourt,upon
filingofanoticeofappeal,toascertainfromtheappellant,ifconfinedinprison,whetherhedesirestheRegionalTrialCourt,
CourtofAppealsortheSupremeCourttoappointacounseldeoficiotodefendhimandtotransmitwiththerecordonaform
tobepreparedbytheclerkofcourtoftheappellatecourt,acertificateofcompliancewiththisdutyandoftheresponseofthe
appellanttohisinquiry.(13a)

RULE123
ProcedureintheMunicipalTrialCourts
Section1.UniformProcedure.TheproceduretobeobservedintheMetropolitanTrialCourts,MunicipalTrialCourtsand
MunicipalCircuitTrialCourtsshallbethesameasintheRegionalTrialCourts,exceptwhereaparticularprovisionapplies
onlytoeitherofsaidcourtsandincriminalcasesgovernedbytheRevisedRuleonSummaryProcedure.(1a)

RULE124
ProcedureintheCourtofAppeals

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Section1.Titleofthecase.InallcriminalcasesappealedtotheCourtofAppeals,thepartyappealingthecaseshallbe
calledthe"appellant"andtheadversepartythe"appellee,"butthetitleofthecaseshallremainasitwasinthecourtoforigin.
(1a)
Section2.Appointmentofcounseldeoficiofortheaccused.Ifitappearsfromtherecordofthecaseastransmittedthat(a)
theaccusedisconfinedinprison,(b)iswithoutcounseldeparteonappeal,or(c)hassignedthenoticeofappealhimself,the
clerkofcourtoftheCourtofAppealsshalldesignateacounseldeoficio.
Anappellantwhoisnotconfinedinprisonmay,uponrequest,beassignedacounseldeoficio within ten (10) days from
receiptofthenoticetofilebriefandheestablisheshisrightthereto.(2a)
Section3.Whenbriefforappellanttobefiled.Withinthirty(30)daysfromreceiptbytheappellantorhiscounselofthe
notice from the clerk of court of the Court of Appeals that the evidence, oral and documentary, is already attached to the
record,theappellantshallfileseven(7)copiesofhisbriefwiththeclerkofcourtwhichshallbeaccompaniedbyproofof
serviceoftwo(2)copiesthereofupontheappellee.(3a)
Section4.Whenbriefforappelleetobefiledreplybriefoftheappellant.Withinthirty(30)daysfromthereceiptofthebrief
of the appellant, the appellee shall file seven (7) copies of the brief of the appellee with the clerk of court which shall be
accompaniedbyproofofserviceoftwo(2)copiesthereofupontheappellant.
Withintwenty(20)daysfromreceiptofthebriefoftheappellee,theappellantmayfileareplybrieftraversingmattersraisedin
theformerbutnotcoveredinthebriefoftheappellant.(4a)
Section5.Extensionoftimeforfilingbriefs.Extensionoftimeforthefilingofbriefswillnotbeallowedexceptforgoodand
sufficientcauseandonlyifthemotionforextensionisfiledbeforetheexpirationofthetimesoughttobeextended.(5a)
Section6.Formofbriefs.Briefsshalleitherbeprinted,encodedortypewrittenindoublespaceonthelegalsizegood
qualityunglazedpaper,330mm.inlengthby216mm.inwidth.(6a)
Section7.Contentsofbrief.Thebriefsincriminalcasesshallhavethesamecontentsasprovidedinsections13and14of
Rule44.Acertifiedtruecopyofthedecisionorfinalorderappealedfromshallbeappendedtothebriefofappellant.(7a)
Section8.Dismissalofappealforabandonmentorfailuretoprosecute.TheCourtofAppealsmay,uponmotionofthe
appelleeormotuproprioandwithnoticetotheappellantineithercase,dismisstheappealiftheappellantfailstofilehisbrief
withinthetimeprescribedbythisRule,exceptwheretheappellantisrepresentedbyacounseldeoficio.
TheCourtofAppealsmayalso,uponmotionoftheappelleeormotuproprio,dismisstheappealiftheappellantescapes
fromprisonorconfinement,jumpsbailorfleestoaforeigncountryduringthependencyoftheappeal.(8a)
Section9.Promptdispositionofappeals.Appealsofaccusedwhoareunderdetentionshallbegivenprecedenceintheir
dispositionoverotherappeals.TheCourtofAppealsshallhearanddecidetheappealattheearliestpracticabletimewith
dueregardtotherightsoftheparties.Theaccusedneednotbepresentincourtduringthehearingoftheappeal.(9a)
Section 10. Judgment not to be reversed or modified except for substantial error. No judgment shall be reversed or
modifiedunlesstheCourtofAppeals,afteranexaminationoftherecordandoftheevidenceadducedbytheparties,isofthe
opinionthaterrorwascommittedwhichinjuriouslyaffectedthesubstantialrightsoftheappellant.(10a)
Section11.Scopeofjudgment.TheCourtofAppealsmayreverse,affirm,ormodifythejudgmentandincreaseorreduce
thepenaltyimposedbythetrialcourt,remandthecasetotheRegionalTrialCourtfornewtrialorretrial,ordismissthecase.
(11a)
Section12.Powertoreceiveevidence The Court of Appeals shall have the power to try cases and conduct hearings,
receiveevidenceandperformanyandallactsnecessarytoresolvefactualissuesraisedincases(a)fallingwithinitsoriginal
jurisdiction, (b) involving claims for damages arising from provisional remedies, or (c) where the court grants a new trial
basedonlyonthegroundofnewlydiscoveredevidence.(12a)
Section13.Quorum of the courtcertification or appeal of cases to Supreme Court. Three (3) Justices of the Court of
Appealsshallconstituteaquorumforthesessionsofadivision.Theunanimousvoteofthethree(3)Justicesofadivision
shallbenecessaryforthepronouncementofajudgmentorfinalresolution,whichshallbereachedinconsultationbeforethe
writingoftheopinionbyamemberofthedivision.Intheeventthatthethree(3)Justicescannotreachaunanimousvote,the
PresidingJusticeshalldirecttherafflecommitteeoftheCourttodesignatetwo(2)additionalJusticestosittemporarilywith
them,formingaspecialdivisionoffive(5)membersandtheconcurrenceofamajorityofsuchdivisionshallbenecessaryfor
thepronouncementofajudgmentorfinalresolution.ThedesignationofsuchadditionalJusticesshallbemadestrictlyby
raffleandrotationamongallotherJusticesoftheCourtofAppeals.
WhenevertheCourtofAppealsfindsthatthepenaltyofdeath,reclusionperpetua,orlifeimprisonmentshouldbeimposedin
acase,thecourt,afterdiscussionoftheevidenceandthelawinvolved,shallrenderjudgmentimposingthepenaltyofdeath,
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reclusionperpetua,orlifeimprisonmentasthecircumstanceswarrant.However,itshallrefrainfromenteringthejudgment
andforthwithcertifythecaseandelevatetheentirerecordthereoftotheSupremeCourtforreview.(13a)
Section14.Motion for new trial. At any time after the appeal from the lower court has been perfected and before the
judgmentoftheCourtofAppealsconvictingtheappellantbecomesfinal,thelattermaymoveforanewtrialonthegroundof
newlydiscovered evidence material to his defense. The motion shall conform with the provisions of section 4, Rule 121.
(14a)
Section15.Wherenewtrialconducted.Whenanewtrialisgranted,theCourtofAppealsmayconductthehearingand
receiveevidenceasprovidedinsection12ofthisRuleorreferthetrialtothecourtoforigin.(15a)
Section16.Reconsideration.Amotionforreconsiderationshallbefiledwithinfifteen(15)daysafterfromnoticeofthe
decisionorfinalorderoftheCourtofAppeals,withcopiesservedupontheadverseparty,settingforththegroundsinsupport
thereof. The mittimus shall be stayed during the pendency of the motion for reconsideration. No party shall be allowed a
secondmotionforreconsiderationofajudgmentorfinalorder.(16a)
Section17.Judgmenttransmittedandfiledintrialcourt.WhentheentryofjudgmentoftheCourtofAppealsisissued,a
certifiedtruecopyofthejudgmentshallbeattachedtotheoriginalrecordwhichshallberemandedtotheclerkofthecourt
fromwhichtheappealwastaken.(17a)
Section18.Applicationofcertainrulesinciviltocriminalcases.TheprovisionsofRules42,44to46and48to56relating
to procedure in the Court of Appeals and in the Supreme Court in original and appealed civil cases shall be applied to
criminalcasesinsofarastheyareapplicableandnotinconsistentwiththeprovisionsofthisRule.(18a)

RULE125
ProcedureintheSupremeCourt
Section1.Uniformprocedure.UnlessotherwiseprovidedbytheConstitutionorbylaw,theprocedureintheSupreme
CourtinoriginalandinappealedcasesshallbethesameasintheCourtofAppeals.(1a)
Section2.ReviewofdecisionsoftheCourtofAppeals.TheprocedureforthereviewbytheSupremeCourtofdecisionsin
criminalcasesrenderedbytheCourtofAppealsshallbethesameasincivilcases.(2a)
Section3.Decisionifopinionisequallydivided.WhentheSupremeCourtenbancisequallydividedinopinionorthe
necessarymajoritycannotbehadonwhethertoacquittheappellant,thecaseshallagainbedeliberateduponandifno
decisionisreachedafterredeliberation,thejudgmentofconvictionofthelowercourtshallbereversedandtheaccused
acquitted.(3a)

RULE126
SearchandSeizure
Section 1. Search warrant defined. A search warrant is an order in writing issued in the name of the People of the
Philippines,signedbyajudgeanddirectedtoapeaceofficer,commandinghimtosearchforpersonalpropertydescribed
thereinandbringitbeforethecourt.(1)
Section2.Courtwhereapplicationforsearchwarrantshallbefiled.Anapplicationforsearchwarrantshallbefiledwith
thefollowing:
a)Anycourtwithinwhoseterritorialjurisdictionacrimewascommitted.
b) For compelling reasons stated in the application, any court within the judicial region where the crime was
committed if the place of the commission of the crime is known, or any court within the judicial region where the
warrantshallbeenforced.
However, if the criminal action has already been filed, the application shall only be made in the court where the criminal
actionispending.(n)
Section 3. Personal property to be seized. A search warrant may be issued for the search and seizure of personal
property:
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(a)Subjectoftheoffense
(b)Stolenorembezzledandotherproceeds,orfruitsoftheoffenseor
(c)Usedorintendedtobeusedasthemeansofcommittinganoffense.(2a)
Section 4. Requisites for issuing search warrant. A search warrant shall not issue except upon probable cause in
connectionwithonespecificoffensetobedeterminedpersonallybythejudgeafterexaminationunderoathoraffirmationof
thecomplainantandthewitnesseshemayproduce,andparticularlydescribingtheplacetobesearchedandthethingstobe
seizedwhichmaybeanywhereinthePhilippines.(3a)
Section5.Examinationofcomplainantrecord.Thejudgemust,beforeissuingthewarrant,personallyexamineintheform
ofsearchingquestionsandanswers,inwritingandunderoath,thecomplainantandthewitnesseshemayproduceonfacts
personallyknowntothemandattachtotherecordtheirswornstatements,togetherwiththeaffidavitssubmitted.(4a)
Section6.Issuanceandformofsearchwarrant.Ifthejudgeissatisfiedoftheexistenceoffactsuponwhichtheapplication
isbasedorthatthereisprobablecausetobelievethattheyexist,heshallissuethewarrant,whichmustbesubstantiallyin
theformprescribedbytheseRules.(5a)
Section7.Righttobreakdoororwindowtoeffectsearch.Theofficer,ifrefusedadmittancetotheplaceofdirectedsearch
aftergivingnoticeofhispurposeandauthority,maybreakopenanyouterorinnerdoororwindowofahouseoranypartofa
house or anything therein to execute the warrant or liberate himself or any person lawfully aiding him when unlawfully
detainedtherein.(6)
Section8.Searchofhouse,room,orpremisetobemadeinpresenceoftwowitnesses.Nosearchofahouse,room,or
anyotherpremiseshallbemadeexceptinthepresenceofthelawfuloccupantthereoforanymemberofhisfamilyorinthe
absenceofthelatter,twowitnessesofsufficientageanddiscretionresidinginthesamelocality.(7a)
Section9.Timeofmakingsearch.Thewarrantmustdirectthatitbeservedinthedaytime,unlesstheaffidavitassertsthat
thepropertyisonthepersonorintheplaceorderedtobesearched,inwhichcaseadirectionmaybeinsertedthatitbe
servedatanytimeofthedayornight.(8)
Section10.Validityofsearchwarrant.Asearchwarrantshallbevalidforten(10)daysfromitsdate.Thereafteritshallbe
void.(9a)
Section11.Receiptforthepropertyseized.Theofficerseizingpropertyunderthewarrantmustgiveadetailedreceiptfor
thesametothelawfuloccupantofthepremisesinwhosepresencethesearchandseizureweremade,orintheabsenceof
suchoccupant,must,inthepresenceofatleasttwowitnessesofsufficientageanddiscretionresidinginthesamelocality,
leaveareceiptintheplaceinwhichhefoundtheseizedproperty.(10a)
Section 12. Delivery of property and inventory thereof to court return and proceedings thereon. (a) The officer must
forthwithdeliverthepropertyseizedtothejudgewhoissuedthewarrant,togetherwithatrueinventorythereofdulyverified
underoath.
(b)Ten(10)daysafterissuanceofthesearchwarrant,theissuingjudgeshallascertainifthereturnhasbeenmade,
andifnone,shallsummonthepersontowhomthewarrantwasissuedandrequirehimtoexplainwhynoreturnwas
made.Ifthereturnhasbeenmade,thejudgeshallascertainwhethersection11ofthisRulehasbeencomplained
withandshallrequirethatthepropertyseizedbedeliveredtohim.Thejudgeshallseetoitthatsubsection(a)hereof
hasbeencompliedwith.
(c)Thereturnonthesearchwarrantshallbefiledandkeptbythecustodianofthelogbookonsearchwarrantswho
shallenterthereinthedateofthereturn,theresult,andotheractionsofthejudge.
Aviolationofthissectionshallconstitutecontemptofcourt.(11a)
Section 13. Search incident to lawful arrest. A person lawfully arrested may be searched for dangerous weapons or
anythingwhichmayhavebeenusedorconstituteproofinthecommissionofanoffensewithoutasearchwarrant.(12a)
Section14.Motiontoquashasearchwarrantortosuppressevidencewheretofile.Amotiontoquashasearchwarrant
and/ortosuppressevidenceobtainedtherebymaybefiledinandactedupononlybythecourtwheretheactionhasbeen
instituted.Ifnocriminalactionhasbeeninstituted,themotionmaybefiledinandresolvedbythecourtthatissuedthesearch
warrant. However, if such court failed to resolve the motion and a criminal case is subsequent filed in another court, the
motionshallberesolvedbythelattercourt.(n)

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RULE127
ProvisionalRemediesinCriminalCases
Section1.Availabilityofprovisionalremedies.Theprovisionalremediesincivilactions,insofarastheyareapplicable,
maybeavailedofinconnectionwiththecivilactiondeemedinstitutedwiththecriminalaction.(1a)
Section 2. Attachment. When the civil action is properly instituted in the criminal action as provided in Rule 111, the
offendedpartymayhavethepropertyoftheaccusedattachedassecurityforthesatisfactionofanyjudgmentthatmaybe
recoveredfromtheaccusedinthefollowingcases:
(a)WhentheaccusedisabouttoabscondfromthePhilippines
(b) When the criminal action is based on a claim for money or property embezzled or fraudulently misapplied or
convertedtotheuseoftheaccusedwhoisapublicofficer,officerofacorporation,attorney,factor,broker,agent,or
clerk,inthecourseofhisemploymentassuch,orbyanyotherpersoninafiduciarycapacity,orforawillfulviolationof
duty
(c)Whentheaccusedhasconcealed,removed,ordisposedofhisproperty,orisabouttodosoand
a)WhentheaccusedresidesoutsidethePhilippines.(2a)
TheLawphilProjectArellanoLawFoundation

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