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# Chapter 5 Vocabulary

Andrew Cohen
1. amplitude
The measure of how high a vibration of oscillation can go when measured from a center point.
2. atomic emission spectra
The frequencies emitted from part of the electromagnetic spectrum when a molecule goes from high to low
energy state. Analysis transmitted on the visual color spectrum using a spectrometer.
3. atomic orbital
The mathematical function that describes an electron when it acts in the form of a wave.
4. Aufbau Principle
A statement that each new element can be created by adding one proton to the nucleus and one electron to
the electron cloud
5. de Broglies equation
An equation used to describe matter in a form of wavelength, usually used in conjunction with describing an
electron, = h/mv
The spectrum of radiation, including visable, radio, gamma, X-ray, ultraviolet, micro and, inferred.
7. electron configuration
A written way to describe the amount of electrons in a given element. It also designates the orbitals that are
filled. An example is Neon with an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6
8. energy level
The level that electrons can be found on within the electron cloud. The higher the level, the heavier and
bigger the atom is.
9. frequency ()
The rate at which a vibration occurs and causes a wave. This is usually measured in some form of time,
usually seconds.
10. ground state
The lowest energy state of an atom.
11. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
A chemical and physical principle that states that, as you approach total certainty on an electrons location,
you know less about its speed, and as you know more about an electrons speed, you know less about its
location.
12. hertz (Hz)
Measurement of repetition per second, or cycle per second.
13. Hunds Rule
Every electron within an orbital will only occupy one space without a pair until all of the orbital is full once
over.

## 14. Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons can have the same quantum state (quantum number) within the same atom.
15. Photoelectric effect
When electrons release from the surface of an atom when coming into contact with incident light.
16. Photon
A particle representing light or another form of radiation. It carries energy, but has no mass.
17. Plancks Constant (h)
A constant that give the ration of the energy of a quantum of radiation to its frequency. Its equal to 6.626 x
10-34 joules per second.
18. quantum
a quantity of energy proportional to the frequency of the radiation it represents.
19. quantum mechanical model
The wave-particle duality of energy and matter which provides a view of the behavior of photons and
electrons on an atomic scale
20. spectrum
The space in-between two extremes (inferred and ultraviolet lights boarder the visible light spectrum).
21. wavelength ()
Distance between waves, such as a sound or electromagnetic wave.