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# Unit 29 Three-Phase Transformers

Unit 29
Three-Phase Transformers

Construction

## A three-phase transformer is constructed by

winding three single-phase transformers on a
single core.
Three-phase transformers are connected in
either wye or delta configurations.

Objectives:

## Discuss the construction of three-phase

transformers.
Discuss the formation of a three-phase
transformer bank.
Discuss primary and secondary connections.

Objectives:

## Discuss different types of three-phase transformer

connections.
Show one-line diagram schematics.
Discuss power quality issues relating to harmonics.
Identify harmonic characteristics.
Discuss solutions to power quality problems
associated with harmonics.

Transformer Bank

## Two or three single-phase transformers can

be connected together to deliver three-phase
power. This is referred to as a transformer
bank.
This allows greater maintenance and
replacement options.

schematic.

## The primary (input) side of a three-phase

transformer can be connected in a wye or
delta configuration.
The secondary (output) side of a three-phase
transformer can also be connected in a wye or
delta configuration.

## Primary and Secondary Connections

This allows four basic connection patterns:

Wye-Wye

Delta-Delta

Wye-Delta

Delta-Wye

Winding identification.

## Unit 29 Three-Phase Transformers

One-line Diagram
One-line diagrams are simplified schematics
used to show the main power distribution
systems for commercial or industrial settings.

## Unit 29 Three-Phase Transformers

Pulse Mode Power Supplies
Many power supplies for computers and office
machines use pulse-width modulation. This
can contribute to harmonic and power quality
problems.

## Unit 29 Three-Phase Transformers

Harmonics
Harmonics are voltages or currents that
operate at frequencies that are multiples of
the fundamental power frequency. The
fundamental frequency is usually 50 or 60
Hz.

## Unit 29 Three-Phase Transformers

Harmonic Reduction
1. Reduce the neutral current in three-phase
systems by balancing the currents in the
phase legs.
2. Reduce triplen harmonics on the neutral by

## Unit 29 Three-Phase Transformers

Harmonic Reduction
3. Avoid shared neutrals and provide a
separate neutral for each phase conductor.
4. Install larger neutrals, especially on
multiphase circuits using a common neutral.

## Unit 29 Three-Phase Transformers

Review:
3. It is common practice to center-tap one of the
transformers in a delta connection to provide
power for single-phase loads. When this is
done, the remaining phase connection
becomes a high leg.

## Unit 29 Three-Phase Transformers

Review:

Harmonic Reduction
5. Derate the load capacity of transformers and
transformers.

## 4. The center connection of a wye is often

tapped to provide a neutral conductor for
three-phase loads. This produces a threephase four-wire system. Common voltages
produced by this type of connection are
208/120 and 80/277.

Review:

Review:

## 1. Three-phase transformers are constructed by

winding three separate transformers on the
same core material.
2. Single-phase transformers can be used as a
three-phase transformer bank by connecting
their primary and secondary windings as either
wyes or deltas.

## 5. Harmonics are generally caused by loads that

pulse the powerline.
6. Harmonic distortion on a single-phase line is
often caused by computer power supplies,
copy machines, fax machines, and light
dimmers.

## Unit 29 Three-Phase Transformers

Review:
7. Harmonic distortion on three-phase power
lines is generally caused by variable frequency
drives and electronic DC drives.
8. Triplen harmonics generally cause
overheating of the neutral conductor on threephase four-wire systems.