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ArchitectureofIndia

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ThearchitectureofIndiaisrootedinitshistory,cultureandreligion.Indianarchitectureprogressed
withtimeandassimilatedthemanyinfluencesthatcameasaresultofIndia'sglobaldiscoursewithother
regionsoftheworldthroughoutitsmillenniaoldpast.ThearchitecturalmethodspracticedinIndiaarea
resultofexaminationandimplementationofitsestablishedbuildingtraditionsandoutsidecultural
interactions.[1]
Thoughold,thisEasterntraditionhasalsoincorporatedmodernvaluesasIndiabecameamodernnation
state.Theeconomicreformsof1991furtherbolsteredtheurbanarchitectureofIndiaasthecountry
becamemoreintegratedwiththeworld'seconomy.TraditionalVastuShastraremainsinfluentialin
India'sarchitectureduringthecontemporaryera.[1]

Contents
1IndusValleyCivilization(2700BC1700BC)
2PostMahaJanapadasperiod(600BC200AD)
3EarlyCommonEraHighMiddleAges(200AD1200AD)
4LateMiddleAges(1100AD1526AD)
5IslamicinfluenceandMughalEra(1526AD1857AD)
6ColonialEra(1500AD1947AD)
6.1BritishColonialEra:1615to1947
6.2French:1673to1954
6.3Dutch:1605to1825
6.4Portuguese:1498to1961
7RepublicofIndia(1947ADpresent)
8Gallery
9Seealso
10Notes
11References
12Furtherreading
13Externallinks

IndusValleyCivilization(2700BC1700BC)
Furtherinformation:IndusValleyCivilization
TheIndusValleyCivilization(IVC)wasaBronzeAgecivilization(27001700BCmatureperiod
26001900BC)thatwaslocatedinthenorthwesternregionoftheIndiansubcontinent,consistingof
whatisnowmainlymoderndayPakistanandnorthwestIndia.FlourishingaroundtheIndusRiverbasin,
thecivilizationprimarilycentredalongtheIndusandthePunjabregion,extendingintotheGhaggar
HakraRivervalleyandtheGangesYamunaDoab.Geographically,thecivilizationwasspreadoveran
areaofsome1,260,000squarekm,makingitthelargestancientcivilizationintheworld.
TheIndusValleyisoneoftheworld'searliesturbancivilizations,alongwithitscontemporaries,
MesopotamiaandAncientEgypt.Atitspeak,theIndusCivilizationmayhavehadapopulationofwell
overfivemillion.InhabitantsoftheancientIndusrivervalleydevelopednewtechniquesinmetallurgy

andhandicraft(carneolproducts,sealcarving)andproduced
copper,bronze,lead,andtin.Thecivilizationisnotedforits
citiesbuiltofbrick,roadsidedrainagesystem,andmultistoried
houses.Thebathsandtoiletssystemthecitieshadis
acknowledgedasoneofthemostadvancedintheancientworld.
Thegridlayoutplanningofthecitieswithroadsatexactright
anglesisamodernsystemthatwasimplementedinthecitiesof
thisparticularcivilization.Theurbanagglomerationand
productionscaleofthisparticularcivilizationwasunsurpassedat
thetimeandformanyfuturecenturies.
ThematurephaseofthiscivilizationiscalledtheHarappan
Civilization,asthefirstofitscitiestobeunearthedwaslocated
atHarappa,excavatedinthe1920sinwhatwasatthetimethe
PunjabprovinceofBritishIndia(nowinPakistan).Excavationof
Harappansiteshavebeenongoingsince1920,withimportant
breakthroughsoccurringasrecentlyas1999.Todate,over1,052
citiesandsettlementshavebeenfound,mainlyinthegeneral
regionoftheGhaggarHakrariveranditstributaries.Amongthe
settlementswerethemajorurbancentresofHarappa,Lothal,
Mohenjodaro(UNESCOWorldHeritageSite),Dholavira,
Kalibanga,andRakhigarhi.

Awellanddrainagesystemisat
Lothal

AbathandtoiletexcavatedinLothal

PostMahaJanapadasperiod(600BC200
AD)
Furtherinformation:Hindutemplearchitecture,Udayagiriand
KhandagiriCaves,Buddhistarchitecture,andIndianrockcut
architecture
TheentireKalibangan

TheBuddhiststupa,adomeshapedmonument,wasusedinIndiaasa
citadelunexcavated
[2]
commemorativemonumentassociatedwithstoringsacredrelics. The
stupaarchitecturewasadoptedinSoutheastandEastAsia,where
itbecameprominentasaBuddhistmonumentusedfor
enshriningsacredrelics.[2]Fortifiedcitieswithstpas,viharas,
andtempleswereconstructedduringtheMauryaempire(c.321
185BC).[3]Woodenarchitecturewaspopularandrockcut
architecturebecamesolidified.[3]Guardrailsconsistingof
posts,crossbars,andacopingbecameafeatureofsafety
surroundingastupa.[3]Templesbuildonelliptical,circular,
TheGreatStupaatSanchi(4th1st
quadrilateral,orapsidalplanswereconstructedusingbrickand
centuryBC).Thedomeshapedstupa
timber.[3]TheIndiangatewayarches,thetorana,reachedEast
wasusedinIndiaasa
AsiawiththespreadofBuddhism.[4]Somescholarsholdthat
commemorativemonumentassociated
toriiderivesfromthetoranagatesattheBuddhisthistoricsiteof
withstoringsacredrelics.
Sanchi(3rdcenturyBC11thcenturyAD).[5]

RockcutstepwellsinIndiadatefrom200400AD.[6]Subsequently,theconstructionofwellsatDhank
(550625AD)andsteppedpondsatBhinmal(850950AD)tookplace.[6]ThecityofMohenjodarohas
wellswhichmaybethepredecessorsofthestepwell.[7]Asmanyas700wells,constructedby3rd
millenniumBC,havebeendiscoveredinjustonesectionofthecity,leadingscholarstobelievethat
'cylindricalbricklinedwells'wereinventedbythepeopleoftheIndusValleyCivilization.[7]Cave
templesbecameprominentthroughoutwesternIndia,incorporatingvariousuniquefeaturestogiverise
tocavearchitectureinplacessuchasAjantaandEllora.[3]
Walledandmoatedcitieswithlargegatesandmultistoriedbuildingswhichconsistentlyusedarched
windowsanddoorsareimportantfeaturesofthearchitectureduringthisperiod.[3]TheIndianemperor
Ashoka(rule:273232BC)establishedachainofhospitalsthroughouttheMauryanempireby230
BCE.[8]OneoftheedictsofAshoka(272231BC)reads:"EverywhereKingPiyadasi(Ashoka)
erectedtwokindsofhospitals,hospitalsforpeopleandhospitalsforanimals.Wheretherewereno
healingherbsforpeopleandanimals,heorderedthattheybeboughtandplanted."[9]Buddhist
architectureblendedwithRomanarchitectureandHellenesticarchitecturetogiverisetouniqueblends
suchastheGrecoBuddhistschool.[10]Indianartandculturehasabsorbedextraneousimpactsby
varyingdegrees,andismuchricherforthisexposure.Thiscrossfertilizationbetweendifferentart
streamsconvergingonthesubcontinentproducednewformsthat,whileretainingtheessenceofthe
past,succeededintheintegratingselectedelementsofthenewinfluences.Alongtraditionofartand
culturewasalreadyestablishedwellbeforethebeginningof20thcenturyinIndia.Indianpaintingcan
bebroadlydividedintotwocategoriesMURALSandMINIATURE.

EarlyCommonEraHighMiddleAges(200AD1200AD)
Furtherinformation:ArchitectureofKarnataka,Kalingaarchitecture,
Dravidianarchitecture,WesternChalukyaarchitecture,andBadami
ChalukyaArchitecture
Universitieshousingthousandsofteachersandstudentsflourishedat
NalandaandValabhibetweenthe4th8thcenturies.[11]SouthIndian
templearchitecturevisibleasadistincttraditionduringthe7thcentury
ADisdescribedbelow:[12]

Thetemplecomplexat
Khajurahoadheringtothe
shikharatemplestyle
architectureisaUNESCO
WorldHeritageSite

MruGurjaraTempleArchitectureoriginatedsomewhere
insixthcenturyinandaroundareasofRajasthan.Mru
GurjaraArchitectureshowthedeepunderstandingof
structuresandrefinedskillsofRajasthanicraftmenofbygone
era.MruGurjaraArchitecturehastwoprominentstyles
MahaMaruandMaruGurjara.AccordingtoM.A.Dhaky,
MahaMarustyledevelopedprimarilyinMarudesa,
Sapadalaksa,SurasenaandpartsofUparamalawhereas
MaruGurjaraoriginatedinMedapata,GurjaradesaArbuda,
GurjaradesaAnartaandsomeareasofGujarat.[13]Scholars
suchasGeorgeMichell,M.A.Dhaky,MichaelW.Meister
andU.S.MoortibelievethatMruGurjaraTemple
ArchitectureisentirelyWesternIndianarchitectureandis
quitedifferentfromtheNorthIndianTemplearchitecture.[14]
ThereisaconnectinglinkbetweenMruGurjara
ArchitectureandHoysalaTempleArchitecture.Inbothof
thesestylesarchitectureistreatedsculpturally.[15]

thesestylesarchitectureistreatedsculpturally.[15]
TheSouthIndiantempleconsistsessentiallyofa
squarechamberedsanctuarytoppedbya
superstructure,tower,orspireandanattachedpillared
porchorhall(maapa,ormaapam),enclosedbya
peristyleofcellswithinarectangularcourt.The
externalwallsofthetemplearesegmentedby
pilastersandcarrynicheshousingsculpture.The
superstructureortowerabovethesanctuaryisofthe
kinatypeandconsistsofanarrangementof
graduallyrecedingstoriesinapyramidalshape.Each
storyisdelineatedbyaparapetofminiatureshrines,
squareatthecornersandrectangularwithbarrelvault
roofsatthecentre.Thetoweristoppedbyadome
shapedcupolaandacrowningpot

KonarkSunTemple,oneofthemost
wellrenownedtemplesinIndiaandis
aWorldHeritageSite.

NorthIndiantemplesshowedincreasedelevationofthewallandelaboratespirebythe10thcentury.[16]
RichlydecoratedtemplesincludingthecomplexatKhajurahowereconstructedinCentralIndia.[16]
IndiantradersbroughtIndianarchitecturetoSoutheastAsiathroughvarioustraderoutes.[10]Grandeur
ofconstruction,beautifulsculptures,delicatecarvings,highdomes,gopurasandextensivecourtyards
werethefeaturesoftemplearchitectureinIndia.ExamplesincludetheLingarajTempleat
BhubaneshwarinOdisha,SunTempleatKonarkinOdisha,BrihadeeswararTempleatThanjavurin
TamilNadu.

LateMiddleAges(1100AD1526AD)
Furtherinformation:HoysalaarchitectureandVijayanagara
architecture
VijayanagaraArchitectureoftheperiod(13361565AD)wasa
notablebuildingstyleevolvedbytheVijayanagarempirethat
ruledmostofSouthIndiafromtheircapitalatVijayanagaraon
thebanksoftheTungabhadraRiverinpresentdayKarnataka.[17]
Thearchitectureofthetemplesbuiltduringthereignofthe
Vijayanagaraempirehadelementsofpoliticalauthority.[18]This
resultedinthecreationofadistinctiveimperialstyleof
Ornatelintelovermantapaentrance,
architecturewhichfeaturedprominentlynotonlyintemplesbut
Belurtemple
alsoinadministrativestructuresacrossthedeccan.[19]The
VijayanagarastyleisacombinationoftheChalukya,Hoysala,
PandyaandCholastyleswhichevolvedearlierinthecenturieswhentheseempiresruledandis
characterisedbyareturntothesimplisticandsereneartofthepast.[20]
HoysalaarchitectureisthedistinctivebuildingstyledevelopedundertheruleoftheHoysalaEmpirein
theregionhistoricallyknownasKarnata,today'sKarnataka,India,betweenthe11thandthe14th
centuries.[21]LargeandsmalltemplesbuiltduringthiseraremainasexamplesoftheHoysala
architecturalstyle,includingtheChennakesavaTempleatBelur,theHoysaleswaraTempleatHalebidu,
andtheKesavaTempleatSomanathapura.OtherexamplesoffineHoysalacraftmanshiparethetemples
atBelavadi,Amrithapura,andNuggehalli.StudyoftheHoysalaarchitecturalstylehasrevealeda

negligibleIndoAryaninfluencewhiletheimpactofSouthernIndianstyleismoredistinct.[22]Afeature
ofHoysalatemplearchitectureisitsattentiontodetailandskilledcraftmanship.ThetemplesofBelur
andHalebiduareproposedUNESCOworldheritagesites.[23]Abouta100Hoysalatemplessurvive
today.[24]

IslamicinfluenceandMughalEra(1526AD1857AD)
Furtherinformation:MughalarchitectureandIndoIslamic
architecture
Mughaltombsofsandstoneand
marbleshowPersianinfluence.
[25]TheRedFortatAgra(1565
74)andthewalledcityof
FatehpurSikri(156974)are
amongthearchitectural
IntheAugust1604CEthe
achievementsofthistimeasis
constructionoftheHarmandirSahib
theTajMahal,builtasatombfor
theholiestshrineoftheSikh
QueenMumtazMahalbyShah
religionwascompleted.
Jahan(162858).[25]Employing
thedoubledome,therecessed
archway,whitemarbleandparkswhilestressingonsymmetryanddetail
QutubMinaraprominent
wasvisibleduringthereignofShahJahan.[26]Quranicverseswere
exampleofIslamic
describedonthewallsofthebuildings.[1]However,thedepictionofany
architectureinIndia.
livingbeinganessentialpartofthepreIslamictraditionofIndiawas
forbiddenunderIslam.[1]TheArchitectureduringtheMughalPeriodhas
shownaverygoodblendofIndianstylewiththePersianstyle.
SomescholarsholdthatculturalcontactwithEuropeunderManuelIofPortugal(reign:25October
149513December1521)resultedinexchangeofarchitecturalinfluences.[27]Littleliteraryevidence
existstoconfirmtheIndianinfluencebutsomescholarshavenonethelesssuggestedapossiblerelation
basedonproximityofarchitecturalstyles.[27]

ColonialEra(1500AD1947AD)
Furtherinformation:IndoGothic
Undercolonialrule,architecturebecameanemblemofpower,
designedtoendorsethepatron.Numerousoutsidersinvaded
Indiaandcreatedarchitecturalstylesreflectiveoftheirancestral
andadoptedhomes.TheEuropeancolonizerscreated
architecturethatsymbolizedtheirmissionofconquest,dedicated
tothestateorreligion.[28]
TheBritish,French,DutchandthePortuguesewerethemain
powersthatcolonizedIndia.[29][30]

BritishColonialEra:1615to1947

TheChepaukPalaceatChennai,once
theresidenceoftheNawabofArcot

TheBritisharrivalin1615overthrewtheMughalempire.BritainreignedIndiaforoverthreehundred
yearsandtheirlegacystillremainsthroughbuildingandinfrastructurethatpopulatetheirformer
colonies.[31]
ThemajorcitiescolonizedduringthisperiodwereMadras,Calcutta,Bombay,Delhi,Agra,Bankipore,
Karachi,Nagpur,BhopalandHyderabad.[32][30]
StAndrewsKirk,Madrasisrenownedforitscolonialbeauty.Thebuildingiscircularinformandis
sidedbytworectangularsectionsoneistheentranceporch.Theentranceislinedwithtwelve
colonnadesandtwoBritishlionsandmottoofEastIndiaCompanyengravedonthem.Theinteriorholds
sixteencolumnsandthedomeispaintedbluewithdecoratedwithgoldstars.[33]
ThestapleofMadraswasFortSt.George,awalledsquaredbuildingadjacenttothebeach.Surrounding
thefortwasWhiteTownsettlementofBritishandIndianareaBlackTownlatertobecalled
Georgetown.
BlackTowndescribedin1855as"theminorstreets,occupiedbythenativesarenumerous,irregularand
ofvariousdimensions.Manyofthemareextremelynarrowandillventilated...ahallowsquare,the
roomsopeningintoacourtyardinthecentre."[34]
GardenhouseswereoriginallyusedasweekendhousesforrecreationalusebytheupperclassBritish.
Nonetheless,thegardenhousebecameidealafulltimedwelling,desertingthefortinthe19thCentury.
[35]

CalcuttaMadrasandCalcuttaweresimilarborderedbywateranddivisionofIndianinthenorthand
Britishinthesouth.AnEnglishwomannotedin1750"thebanksoftheriverareasonemaysay
absolutelystuddedwithelegantmansionscalledhereasatMadras,gardenhouses."Esplanaderowis
frontsthefortwithlinedpalaces.[36][37]
Indianvillagesintheseareasconsistedofclayandstrawhouses,latertransformedintoametropolisof
brickandstone.[38]
TheVictoriaMemorialinCalcutta,isthemosteffectivesymbolismofBritishEmpire,builtasa
monumentintributetoQueenVictoriasreign.Theplanofthebuildingconsistsofonelargecentralpart
coveredwithalargerdome.Colonnadesseparatethetwochambers.Eachcornerholdsasmallerdome
andisflooredwithmarbleplinth.Thememorialstandson26hectaresofgardensurroundedby
reflectivepools.[39]

French:1673to1954
TheFrenchcolonizedafishingvillage(Pondicherry)inTamilNaduandtransformeditintoaflourishing
porttown.ThetownwasbuiltontheFrenchgridpatternandfeaturesneatsectorsandperpendicular
streetsanddividedintotwosectors,FrenchQuarter(VilleBlanche)andtheIndianquarter(VilleNoire).
Frenchstyledvillaswerestyledwithlongcompoundsandstatelywalls,linedhouseswithverandas,
largeFrenchdoorsandgrills.Infrastructuresuchasbanks,policestationandPondicherryInternational
PortstillholdtheFrenchpresence.
TopreservePondicherryanorganizationnamedINTACHwasformed.Authorizationisneededfrom
INTACH,toannihilateanyoriginalFrenchArchitecture.[40]

Frenchexpandedtheirempirebycolonizingcoastaltowns,YanaminAndhraPradesh,KaraikalinTamil
NaduandMaheinKeralawithaFrenchatmosphereofquiettownsaroundbeaches.Frenchspellingon
signageandtrafficsignsstillremains.[30]

Dutch:1605to1825
TheDutchenteredIndiawiththeonlyinterestsofTradeintheearly17thCentury.Duringtheir200
yearsinIndia,theycolonizedSurat,Bharuch,Venrula,Ahmedabad,MalabarCoast,KochiandSadras.
[30]

SurataDutchfactoryin1630sBharuch:TradingPostoftheDutchEastIndiaCompanyhadaDutch
cemetery.Venrula:awarehousewasbuiltfor3000GuildersbyLeendartJanszoonsandacastleforthe
protectionoftheDutch.Ahmedabad:TheDutchcemeteryliesonthebankofKankarialake.Itholdsa
mixofIndianandEuropeanstyledgraves,withdomedtombs,pyramids,walledandplaingravestones.
MalabarCoastKochi:TheDutchPalace(MattancherryPalace)Thepalacewasoriginallybuiltbythe
Portuguese,itfellintothehandsoftheDutchwhenthePortugueselostcontrolofKochi.Dutch
cemeteryThecemeteryrunsparalleltothebeachandistheoldestEuropeancemeteryinIndia.Itholds
104tombsthatvisuallynarratetheDutchinfluenceinArchitectureduringtheera.Thecemeteryis
guardedbyheavywallsandtheentrancepillarstillcarriestheoriginalcalligraphicinscription1724
DavidHallwhichwastheresidenceofthefamousDutchCommanderandGovernorofKochi,
AdriaanvanReedlotDrakesteinwasbuiltin1695.Thehallhasbeenrestoredasaculturalcentreandart
cafforyoung,visualandperformingartists.BastionbungalowThisDutchstyledbuildingnearthe
FortKochibeachwasbuilttoprotecttheharbor.ThakurHousetheDutchbuiltthisbungalow
overlookingtheseaasaclub.Sadras17km(11mi)fromtherockcuttemplesofMamallapuramis
anotherDutchsettlement.PullicatPullicatlake55kmnorthofMadrasisamillionyearsoldandthe
secondlargestlagooninIndia.ItwasthemostimportanttradingpostoftheDutch.Theybuilttwo
cemeteries.Onewasruinedduetonegligenceandattheentranceisflankedbystonepillars,having76
tombs.Imagesofskeletonsarecarvedontothegravestones,symbolizinglifeanddeath.[41]

Portuguese:1498to1961
ThePortuguesearrivedasmerchantsinthe1498andweremoredrivenbyaCatholicmissionaryzeal
thangainingpowersinIndia.ThePortuguesegainedafootholdinGoaandruledfor400years.[30]
PortuguesedominanceinGoastillremainsevident.Colonizers'missionaryspiritbuiltmanymagnificent
cathedrals,churches,basilicasandseminaries.TheBasilicaofBomJesus(GoodJesus),OldGoa,
formercapitalduringthePortugueserule.ThethreestoriedRenaissancestyledchurchwasbuiltof
plasterandlateritein1605,andholdsthemortalremainsofSt.FrancisXavier.Theinteriorisbuiltina
MosaicCorinthianstyleandadornedwithwoodandgoldleaf.Thewallsembraceoldpaintingofsaints
asthefloorislaidwithpurewhitemarble.[42]
ThePortugueseCatholichousesfacedthestreetwithuniquelargeornamentalwindowsopeningonto
verandahs.Boldcolourswerepaintedonhousesconstructingdistinctidentity,allowingthesailorsto
recognizetheirhousesfromsea.Thecoveredporchesandverandasweredesignedforsocializing
contrarytotheHindustyledhousing.Frontdoorswerelinedwithcolumns,andrailingswerepopularin
embellishment.[43]
TheinteriorofGoanPortuguesehousesconsistedofelaboratepatternscreatedwithtilesimportedfrom
Europeandafalseceilinginstalledofwood.Thewallsarepaintedwithbrightcolourscontrastingtothe
earthycolouredfurniture.

Thewallsweremadeoutofmudorlateritestoneandcolouredwithvegetableandnaturaldyes.
Gatepostsandcompoundwallswerecarvedwithgreatdetail.[44]
IndianArchitecturecontinuedtoflourishastheytookinfluencefromthecolonies.IndianArchitecture
furthershapedastheycombinedthecolonialinfluenceswithtraditionalArchitecture.

RepublicofIndia(1947ADpresent)
Furtherinformation:ListofWorldHeritageSitesinIndiaandCategory:Indianarchitecture
Inrecenttimestherehasbeenamovementofpopulationfromruralareastourbancentresofindustry,
leadingtopriceriseinpropertyinvariouscitiesofIndia.[45]UrbanhousinginIndiabalancesspace
constrictionsandisaimedtoservetheworkingclass.[46]Growingawarenessofecologyhasinfluenced
architectureinIndiaduringmoderntimes.[47]
ClimateresponsivearchitecturehaslongbeenafeatureofIndia'sarchitecturebuthasbeenlosingits
significanceasoflate.[48]Indianarchitecturereflectsitsvarioussocioculturalsensibilitieswhichvary
fromregiontoregion.[48]Certainareasaretraditionallyheldtobebelongingtowomen.[48]Villagesin
Indiahavefeaturessuchascourtyards,loggias,terracesandbalconies.[46]Calico,chintz,andpalampore
ofIndianoriginhighlighttheassimilationofIndiantextilesinglobalinteriordesign.[49]
Roshandans,whichareskylightscumventilators,areacommonfeatureinIndianhomes,especiallyin
NorthIndia.[50][51]

Gallery

RanakpurAdinathJain
TempleinRajasthan,
15thCentury.

TheSeCathedral
locatedinOldGoais
acathedraldedicated
toCatherineof
Alexandria.

Thefamousjaalifrom ChowmahallaPalacein
the16thcenturySidi
Hyderabad
Saiyyedmosquebuilt
byAhmedShahof
Gujarat,inAhmedabad

TheNorthBlockin
NewDelhihouseskey
governmentoffices,
builtalongwith
Lutyens'Delhi.

ChandigarhSecretariat
designedbyLe
Corbusier.

TheTajMahalinAgra, CharminaratOldCity
arguablythegreatest
inHyderabad
exampleofIslamic
architectureinIndia.

AkshardhamTemplein
Delhi,completedin
2005andoneofthe
largestHindutemples
intheworld.

ArakuzhaMarth
MariamSyroMalabar
ChurchinKerala,
foundedin999isa
SaintThomasChristian
church.

TheJagannathTemple
inPuri,Odisha

Seealso
WesternChalukyaarchitecture
BadamiChalukyaarchitecture
Hoysalaarchitecture
Vijayanagaraarchitecture
Dravidianarchitecture
ArchitectureofKarnataka
Hindutemplearchitecture
Hoysalaarchitecture
Badamicavetemples

TemplesofNorthKarnataka
Indianvernaculararchitecture
Rajasthaniarchitecture
Hemadpanthi
JainisminNorthKarnataka
ListofIndianarchitects
KalingaArchitecture
ArchitectureofKerala

Notes
1. SeeRajJadhav,pp.713inModernTraditions:Contemporary
ArchitectureinIndia.
2. EncyclopdiaBritannica(2008),Pagoda.
3. Chandra(2008)
4. EncyclopdiaBritannica(2008),torii

WikimediaCommonshas
mediarelatedto
ArchitectureofIndia.

5. JapaneseArchitectureandArtNetUsersSystem(2001),torii.
(http://www.aisf.or.jp/~jaanus/)
6. Livingston&Beach,xxiii
7. Livingstone&Beach,19
8. Piercey&Scarborough(2008)
9. SeeStanleyFinger(2001),OriginsofNeuroscience:AHistoryof
ExplorationsIntoBrainFunction,OxfordUniversityPress,p.
12,ISBN0195146948.
10. Moffettetal.,75
11. EncyclopdiaBritannica(2008),education,historyof.
12. EncyclopdiaBritannica(2008),SouthIndiantemple
architecture.
13. ThesculptureofearlymedievalRajasthanByCynthiaPackert
Atherton
14. BeginningsofMedievalIdiomc.A.D.9001000byGeorge
Michell
15. ThelegacyofG.S.Ghurye:acentennialfestschriftByGovind
SadashivGhurye,A.R.Momin,p205
16. EncyclopdiaBritannica(2008),NorthIndiantemple
architecture.
17. SeePercyBrowninSryanthaKmat'sAconcisehistoryof
Karnataka:fromprehistorictimestothepresent,p.132.
18. SeeCarlaSinopoli,EchoesofEmpire:Vijayanagaraand
HistoricalMemory,VijayanagaraasHistoricalMemory,p.26.
19. SeeCarlaSinopoli,ThePoliticalEconomyofCraftProduction:
CraftingEmpireinSouthIndia,C.13501650,p.209.
20. SeePercyBrowninSryanthaKmat'sAconcisehistoryof
Karnataka:fromprehistorictimestothepresent,p.182.
21. MSNEncarta(2008),Hoysala_Dynasty
(http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761588346/Hoysala_Dyn
asty.html).Archived(http://www.webcitation.org/5kwKcQ2xF)
20091031.
22. SeePercyBrowninSryanthaKmat'sAconcisehistoryof
Karnataka:fromprehistorictimestothepresent,p.134.
23. TheHindu(2004),BelurforWorldHeritageStatus.
(http://www.hindu.com/2004/07/25/stories/2004072501490300.ht
m)
24. Foekema,16
25. EncyclopdiaBritannica(2008),Mughalarchitecture.
26. EncyclopdiaBritannica(2008),ShhJahnperiodarchitecture.
27. Lach,5762
28. Thapar2004,p.122.
29. Nilsson1968,p.9.
30. "(Brief)HistoryofEuropeanAsiantrade"
(http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~vaucher/Genealogy/Documents/Asi
a/EuropeanExploration.html#england).EuropeanExploration.
Retrieved14October2011.
31. Jaffar1936,p.230.
32. Tadgell1990,p.14.
33. Thapar2004,p.125.
34. Evenson1989,p.2.
35. Evenson1989,p.6.
36. Evenson1989,p.20.

37. Dutta,Arindam(29March2010)."RepresentingCalcutta:
Modernity,NationalismandtheColonialUncanny".Journalof
ArchitecturalEducation63(2):167169.doi:10.1111/j.1531
314X.2010.01082.x(https://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1531
314X.2010.01082.x).
38. Nilsson1968,pp.6667.
39. Thapar2004,p.129.
40. Nilsson1968,pp.9497.
41. Wild,Anthony(2000).TheEastIndiaCompany:Tradeand
Conquestfrom1600.NewYork:TheLyonsPress.pp.32,45,
74,88,89.ISBN1585740594.
42. Thapar2004,p.124.
43. Mankekar2004,p.99.
44. Mankekar2004,p.17.
45. SeeRajJadhav,p.11inModernTraditions:Contemporary
ArchitectureinIndia.
46. Gast,77
47. Gast,119
48. SeeRajJadhav,13inModernTraditions:Contemporary
ArchitectureinIndia.
49. Savage2008
50. ThomasGeorgePercivalSpear,MargaretSpear,India
remembered(http://books.google.com/books?
id=6vEtAAAAMAAJ),OrientLongman,1981,ISBN9780
861312658,"...ThebungalowwasatypicalnorthIndianone,
withalargecentralroomlitonlybyskylights(roshandans)anda
numberofothersopeningoutfromthem..."
51. PavanK.Varma,SondeepShankar,Mansionsatdusk:thehavelis
ofoldDelhi(http://books.google.com/books?
id=jCBuAAAAMAAJ),SpantechPublishers,1992,ISBN978
8185215143,"...Thirdly,whileobviatingdirectsunlight,it
hadtoallowsomelightandairtoenterthroughoverhead
roshandans..."

References
VastuSilpaKosha,EncyclopediaofHinduTemplearchitectureandVastu/S.K.Ramachandara
Rao,Delhi,DevineBooks,(LalaMurariLalChhariaOrientalseries)ISBN.9789381218518
(Set)
Chandra,Pramod(2008),SouthAsianarts,EncyclopdiaBritannica.
Evenson,Norma(1989).TheIndianMetropolis.NewHavenandLondon:YaleUniversitypress.
ISBN0300043333.
Foekema,Gerard(1996),ACompleteGuidetoHoysaaTemples,AbhinavPublications,ISBN81
70173450.
Gast,KlausPeter(2007),ModernTraditions:ContemporaryArchitectureinIndia,Birkhuser,
ISBN9783764377540.
Jaffar,S.M(1936).TheMughalEmpireFromBabarToAurangzeb.PeshawarCity:Muhammad
SadiqKhan.OU_160252.
Lach,DonaldF.(1993),AsiaintheMakingofEurope(vol.2),UniversityofChicagoPress,ISBN
0226467309.
Livingston,Morna&Beach,Milo(2002),StepstoWater:TheAncientStepwellsofIndia,
PrincetonArchitecturalPress,ISBN1568983247.
Mankekar,Kamla(2004).TemplesofGoa.India:MinistryofInformationandBroadcasting,
Govt.ofInd.ISBN9788123011615.
Moffett,MarionFazio,MichaelW.WodehouseLawrence(2003),AWorldHistoryof

Architecture,McGrawHillProfessional,ISBN0071417516.
Nilsson,Sten(1968).EuropeanArchitectureinIndia17501850.London:FaberandFaber.
ISBN0571082254.
Piercey,W.Douglas&Scarborough,Harold(2008),hospital,EncyclopdiaBritannica.
Possehl,GregoryL.(1996),"Mehrgarh",OxfordCompaniontoArchaeologyeditedbyBrian
Fagan,OxfordUniversityPress.
Rodda&Ubertini(2004),TheBasisofCivilizationWaterScience?,InternationalAssociationof
HydrologicalScience,ISBN1901502570.
Savage,George(2008),interiordesign,EncyclopdiaBritannica.
Sinopoli,CarlaM.(2003),ThePoliticalEconomyofCraftProduction:CraftingEmpireinSouth
India,C.13501650,CambridgeUniversityPress,ISBN0521826136.
Sinopoli,CarlaM.(2003),"EchoesofEmpire:VijayanagaraandHistoricalMemory,
VijayanagaraasHistoricalMemory",ArchaeologiesofmemoryeditedbyRuthM.VanDyke&
SusanE.Alcock,BlackwellPublishing,ISBN063123585X.
Singh,VijayP.&Yadava,R.N.(2003),WaterResourcesSystemOperation:Proceedingsofthe
InternationalConferenceonWaterandEnvironment,AlliedPublishers,ISBN817764548X.
Tadgell,Christopher(1990).ThehistoryofarchitectureinIndia:fromthedawnofcivilizationto
theendoftheRaj.London:ArchitectureDesignandTechnologyPress.ISBN1854543504.
Teresi,Dick(2002),LostDiscoveries:TheAncientRootsofModernSciencefromthe
BabylonianstotheMaya,Simon&Schuster,ISBN0684837188.
Thapar,Bindia(2004).IntroductiontoIndianArchitecture.Singapore:PeriplusEditions.ISBN0
794600115.

Furtherreading
Havell,E.B.(1913).IndianArchitecture,itspsychology,structure,andhistoryfromthefirst
Muhammadaninvasiontothepresentday
(http://www.archive.org/stream/indianarchitectu00haveuoft#page/n9/mode/2up).J.Murray,
London.
Coomaraswamy,AnandaK.(1914).VivakarmexamplesofIndianarchitecture,sculpture,
painting,handicraft(http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924022942993#page/n3/mode/2up).
London.
Havell,E.B.(1915).TheAncientandMedievalArchitectureofIndia:astudyofIndoAryan
civilisation(http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924011010109#page/n9/mode/2up).John
Murray,London.
Fletcher,BanisterCruickshank,Dan,SirBanisterFletcher'saHistoryofArchitecture
(http://books.google.com/books?id=Gt1jTpXAThwC&printsec=frontcover),ArchitecturalPress,
20thedition,1996(firstpublished1896).ISBN0750622679.Cf.PartFour,Chapter26.

Externallinks
Kamiya,Taeko,TheArchitectureofIndia.(http://www.kamit.jp/engl.htm)
IndianArchitectureonArchitectureNewsPlus.
(http://www.architecturenewsplus.com/pages/indianarchitecture)
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