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Indian Navy

The Indian Navy (IN; Hindi:

(Devangar), Bhratya Nau Sen (Latin)) is the naval
branch of the armed forces of India. The President of India serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. The
Chief of Naval Sta (CNS), usually a four-star ocer in
the rank of Admiral, commands the navy. The Indian
Navy has its origin in 1947.








Gangaikonda Cholapuram

Sambor Prei Kuk
(Khmer) (Siem



The primary objective of the navy is to secure the nations maritime borders, India also uses its navy to enPanai
Trade Routes
Chola Territory
hance its international relations through joint exercises,
Chola Inuence
port visits and humanitarian missions, including disaster
relief. In recent years, the Indian Navy has undergone
rapid modernisation to replace its ageing equipment and
developed blue-water capabilities and enhanced its posi- Chola territories during Rajendra Chola I, c. 1030
tion in the Indo-Pacic region.[4][5][6][7]


As of 2015, the Indian Navy has a strength of 58,350

personnel and a large operational eet consisting of
two aircraft carriers, one amphibious transport dock, 9
Landing ship tanks, 9 destroyers, 15 frigates, one nuclearpowered attack submarine, 14 conventionally-powered
attack submarines, 25 corvettes, 7 mine countermeasure
vessels, 47 patrol vessels, 4 eet tankers and various other
auxiliary vessels.

to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from

the fourth century BCE. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya's Prime Minister Kautilya's Arthashastra devotes a
full chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for Superintendent of ships) .
The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing
to other lands by ships, i.e. Exploration) appears in this
book in addition to appearing in the Sanskrit text, Baudhayana Dharmasastra as the interpretation of the term,


Sea lanes between India and neighbouring lands were

the usual form of trade for many centuries, and are responsible for the widespread inuence of Indian Culture
on other societies. Powerful navies included those of
the Chola dynasty, Maurya Empire, Satavahana, Gupta
Empire, Pala, Pandya, Vijayanagara Empire, Kalinga,
Mughal and Maratha Empire empires.[14] Particularly the
Chola dynasty had a powerful navy which conquered
parts of Maritime Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka in the
11th century during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I,
Rajendra Chola I and Kulothunga Chola I.[15][16] The
Palas and the Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their inuence overseas to China
and Southeast Asia. The Maratha naval power dominated the military scene in India for three centuries.[17]
During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Maratha and
Kerala eets were expanded, and became the most powerful Naval Forces in the subcontinent, defeating European Navies at various times (See the Battle of Colachel).
The eet review of the Maratha navy took place at the
Ratnagiri fort in which the ships Gurabs, Galbat, Pal &
small ships called as Sangmeshwari participated. The
'Pal' was a three masted ghter with guns peeping on the

Main article: History of the Indian Navy


Early maritime history

Main article: Indian maritime history

Further information: Maritime history of Odisha
India has a maritime history dating back 5,600
years.[8][9][10][11] The rst tidal dock is estimated to have
been built at Lothal around 2300 BC during the Indus
Valley Civilisation, near the present day Mangrol harbour on the Gujarat coast.[12][13] The Rig Veda written
around 1500 BC, credits Varuna with knowledge of the
ocean routes and describes naval expeditions. There
is reference to the side wings of a vessel called Plava,
which give stability to the ship under storm conditions.
A compass, the Matsya Yantra, was used for navigation
in the fourth and fth century AD.
The earliest known reference to an organisation devoted

broadsides.[18] Kanhoji Angre and Kunjali Marakkar, the 1.3

Naval chief of Saamoothiri, were two notable naval chiefs
of the period.


Independence to the end of the 20th


Main articles: 1961 Indian annexation of Goa and

Indo-Pakistani wars and conicts


1612 origins to independence

Main article: Royal Indian Navy

In 1612, the English East India Company established the
East India Companys Marine to protect its merchant shipping o the Gulf of Cambay and up the Narmada and
Tapti rivers. Its rst ghting ships in India were acquired on 5 September 1612. This force evolved into Her
Majestys Indian Navy in 1830, while most of India was
under British rule. The force at this time had British ocers and Indian sailors. The Navy saw action in the First
Opium War of 1840 and in the Second Anglo-Burmese
War in 1852. During World War I, the force then known
as the Royal Indian Marine undertook minesweeping, as
well as supply and support operations for the Allies.

During the early years following independence, the navy

still had many British ocers who continued to serve with
the Indian Navy. Vice Admiral Ram Dass Katari was
the rst Indian to assume oce as the Chief of Sta of
the Indian Navy on 22 April 1958. The rst engagement
in action of the Indian Navy was against the Portuguese
Navy during the liberation of Goa in 1961. Operation Vijay followed years of escalating tension due to Portuguese
refusal to relinquish its colonies in India. On 21 November 1961, Portuguese troops red on the passenger liner
Sabarmati near Anjadip Island, killing one person and
injuring another. During Operation Vijay, the Indian
Navy supported troop landings and provided re support.
INS Delhi (1948) sank one Portuguese patrol boat, while
frigates INS Betwa (1960) and INS Beas (1960) destroyed
the Portuguese frigate NRP Afonso de Albuquerque.[20]
The 1962 Sino-Indian War was largely fought over the
Himalayas and the Navy had only a defensive role in the

Sub Lieutenant D. N. Mukherji was the rst Indian to be

Indian Naval activity in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
granted a commission as an engineer ocer in 1928. In
largely involved coastal patrols. During the war, the Pak1934, the navy was renamed as the Royal Indian Navy
istani Navy attacked the Indian coastal city of Dwarka,
although there were no military resources in the area.
The onset of World War II led to an expansion in num- While this attack was insignicant,[21] India deployed
bers of vessels and personnel. The navy was actively in- naval resources to patrol the coast and deter further bomvolved in operations during the war around the world. Its bardment. Following these wars in the 1960s, India resloops HMIS Sutlej and HMIS Jumna played a key role in solved to strengthen the prole and capabilities of its
Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily.[19] It was Armed Forces.
heavily involved in operations around the Indian Ocean,
including convoy escorts, mine-sweeping, supply, as well
as supporting amphibious assaults. At the end of the war,
the navy underwent rapid, large-scale demobilisation of
vessels and personnel. In 1946, Indian sailors started the
Royal Indian Navy mutiny, a rebellion inuenced by activities of Indian National Army and post-WWII political unrest in India on board ships and on shore establishments to protest discrimination against Indian ocers
and sailors by the British and the putting on trial of exIndian National Army soldiers and ocers. A total of 78
ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors were involved in the rebellion, which spread all over India. This
rebellion failed as the rebels did not receive support from Aircraft carrier INS Vikrant (R11) during the Indo-Pakistani
the political leaders. After the independence of India War of 1971. It played a crucial role in enforcing the naval
on 15 August 1947 and the ensuing partition, the RINs blockade on East Pakistan and ensuring Indias victory during
depleted eet of ships and remaining personnel were di- the war.
vided between the newly independent Union of India and
Dominion of Pakistan.
The dramatic change in the Indian Navys capabilities and
When India became a republic on 26 January 1950, the
Royal prex was dropped and the name Indian Navy was
ocially adopted. The prex on her ships was changed
to Indian Naval Ship (INS).

stance was emphatically demonstrated during the IndoPakistani War of 1971. Under the command of Admiral Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda, the navy successfully enforced a naval blockade of West and East Pakistan.[22][23]


21st century onwards

Pakistans lone long-range submarine PNS Ghazi was

sunk following an attack by the destroyer INS Rajput
(1942) o the coast of Visakhapatnam around midnight
of 34 December 1971.[24][25][26][27][28] On 4 December, the Indian Navy successfully executed Operation Trident, a devastating attack on the Pakistan Naval Headquarters of Karachi that sank a minesweeper, a destroyer
and an ammunition supply ship. The attack also irreparably damaged another destroyer and oil storage tanks at
the Karachi port.To commemorate this, December 4
is celebrated as the Navy Day. This was followed by
Operation Python on 8 December 1971, further deprecating the Pakistan Navys capabilities. Indian frigate INS
Khukri, commanded by Captain M. N. Mulla was sunk
by the PNS Hangor (S131), while INS Kirpan (1959)
was damaged on the west coast. In the Bay of Bengal, the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant (R11) was deployed
to successfully enforce the naval blockade on East Pakistan. Sea Hawk and the Alizs aircraft from INS Vikrant
sank numerous gunboats and Pakistani merchant marine ships.[29] To demonstrate its solidarity as an ally
of Pakistan, the United States of America sent Task
Force 74 centred around the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise into the Bay of Bengal. In retaliation, Soviet
Navy submarines trailed the American task force, which
moved away from the Indian Ocean towards Southeast
Asia to avert a confrontation.[30] In the end, the Indian
naval blockade of Pakistan choked o the supply of reinforcements to the Pakistani forces,[31] which proved to be
decisive in the overwhelming defeat of Pakistan.[32][33]

ian relief in times of natural disasters and crises across
the globe, as well as to keep Indias maritime trade routes
free and open.
The Indian Navy was a part of the joint forces exercises, Operation Parakram, during the 20012002 India
Pakistan stando. More than a dozen warships were deployed to the northern Arabian Sea.[43] In 2001, the Indian Navy took over operations to secure the Strait of
Malacca, to relieve US Navy resources for Operation Enduring Freedom.[44]

Indian Naval doctor examines a patient.

The navy plays an important role in providing humanitarian relief in times of natural disasters, including oods,
cyclones and tsunamis. In the aftermath of the 2004
Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, the Indian Navy
launched massive disaster relief operations to help affected Indian states as well as Maldives, Sri Lanka and
Indonesia. Over 27 ships, dozens of helicopters, at least
6 xed-wing aircraft and over 5000 personnel of the navy
were deployed in relief operations.[45] These included
Operation Madad in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu,
Operation Sea Waves in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Operation Castor in Maldives, Operation Rainbow
in Sri Lanka and Operation Gambhir in Indonesia.[46]
This was one of the largest and fastest force mobilisations
that the Indian Navy has undertaken. Indian naval rescue vessels and teams reached neighbouring countries less
than 12 hours from the time that the tsunami hit.[45][47]
Lessons from the response led to decision to enhance amphibious force capabilities, including the acquisition of
Landing Platform Docks such as the INS Jalashwa (L41),
as well as smaller amphibious vessels.[48][49]

Since playing a decisive role in the victory, the navy

has been a deterrent force maintaining peace for India in a region of turmoil. In 1983, the Indian Navy
planned for Operation Lal Dora to support the government of Mauritius against a feared coup.[34] In 1986,
in Operation Flowers are Blooming, the Indian Navy
averted an attempted coup in the Seychelles.[35] In 1988,
India launched Operation Cactus, to successfully thwart
a coup d'tat by PLOTE in the Maldives.[36] Naval maritime reconnaissance aircraft detected the ship hijacked
by PLOTE rebels. INS Godavari (F20) and Indian marine commandos recaptured the ship and arrested the
rebels.[37] During the 1999 Kargil War, the Western and
Eastern eets were deployed in the Northern Arabian Sea,
as a part of Operation Talwar.[38] They safeguarded Indias maritime assets from a potential Pakistani naval attack, as also deterred Pakistan from attempting to block
Indias sea-trade routes.[39] The Indian Navys aviators During the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conict, the Indian Navy
ew sorties and marine commandos fought alongside In- launched Operation Sukoon to evacuate 2,286 Indian nadian Army personnel in the Himalayas.[40][41]
tionals and expatriates, besides 436 Sri Lankan and 69
Nepali citizens, from war-torn Lebanon.[50][51] In 2006,
Indian naval doctors served for 102 days on board USNS
1.4 21st century onwards
Mercy to conduct about medical camps in Philippines,
Bangladesh, Indonesia and East Timor.[52] In 2007, InIn the 21st century, the Indian Navy has played an dian Navy supported relief operations for the survivors
important role in maintaining peace for India on the of Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh.[53] In 2008, Indian Naval
maritime front, in spite of the state of foment in its vessels were the rst to launch international relief operaneighbourhood.[42] It has been deployed for humanitar- tions for victims of Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar.[54][55] In

2011, Indian Navy launched Operation Safe Homecoming and rescued Indian nationals from war torn Libya.
During the 2015 crisis in Yemen, the Indian Navy was
part of Operation Raahat and rescued 3074 individuals
out of which 1291 were foreign nationals.[56]


In co-operation with the Indian Coast Guard, ensure

good order and stability in Indias maritime zones of
Provide maritime assistance (including disaster relief) in Indias maritime neighbourhood.

In October 1999, a coordinated eort by the Indian Navy

and the Indian Coast Guard led to the rescue of pirated
Japanese cargo ship, MV Alondra Rainbow.[57]
In 2008, the navy deployed INS Tabar (F44) and
INS Mysore (D60) into the Gulf of Aden to combat
piracy in Somalia.[58] Tabar prevented numerous piracy
attempts,[59][60][61] and escorted hundreds of ships safely
through the pirate-infested waters.[62][63][64] The navy
also undertook anti-piracy patrols near the Seychelles,
upon that countrys request.[65][66][67] In 2011, the navy
launched Operation Island Watch to deter piracy attempts
by Somali pirates o the Lakshadweep archipelago. This
operation has had numerous successes in preventing pirate attacks.[68][69][70][71][72] On 14 August 2013, the submarine INS Sindhurakshak sank in Bombay Dockyard
due to explosions aboard.[73]

Command and organisation

On 16 November 2013, the then, Defence Minister AK

Antony commissioned a modied Kiev class aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya in Severodvinsk in northern Rus- Indian Naval establishments.
The Indian Navy operates three Commands.[75] Each
Command is headed by a Flag Ocer Commanding-inChief of the rank of Vice Admiral. The Eastern and
2 Today
Western Commands each have a Fleet commanded by
a rear admiral, and each also have a Commodore com2.1 Current role
manding submarines. The Southern Naval Command is
home to the Flag Ocer Sea Training.
Additionally, the Andaman and Nicobar Command headquartered at Port Blair is a unied tri-services command
under the Commander in Chief Andaman and Nicobar
(CINCAN) who reports to the Chairman Chiefs of Sta
Committee (COSC) who is provided sta support by the
Chief of Integrated Sta to the Chiefs of Sta Committee (CISC) in New Delhi. The Andaman and Nicobar
Command, a unied Indian Navy, Indian Army Indian
Air Force and Coast Guard Command was set up in the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 2001.[76]

Indian Navy otilla including aircraft carrier INS Viraat escorting INS Vikramaditya on its way home in 2014

Currently the principal roles of Indian Navy are:[74]

In conjunction with other Armed Forces of the
union, act to deter or defeat any threats or aggression
against the territory, people or maritime interests of
India, both in war and peace;

In 2005, the Indian Navy commissioned the base, INS

Kadamba at Karwar, 100 km from Goa. This is the third
operational naval base after Mumbai and Visakhapatnam
and the rst to be controlled exclusively by the Navy
without sharing port facilities with commercial shipping.
Built under phase I of the Project Seabird, it is the largest
naval base in the region.[80] The largest naval academy
in Asia, INS Zamorin at Ezhimala, is operated by Indian
Navy. The Indian Navy also has berthing rights in Oman
and Vietnam.[81]

The Navy operates a monitoring station, tted with radars

Project inuence in Indias maritime area of inter- and surveillance gear to intercept maritime communiest, to further the nations political, economic and cation, in Madagascar. It also plans to build a further
security objectives;
32 radar stations in Seychelles, Mauritius, Maldives and



Sri Lanka.[82] According to Intelligence Online in January

2013, published by France-based global intelligence gathering organisation, Indigo Publications, the Navy is believed to be operating a listening post in Ras al-Hadd,
Oman. The post is located directly across from Gwadar
Port in Balochistan, Pakistan, separated by approximately
400 km of the Arabian Sea.[83]



the Sea Harrier jets that operate from the aircraft carriers INS Viraat and INS Vikramaditya. The Kamov-31
also operates from the aircraft carriers and provide the
airborne early warning cover for the eet. In the antisubmarine role the Sea King, Ka-28 and the domestic
built HAL Dhruv are used. The MARCOS also use Sea
King and HAL Dhruv helicopters while conducting operations. Maritime patrol and reconnaissance operations
are carried out by the Boeing P-8 Poseidon, the Tupolev
142 and the Ilyushin 38. The UAV arm consists of the IAI
Heron and Searcher-IIs that are operated from both surface ships and shore establishments for surveillance missions.
The Indian Navy also maintains a four-aircraft aerobatic
display team, the Sagar Pawan. The Sagar Pawan team
will be replacing their present Kiran HJT-16 aircraft with
the newly developed HJT-36 aircraft.[87]
The southernmost naval air station, INS Bazz was formally opened on 31 July 2012 by the Indian Navy Chief
at Cambell Bay in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. With
the commissioning of this station, the country acquired
increased capability to keep vigil on the vital maritime
channel of the Straits of Malacca.[88]

Guard of honour during a parade at the INA.

The Commander of the Navy is the Chief of Naval Sta 2.5 MARCOS
(CNS). While the provision for the rank of Admiral of the
Fleet exists, it is primarily intended for major wartime use Main article: MARCOS
and honour. No ocer of the Indian Navy has yet been The Marine Commando Force (MCF), also known as
conferred this rank. (Both the Army and Air Force have
had ocers who have been conferred with the equivalent
rank Field Marshals Sam Manekshaw and Cariappa of
the Army and Marshal of the Indian Air Force (MIAF)
Arjan Singh.) As of 2010 the Indian Navy has 58,350
personnel on active duty (including 7,000 Naval Aviation,
2,000 Marine commandos),[84][85] and 1,000 Sagar Prahari Bal soldiers.[86]


Naval Air Arm

Main article: Indian Naval Air Arm

The naval air-arm is an important component of the

HAL Dhruv helicopter of the Indian Navy extracting Marine

Commandos MARCOS on Navy day 2013 at Kochi..

MARCOS, is a special forces unit that was raised by

the Indian Navy in 1987 for direct action, special reconnaissance, amphibious warfare and counter-terrorism.
In 1988, the MARCOS successfully rescued several
hostages, including Maldives' then-Minister of Tourism,
aboard a ship hijacked by PLOTE mercenaries during Operation Cactus. The MARCOS are typically deployed to prevent inltration through the Jhelum River
A MiG-29K landing on INS Vikramaditya
and Wular Lake and are also involved in covert counterIndian Navy. The air arm consists of MiG-29Ks and terrorism operations in and around lakes and rivers in


Jammu and Kashmir.[89][90]

four more amphibious transport docks will be constructed

During the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, the MARCOS were in the future.
also involved in the rescue mission of hostages captured
by the terrorists in Taj Mahal Palace & Tower luxury hotel
in Mumbai as part of a large terrorist attack in Mumbai
metropolis in November 2008.[91]


Main article: List of active Indian Navy ships

See also: List of ships of the Indian Navy for a list of
Historical Ships of the Indian Navy.



The names of all in service ships (and Naval Bases) of the

Indian Navy are prexed with the letters INS, designating
Indian Naval Ship or Indian Navy Station. The eet of the
Indian Navy is a mixture of domestic built and foreign

Kolkata-class destroyer

The navy currently operates one Kolkata, three Delhi and

ve Rajput-class guided-missile destroyers. The ships
of the Rajput class will be replaced in the near future
by the next-generation Kolkata-class destroyers (Project
15B) which will feature a number of improvements.
In addition to destroyers, the navy operates several classes
of frigates such as three Shivalik (Project 17 class) and
six Talwar class frigates. Seven additional Shivalik-class
frigates (Project 17A class frigates) are on order.[95] The
older Godavari class frigates will systematically be replaced one by one as the new classes of frigates are
brought into service over the next decade. The last remaining Nilgiri class frigate was decommissioned on 27
June 2013.
Smaller littoral zone combatants in service are in the form
of corvettes, of which the Indian Navy operates the Kora,
Khukri, Veer and Abhay classes corvettes. The nextgeneration Kamorta class of corvettes are currently under
development with the rst commissioned in August 2014.

Replenishment tankers such as the Jyoti class tanker, the

Aditya and the new Deepak class eet tankers help improve the navys endurance at sea. The Deepak class
tankers will be the mainstay of the replenishment eet
The Indian Navy presently has two aircraft carriers in ac- until the rst half of the 21st century.
tive service, the INS Viraat and INS Vikramaditya. INS
Viraat is planned for decommissioning after the induction
of the rst domestically built Vikrant class aircraft car- 3.2 Submarines
rier.[92] In 2004, India bought the Russian aircraft carrier,
Admiral Gorshkov for the equivalent of US$974 Million. The Indian Navy operates two types of conventional atIt cost an additional US$1.326 billion to overhaul the ves- tack submarines; the Sindhughosh (Russian Kilo-class
sel and ret it entirely with new electronic, weapon sys- submarine design) and the Shishumar (German Type
tems and sensors,bringing the total procurement cost to 209/1500 design) classes.
USD 2.3 Billion. INS Vikramaditya sailed to India af- India also possess a single Akula-class submarine
ter her commissioning on 15 November 2013. It joined class nuclear-powered attack submarine named the INS
active service by December 2013.[93] The Indian Navy Chakra. She is the result of a US$2 billion deal behas an amphibious transport dock of the Austin class, tween India and Russia for the completion and lease of
re-christened as INS Jalashwa in Indian service. It also two Akula-class submarines to the Indian Navy.[97] Three
maintains a eet of landing ship tanks. It is expected that hundred Indian Navy personnel were trained in Russia
Vikramaditya and Viraat (background) cruise in the Arabian


Electronic warfare and systems management

INS Chakra the nuclear attack submarine of the Indian Navy

for the operation of these submarines. Negotiations underway with Russia for the lease of the second Akulaclass.[98] At the end of the lease, it has been agreed that
India will have the option to purchase the submarines
Arihant, was launched on 26 July 2009 in Visakhapatnam
(India) and is currently undergoing sea trials.[100] The
Navy plans to have six SSBNs in service in the near
future.[101] She is both the rst boat of the Arihant-class
nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines and the rst
nuclear-powered submarine to be built in India.[102]
Barak 8 Surface to Air missile


Weapon systems

Main article: Weapon systems of the Indian Navy

India has a number of foreign made cruise missile systems, including the Klub SS-N-27. It also has its own
Nirbhay cruise missile systems under development. Another successful programme has been the adaptation of
the Yakhont anti-ship missile system into the BrahMos
by the NPO and the DRDO. The BrahMos has been
tailored to Indian needs and uses a large proportion of
Indian-designed components and technology, including
its re control systems, transporter erector launchers, and
its onboard navigational attack systems. The successful test of Brahmos from INS Rajput (D51) provides
Indian Navy with precision land attack capability.[103]
India has also tted its P-8I Neptune reconnaissance
aircraft with all-weather, active-radar-homing, over-thehorizon AGM-84L Harpoon Block II Missiles and Mk 54
All-Up-Round Lightweight Torpedoes.[104] Indian warships primary air-defence shield is provided by Barak1 SAM while an advanced version Barak-8 is in development with join collaboration with Israel.[105] Indias next-generation Scorpene class submarines will be
armed with Exocet anti-ship missile system. Among indigenous missiles, ship-launched version of Prithvi-II is
called Dhanush, which has a range of 350 km and can
carry nuclear warhead.[106] The K-15 Sagarika (Oceanic)
submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM), which has
a range of at least 700 km (some sources claim 1000
km) forms part of Indias nuclear triad and is extensively

tested to be integrated with Arihant class of nuclear submarines. A longer range submarine launched ballistic
missile called K-4 is under testing, to be followed by K-5

3.4 Electronic warfare and systems management

EL/M-2248 MF-STAR AESA radar on board INS Kolkata


Sangraha is a joint electronic warfare programme of

the Defence Research and Development Organisation
(DRDO) and the Indian Navy. The system comprises a

family of electronic warfare suites, such as Ajanta and Ellora, for use on dierent naval platforms capable of intercepting, detecting, and classifying pulsed, carrier wave,
pulse repetition frequency agile, frequency agile and chirp
radars. The systems employ a modular approach facilitating deployment on various platforms like helicopters,
vehicles, and small ships. Certain platforms, apart from
ESM (electronic support measures), have ECM (electronic countermeasure) capabilities. Advanced technologies like multiple-beam phased array jammers are employed in the system for simultaneous handling of multiple threats.[107]
The Indian Navy also relies on information technology
to face the challenges of the 21st century. The Indian
Navy is implementing a new strategy to move from a
platform centric force to a network-centric force by linking all shore-based installations and ships via high-speed
data networks and satellites.[108][109] This will help in increased operational awareness. The network is referred
to as the Navy Enterprise Wide Network (NEWN). The
Indian Navy has also provided training to all its personnel
in Information Technology (IT) at the Naval Institute of
Computer Applications (NICA) located in Mumbai. Information technology is also used to provide better training, like the usage of simulators and for better management of the force.[110]


Information technology cadre

is expected to provide the Indian navy with an approximately 3,500- to 4,000-kilometer footprint over the Indian Ocean region, and over both the Arabian Sea and
the Bay of Bengal region and enable real-time networking of all its operational assets in the water (and land).
It also will help the navy to operate in a network-centric

4 Activities
4.1 Fleet reviews
The President of India is entitled to inspect his/her eet,
as he/she is the supreme commander of the Indian Armed
Forces. The rst presidents eet review by India was
hosted by Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 10 October 1953.
Presidents reviews usually take place once in the Presidents term. In all, ten eet reviews have taken place,
including in February 2006, when former president Dr.
APJ Abdul Kalam took the review.[113] The latest, on 20
December 2011, when President Pratibha Patil set sail
in a warship INS Subhadra (P51) to take the 10th Fleet
Review.[114] The Indian Navy also conducted an International eet review named Bridges of Friendship in February 2001 in Mumbai. Many ships of friendly Navies from
all around the world participated, including two from the
US Navy.[115][116]

With increasing cyber terrorism and attacks on its 4.2

networks, the navy has created a separate cell for
communications, space and network centric operations
(CS&NCO) under an ocer of the rank of Rear Admiral.
The cell would operate and maintain the naval network
and will respond to cyber attacks from hostile hackers. It
will be manned by a special information technology cadre
of the Indian Navy.[111]



Naval exercises

Naval satellite

Indias rst exclusive defence satellite GSAT-7 was successfully launched by European space consortium Arianespaces Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in
French Guiana in August, 2013, giving a major push
to the countrys maritime security. Indian Navy would
be the user of the multi-band home-built communication spacecraft, expected to be operational by September,
2013. GSAT-7 was designed and developed by the Indian
Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and is expected to
operate for seven years in its orbital slot at 74 degrees
east, providing UHF, S-band, C-band and Ku-band relay capacity. Its Ku-band capacity is expected to provide
high-density data transmission facility, both for voice and
video. This satellite has been provided with additional
power to communicate with smaller and mobile (not necessarily land-based) terminals. This dedicated satellite

Naval ships from 17 nations Indian Ocean Naval Symposium

participated in Milan 2014, one of the largest joint naval drill.

India often conducts naval exercises with other friendly

countries designed to increase naval interoperability
and also to strengthen cooperative security relationship. Some such exercises take place annually like the
Varuna with the French Navy, Konkan with the Royal
Navy, Indra with Russian Navy, Malabar with the US
Navy, Simbex[117] with the Republic of Singapore Navy
and IBSAMAR[118] with the Brazil and South African



navies.[119] The Indian Navy also conducted exercise with

the Peoples Liberation Army Navy in 2003 and will
send ships to the South China Sea to participate in the
eet review.[120] Apart from the Indian Ocean, India has
steadily gained inuence in the Pacic Ocean. In 2007,
Indian Navy conducted naval exercise with Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force and U.S Navy in the Pacic[121]
and also signed an agreement with Japan in October 2008
for joint naval patrolling in the Asia-Pacic region.[122]

at increasing the capabilities of the two nations in carrying out anti-piracy operations and exchanging professional knowledge.[141] Once in two years navies from the
Indian Ocean region meet at the Andaman and Nicobar
Islands and the event is named as Milan.[142] MILAN included a passage exercise in 2010.[143]

4.3 Exploration

Indian and South Korean warships during a Korea-India exercise.

India has also held naval exercise with Vietnam,[123]

Philippines and New Zealand.[124] In 2007, India and
South Korea decided to conduct annual naval exercise[125]
and India participated in the South Korean international
eet review.[126] In addition, Indian Navy will also be
increasing naval co-operation with other allies, particularly with Germany[127] and Arab states of the Persian
Gulf including Kuwait, Oman,[128] Bahrain and Saudi
Arabia.[129][130] India held the rst Indian Ocean Naval
Symposium (IONS)[131] with an objective to provide a
forum for all the littoral nations of the Indian Ocean to
co-operate on mutually agreed areas for better security
in the region.[132] The Indian Navy is increasingly used in
international diplomacy.[133] Since 2000, the Indian naval
ships have made port calls in Israel, Turkey, Egypt, Libya,
Greece,Thailand, Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand,
Tonga, South Africa,[134] Kenya,[135] Qatar, Oman,
United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait[136] and other
countries in 20052007.

The Indian Navy expedition to North Pole.

The Indian Navy regularly conducts adventure expeditions. The sailing ship and training vessel INS Tarangini
began circumnavigating the world on 23 January 2003,
intending to foster good relations with various other nations; she returned to India in May of the following year
after visiting 36 ports in 18 nations.[144] INS Tarangini
returned to port, after a ten-month-long overseas voyage
named Lokayan 07.[145] Lt. Cdr. M.S. Kohli led the Indian Navys rst successful expedition to Mount Everest
in 1965; the Navys ensign was again own atop Everest
on 19 May 2004 by a similar expedition. Another Navy
team also successfully scaled Everest from the north face,
the technically more challenging route.[146] The expedition was led by Cdr Satyabrata Dam, belonging to the elite
submarine arm. Cdr. Dam is a mountaineer of interThe rst Atlantic Ocean deployment of the Indian Navy national repute and has climbed many mountains includhappened in 2009. During this deployment, the Indian ing the Patagonias, the Alps among others. This teams
Naval eet will conduct exercise with the French, Ger- record is unmatched by any other navy. The Navy was
man, Russian and British Navies.[137]
also the rst to send a submariner to summit Everest.[147]
In 2007, the TROPEX (Theatre-level Readiness Operational Exercises) was held during which Indian Navy
experimented the doctrine of inuencing a land and air
battle to support the Indian Army and the Indian Air
Force.[138] Tropex 2010 was held, with the Western and
Eastern eets taking part along with elements from the

An Indian Navy team comprising 11 members successfully completed an expedition to the Arctic pole. To
prepare, they rst travelled to Iceland, where they attempted to summit a peak.[148] The team next ew to eastern Greenland; in the Kulusuk and Angmassalik areas,
they used Inuit boats to navigate the regions ice-choked
fjords. They crossed northward across the Arctic Circle,
In 2010, Indian naval warships were deployed in the Asia reaching seventy degrees North on skis. The team scaled
11,000 feet (3,400 m) and
pacic region, and conducted courtesy calls at friendly an unnamed peak of height
Recently, Indian Navy carried out a Joint Naval
exercise with Sri Lanka Navy codenamed SLINEX-II The Indian Naval ensign rst ew in Antarctica in
from 19 to 24 September 2011. The exercise was aimed 1981.[150] The Indian Navy succeeded in Mission Dak-

shin Dhruv 2006 by traversing to the South Pole on skis.
With this historic expedition, they have set the record for
being the rst military team to have successfully completed a ski traverse to the Geographic South Pole.[151]
Also, three of the ten member team the expedition
leader Cdr. Satyabrata Dam, leading medical assistants
Rakesh Kumar and Vikas Kumar are now amongst the
few people in the world to have visited the two poles and
summited Mt. Everest.[152][153] Indian Navy became the
rst organisation to reach the poles and Mt.Everest.[154]
Cdr. Dilip Donde completed the rst solo circumnavigation by an Indian citizen on 22 May 2010.[155][156]

Phase IIA and IIB, at the end of which INS Kadamba will
be able to base 50 front-line warships. The Indian Navy
is also in the process of constructing an Extremely low
frequency communication facility at INS Kattabomman
to communicate with its Arihant class and Akula class
submarines. This facility is expected to be operational by

The Vikrant-class are the rst indigenous aircraft carriers to be built in India. The rst, ''Vikrant, was launched
in 2013 by Cochin Shipyard and is expected to undergo
extensive sea trials in 2016 with commissioning planned
for 2018. Vikrant displaces 40,000 tonnes and will be
capable of operating up to 40 aircraft, including 30 HAL
Tejas and MiG-29K ghters.[159] The second ship of the
5 Future of the Indian Navy
Vikrant-class is Vishal (formerly known as Indigenous
Aircraft Carrier-II). Vishal will displace around 65,000
tonnes and is expected to be delivered to the Indian Navy
Main article: Future of the Indian Navy
By the end of the 14th Plan (2027), the Indian Navy ex- by 2025. With the future delivery of Vishal, the Indian
Navys goal to have three aircraft carriers in service, with
two fully operational carriers and the third in ret will be
As of November 2011, the Defence Acquisition Council launched the Indian Navy Multi-Role Support Vessel
programme. The Indian Navy has subsequently sent out
an international RFP for up to 4 large landing helicopter
docks. The contenders are expected to tie up with local
shipyards for construction of the ships.[161]
INS Vikrant under construction

In addition to aircraft carriers and large amphibious

assault ships, the Indian Navy is acquiring numerous
smaller vessels such as; the Kolkata and Visakhapatnamclass destroyers, the Project 17A-class frigates and the
Kamorta-class corvettes. New submarine types include;
the conventional Kalvari-class and the nuclear Arihantclass.
For details on the future aircraft of the Indian Navy, see
Indian Naval Air Arm - Future aircraft

6 Accidents
The HAL Tejas Naval Prototype-1 takes-o from the Shore
Based Test Facility at Goa

pects to have over 150 ships and close to 500 aircraft and
helicopters. In addition to the existing mission of securing both sea anks in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian
sea, the navy would be able to respond to emergency situations far away from the main land. Marine assault capabilities will be beefed-up by setting up a new amphibious
warfare facility at Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh.[157]

Main article: List of Indian Naval accidents

Accidents in the Indian navy have been attributed to ageing ships in need of maintenance, delayed acquisitions by
the Ministry of Defence, and human error.[162] However
naval commentators also argue that as Indias large navy
of 160 ships clocks around 12,000 ship-days at sea every
year, in varied waters and weather, some incidents are
inevitable.[163][164] Captains of erring ships are dismissed
from their command following an enquiry.[165][166] The
accident on board INS Sindhuratna (S59) led to the resignation of the then Chief of Naval Sta (CNS) Admiral
D K Joshi on 26 February 2014, who owned moral

The Indian Navy has initiated Phase II expansion of

INS Kadamba, the third largest naval base, near Karwar.
Phase II will involve expansion of the berthing facilities to
accommodate 40 more front-line warships, including the
aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya, raise manpower to 300
ocers and around 2,500 sailors, and build a naval air station with a 6,000-foot runway. This is to be followed by The navy is envisaging a new 'Safety Organisation' to im-

prove safety of its warships, nuclear submarines and aircraft in view of its planned increase in eet strength over
the next decade.[168]

Naval Aviation Museum

Kunjali Marakkar Navy Chief of the Zamorin

Indian Naval Ensign

Main article: Indian Naval Ensign

Kanhoji Angre Notable Maratha Admiral after

whom INS Angre the western naval command
is named.

Chempil Arayan
Middle Ground Coastal Battery

Naval Ensign (1879-1928) & Naval Jack

Naval Jack (18791928)

Indian Coast Guard

Indian Army
Indian Air Force

Naval Ensign (19281950)

Naval Jack (1947present)
Naval Ensign (19502001)
Naval Ensign (20012004)
Naval Ensign (20042014)
Naval Ensign (2014present)
The Indian navy from 1950 to 2001 used a modied version of the British Naval jack, with the Union ag replaced with the Indian Tricolor in the canton. In 2001,
this ag was replaced with a white ensign bearing the Indian Navy crest, as the previous ensign was thought to reect Indias colonial past.[169] However complaints arose
that the new ensign was indistinguishable as the blue of
the naval crest easily merged with the sky and the ocean.
Hence in 2004, the ensign was changed back to the St.
Georges cross design, with the addition of the emblem of
India in the intersection of the cross. In 2014, the ensign
as well as the naval crest was further modied to include
the Devanagari script: (Satyameva Jayate)
which means 'Truth Alone Triumphs in Sanskrit.[170]

See also

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