Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

- adapts seamlessly to phones, pads and desktops!

Ads by Google Fluid Flow

Flow Meter
Search

Water Tanks

Equation

- "Search is the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!"

Bernoulli Equation
Conservation of energy - non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow
Sponsored Links

Flow Meters Wholesale


alibaba.com/Flow-Meters

Find Quality Products from Verified


Suppliers. Get a Live Quote Now!
A statement of the conservation of energy in a form useful for solving problems involving fluids. For a non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady
flow, the sum of pressure, potential and kinetic energies per unit volume is constant at any point.
A special form of the Eulers equation derived along a fluid flow streamline is often called the Bernoulli Equation:

For steady state incompressible flow the Euler equation becomes (1). If we integrate (1) along the streamline it becomes (2). (2) can further be

modified to (3) by dividing by gravity.

Head of Flow
Equation (3) is often referred to the head because all elements has the unit of length.

Dynamic Pressure
(2) and (3) are two forms of the Bernoulli Equation for steady state incompressible flow. If we assume that the gravitational body force is negligible,
(3) can be written as (4). Both elements in the equation have the unit of pressure and it's common to refer the flow velocity component as the dynamic
pressure of the fluid flow (5).
Since energy is conserved along the streamline, (4) can be expressed as (6). Using the equation we see that increasing the velocity of the flow will
reduce the pressure, decreasing the velocity will increase the pressure.
This phenomena can be observed in a venturi meter where the pressure is reduced in the constriction area and regained after. It can also be observed
in a pitot tube where the stagnation pressure is measured. The stagnation pressure is where the velocity component is zero.

Example - Bernoulli Equation and Flow from a Tank through a small Orifice
Liquid flows from a tank through a orifice close to the bottom. The Bernoulli equation can be adapted to a streamline from the surface (1) to the
orifice (2) as (e1):

Since (1) and (2)'s heights from a common reference is related as (e2), and the equation of continuity can be expressed as (e3), it's possible to
transform (e1) to (e4).

Vented tank
A special case of interest for equation (e4) is when the orifice area is much lesser than the surface area and when the pressure inside and outside the
tank is the same - when the tank has an open surface or "vented" to the atmosphere. At this situation the (e4) can be transformed to (e5).
"The velocity out from the tank is equal to speed of a freely body falling the distance h." - also known as Torricelli's Theorem.
Example - outlet velocity from a vented tank
The outlet velocity of a tank with height 10 m can be calculated as
V2 = (2 (9.81 m/s2) (10 m))1/2
= 14 (m/s)

Pressurized Tank
If the tanks is pressurized so that product of gravity and height (g h) is much lesser than the pressure difference divided by the density, (e4) can be
transformed to (e6).
The velocity out from the tank depends mostly on the pressure difference.
Example - outlet velocity from a pressurized tank
The outlet velocity of a pressurized tank where
p1 = 0.2 (MN/m 2)

p2 = 0.1 (MN/m 2)
A2 / A1 = 0.01
h = 10 (m)
can be calculated as
V2 = ( (2 / (1 - (0.01)2) ((0.2 106 N/m 2) - (0.1 106 N/m 2)) / (1000 kg/m 3) + (9.81 m/s2) (10 m)))1/2
= 19.9 (m/s)

Coefficient of Discharge - Friction Coefficient


Due to friction the real velocity will be somewhat lower than this theoretic examples. If we introduce a friction coefficient c (coefficient of discharge),
(e5) can be expressed as (e5b).
The coefficient of discharge can be determined experimentally. For a sharp edged opening it may bee as low as 0.6. For smooth orifices it may bee
between 0.95 and 1.
Sponsored Links

Pressure Vessel Designer?


analyzeforsafety.com

1st blog on vessel design and FEA


share your passion and get inspired
Related Topics
Fluid Mechanics - The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involves various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density and
temperature, as functions of space and time.
Fluid Flow Meters - Flow metering basics - Orifice, Venturi, Flow Nozzles, Pitot Tubes, Target, Variable Area, Positive Displacement,
Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic Doppler, Ultrasonic Time-of-travel, Mass Coriolis, Mass Thermal, Weir V-notch, Flume Parshall
and Sluice Gate flow meters and more

Related Documents
Flow of Liquids from Containers - Flow from tanks
Energy - Energy is the capacity to do work
Equations in Fluid Mechanics - Common fluid mechanics equations - Bernoulli, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, pressure,
Navier-Stokes, ideal gas law, Euler equations, Laplace equations, Darcy-Weisbach Equation and more
Equation of Mechanical Energy - The equation of mechanical energy in terms of Energy per Unit Mass, Energy per Unit Volume and Energy
per Unit Weight involving head
Types of Fluid Flow Meters - An introduction to different types of fluid flowmeters - Orifices, Venturies, Nozzles, Rotameters, Pitot Tubes,
Calorimetrics, Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Doppler, Ultrasonic, Thermal, Coriolis
Equation of Continuity - The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation
Energy and Hydraulic Grade Line - The hydraulic grade and the energy line are graphical presentations of the Bernoulli equation
Sluice Gate Flow Measurements - Sluice gates are used for controlling and measuring flow rates in open channels and rivers, mainly in
connection to hydro power plants

Tag Search
en: bernoulli euler flow height pressure

Search the Engineering ToolBox


Search

- "Search is the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!"

Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your SketchUp model with the
Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension/Plugin - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro . Add the
Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!

Translate the ToolBox


Arabic - Chinese (Simplified) - Chinese (Traditional) - Dutch - French - German - Italian - Japanese - Korean - Portuguese - Russian - Spanish - - Select
Your own language . .

About the ToolBox

We appreciate any comments and tips on how to make The Engineering ToolBox a better information source. Please contact us by email
editor.engineeringtoolbox@gmail.com
if You find any faults, inaccuracies, or otherwise unacceptable information.
The content in The Engineering ToolBox is copyrighted but can be used with NO WARRANTY or LIABILITY. Important information should always be
double checked with alternative sources. All applicable national and local regulations and practices concerning this aspects must be strictly followed
and adhered to.

Advertise in the ToolBox


If you want to promote your products or services in the Engineering ToolBox - please use Google Adwords.

Home
Acoustics
Air Psychrometrics
Basics
Combustion
Drawing Tools
Dynamics
Economics
Electrical
Environment
Fluid Mechanics
Gas and Compressed Air
HVAC Systems
Hydraulics and Pneumatics
Insulation
Material Properties
Mathematics
Mechanics
Miscellaneous
Physiology
Piping Systems
Process Control
Pumps
Standard Organizations
Statics
Steam and Condensate
Thermodynamics
Water Systems

Ads by Google

Bernoulli Equation
Formula to Calculate
Fluid Flow Meters
Unit Converter
Temperature

0.0
oC
oF

Convert!

Length

1.0
m
km
in
ft
yards
miles
nautical miles

Convert!
Volume

1.0
m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal

Convert!
Velocity

1.0
m/s
km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots

Convert!
Pressure

1.0
Pa (N/m 2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm 2
psi
inches H2O

Convert!
Flow

1.0
m 3/s
m 3/h
US gpm

cfm

Convert!

Free Industry Magazines


Machinery Lubrication

Chemical Engineering

SMART CITIES NEWS

Share this Page!


Shortcut to Home Screen?

Share

+1 Share this on Google+


Tweet

The Engineering ToolBox


bimSystems
- organizing design and development of technical systems!

mee ickets
- summarize meetings and keep track of tasks to be done - with tickets!
the Travlet
- tracking and sharing expenses between participants!
Sponsored Links

Socla

Valves and flow control


solutions.

socla.com

98