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Bernoulli Equation
Conservation of energy - non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow

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A statement of the conservation of energy in a form useful for solving problems involving fluids. For a non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady
flow, the sum of pressure, potential and kinetic energies per unit volume is constant at any point.
A special form of the Eulers equation derived along a fluid flow streamline is often called the Bernoulli Equation:

For steady state incompressible flow the Euler equation becomes (1). If we integrate (1) along the streamline it becomes (2). (2) can further be

## modified to (3) by dividing by gravity.

Equation (3) is often referred to the head because all elements has the unit of length.

Dynamic Pressure
(2) and (3) are two forms of the Bernoulli Equation for steady state incompressible flow. If we assume that the gravitational body force is negligible,
(3) can be written as (4). Both elements in the equation have the unit of pressure and it's common to refer the flow velocity component as the dynamic
pressure of the fluid flow (5).
Since energy is conserved along the streamline, (4) can be expressed as (6). Using the equation we see that increasing the velocity of the flow will
reduce the pressure, decreasing the velocity will increase the pressure.
This phenomena can be observed in a venturi meter where the pressure is reduced in the constriction area and regained after. It can also be observed
in a pitot tube where the stagnation pressure is measured. The stagnation pressure is where the velocity component is zero.

Example - Bernoulli Equation and Flow from a Tank through a small Orifice
Liquid flows from a tank through a orifice close to the bottom. The Bernoulli equation can be adapted to a streamline from the surface (1) to the
orifice (2) as (e1):

Since (1) and (2)'s heights from a common reference is related as (e2), and the equation of continuity can be expressed as (e3), it's possible to
transform (e1) to (e4).

Vented tank
A special case of interest for equation (e4) is when the orifice area is much lesser than the surface area and when the pressure inside and outside the
tank is the same - when the tank has an open surface or "vented" to the atmosphere. At this situation the (e4) can be transformed to (e5).
"The velocity out from the tank is equal to speed of a freely body falling the distance h." - also known as Torricelli's Theorem.
Example - outlet velocity from a vented tank
The outlet velocity of a tank with height 10 m can be calculated as
V2 = (2 (9.81 m/s2) (10 m))1/2
= 14 (m/s)

Pressurized Tank
If the tanks is pressurized so that product of gravity and height (g h) is much lesser than the pressure difference divided by the density, (e4) can be
transformed to (e6).
The velocity out from the tank depends mostly on the pressure difference.
Example - outlet velocity from a pressurized tank
The outlet velocity of a pressurized tank where
p1 = 0.2 (MN/m 2)

p2 = 0.1 (MN/m 2)
A2 / A1 = 0.01
h = 10 (m)
can be calculated as
V2 = ( (2 / (1 - (0.01)2) ((0.2 106 N/m 2) - (0.1 106 N/m 2)) / (1000 kg/m 3) + (9.81 m/s2) (10 m)))1/2
= 19.9 (m/s)

## Coefficient of Discharge - Friction Coefficient

Due to friction the real velocity will be somewhat lower than this theoretic examples. If we introduce a friction coefficient c (coefficient of discharge),
(e5) can be expressed as (e5b).
The coefficient of discharge can be determined experimentally. For a sharp edged opening it may bee as low as 0.6. For smooth orifices it may bee
between 0.95 and 1.

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Related Topics
Fluid Mechanics - The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involves various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density and
temperature, as functions of space and time.
Fluid Flow Meters - Flow metering basics - Orifice, Venturi, Flow Nozzles, Pitot Tubes, Target, Variable Area, Positive Displacement,
Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic Doppler, Ultrasonic Time-of-travel, Mass Coriolis, Mass Thermal, Weir V-notch, Flume Parshall
and Sluice Gate flow meters and more

Related Documents
Flow of Liquids from Containers - Flow from tanks
Energy - Energy is the capacity to do work
Equations in Fluid Mechanics - Common fluid mechanics equations - Bernoulli, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, pressure,
Navier-Stokes, ideal gas law, Euler equations, Laplace equations, Darcy-Weisbach Equation and more
Equation of Mechanical Energy - The equation of mechanical energy in terms of Energy per Unit Mass, Energy per Unit Volume and Energy
per Unit Weight involving head
Types of Fluid Flow Meters - An introduction to different types of fluid flowmeters - Orifices, Venturies, Nozzles, Rotameters, Pitot Tubes,
Calorimetrics, Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Doppler, Ultrasonic, Thermal, Coriolis
Equation of Continuity - The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation
Energy and Hydraulic Grade Line - The hydraulic grade and the energy line are graphical presentations of the Bernoulli equation
Sluice Gate Flow Measurements - Sluice gates are used for controlling and measuring flow rates in open channels and rivers, mainly in
connection to hydro power plants

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