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This woman, she believed that,

Education should no longer be mostly imparting of

knowledge, but must take a new path, seeking the release of
human potentialities.
Her name is Maria Montessori.
Belief: Children develop and think differently than adults; that
they are not merely "adults in small bodies.
As an educational approach, the Montessori method's focus is
on the individuality of each child, respecting their needs or
talents as opposed to the needs of the class as a whole. A goal
is to help the child maintain his or her natural joy of learning.
The Montessori method discourages traditional measurements
of achievement (grades, tests) saying that it is damaging to
the inner growth of children (and adults). Feedback and
qualitative analysis of a child's performance does exist but is
usually provided in the form of a list of skills, activities and
critical points, and sometimes a narrative of the child's
achievements, strengths and weaknesses, with emphasis on
the improvement of those weaknesses.
Lessons focused on activities. A child does not engage in an
activity until the teacher or another student has directly
demonstrated its proper use, and then the child may use it as
desired. Repetition of activities is considered an integral part of
this learning process, and children are allowed to repeat
activities as often as they wish. If a child expresses boredom
on account of this repetition, then the child is considered to be
ready for the next level of learning.
In Singapore, the Montessori method is mostly applied in preschools for children aged between 18 months to 6 years old.

Formalization of the theory of constructivism is generally

attributed to Jean Piaget and further brought forth by Bruner,
who articulated mechanisms by which knowledge is
internalized by learners.

Bruner suggested that through processes of accommodation

and assimilation, individuals construct new knowledge from
their experiences.
Much of this theory revolves around learning by doing, very
much like the Montessori method. No matter trying to
understand or attempting to do something, the theory of
constructivism suggests that the learner construct knowledge.
Assimilation is when individuals integrate their new
experiences with their internal representation of the world.
They assimilate the new experience into an already existing
framework. Accommodation is the process of reframing one's
mental representation of the external world to fit new
experiences. When we act on the expectation that the world
operates in one way and it violates our expectations, we often
fail. By accommodating this new experience and reframing our
model of the way the world works, we learn from the
experience of failure, or others failure.
The importance of the background and culture of the
Social constructivism encourages the learner to arrive at his or
her own version of the truth, influenced by his or her
background, culture or embedded worldview.
This also stresses the importance of the nature of the learner's
social interaction with knowledgeable members of the society.
According to the theory, without the social interaction with
other more knowledgeable people, it is impossible to acquire
meaning of knowledge and learn how to apply them. Young
children develop their thinking abilities by interacting with
other children, adults and the physical world.
The responsibility for learning
The responsibility of learning should reside increasingly with
the learner. Emphasizes the importance of the learner being
actively involved in the learning process. This is unlike previous
educational viewpoints where the responsibility rested with the
instructor to teach and where the learner played a passive,
receptive role. The theory emphasizes that learners construct
their own understanding and that they do not simply mirror
and reflect what they read

Dynamic interaction between task, instructor and

Instructor and the learners are equally involved in
learning from each other. This means that the learning
experience is both subjective and objective and requires that
the instructors culture, values and background become an
essential part of the imparting and shaping knowledge.
Learners compare their version of the truth with that of the
instructor and fellow learners in order to get to a new, socially
tested version of this knowledge.
Some learning approaches that could harbour this interactive
learning include reciprocal teaching, peer collaboration,
problem-based instruction and anchored instruction which is
technology based education.
In Short
A constructivist learning intervention is thus an intervention
where tasks are used to provide learners with an opportunity to
discover and construct meaning as the intervention unfolds.
Learners are respected as unique individuals, and instructors
act as facilitators rather than as teachers.
Multiple Intelligences
Gardner's claim is that pencil and paper IQ tests do not capture
the full range of human intelligences. He believes that IQ tests
of today do not fully encompass the wide variety of abilities
that humans display. He also believes that all have individual
profiles of strengths and weaknesses across multiple
intelligence dimensions. Gardner defines intelligence as the
capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are
valued in one or more cultural settings.
Currently, there are 8 different types of Intelligences defined
by him.
Visual Spatial Intelligence
This area has to do with vision and spatial judgment. People
with strong visual-spatial intelligence are typically very good at
visualizing and mentally manipulating objects. They have a
strong visual memory and are often artistically inclined.

Musical Intelligence
This area has to do with rhythm, music, and hearing. Those
who have a high level of musical-rhythmic intelligence display
greater sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. They
will often use songs or rhythms to learn and memorize
information, and may work best with music playing.
Verbal Linguistic Intelligence
Verbal-linguistic intelligence has to do with words, spoken or
written. People with verbal-linguistic intelligence display a
facility with words and languages. They tend to learn best by
reading, taking notes, and listening to lectures, and via
discussion and debate.
Logical Mathematical Intelligence
This area has to do with logic, abstractions, inductive and
deductive reasoning, and numbers. They excel in these areas.
Interpersonal Intelligence
This area has to do with interaction with others. People in this
category are usually extroverts and are characterized by their
sensitivity to others' moods, feelings, temperaments, and
motivations and their ability to cooperate in order to work as
part of a group. They communicate effectively and empathize
easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They
typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy
discussion and debate.
Intrapersonal Intelligence
This area has to do with oneself. Those who are strongest in
this intelligence are typically introverts and prefer to work
alone. They are usually highly self-aware and capable of
understanding their own emotions, goals, and motivations.
They often have an affinity for thought-based pursuits such as
philosophy. They learn best when allowed to concentrate on
the subject by themselves. There is often a high level of
perfectionism associated with this intelligence.
Kinesthetic Intelligence
This area has to do with movement and doing. In this category,
people are generally adept at physical activities such as sports
or dance and often prefer activities that utilize movement.
They often learn best by physically doing something, rather
than reading or hearing about it.

Naturalistic Intelligence
This area has to do with nature, nurturing, and classification.
Those with it are said to have greater sensitivity to nature and
their place within it, the ability to nurture and grow things, and
greater ease in caring for, taming, and interacting with
animals. They are also good at recognizing and classifying
different species.
Gardner's theory argues that students will be better served by
a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use different
methodologies, exercises, and activities to reach all students
with different intelligences, not just those who excel at
linguistic and logical intelligence.