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Answers

Chapter

1.1

Total volume of gas collected (cm3)


Jumlah isi padu gas yang terkumpul (cm3)

Rate of Reaction
Kadar Tindak Balas

40

INQUIRY Experiment

30

Observation

20

Test tube

Observation

Tabung
uji

Effervescence occurred immediately.


Effervescence stopped after a few seconds.

II

120

180

240

300

360

420

480

A yellow precipitate was formed only after five


seconds.

Results

A white precipitate was formed immediately.

Experiment I: Hydrochloric acid, HCI with large pieces of


marble chips

GUIDED Experiment

Eksperimen I: Asid hidroklorik, HCl dengan serpihan marmar


yang besar

INQUIRY Experiment

Time (s)

Burette
reading (cm3)
Bacaan buret
(cm3)

Jumlah isi padu gas yang


terkumpul (cm3)

Masa (s)

Results

Burette reading
(cm3)

Total volume of
gas collected (cm3)

Total volume of gas


collected (cm3)

50.00

0.00

Bacaan buret (cm )

Jumlah isi padu gas


yang terkumpul (cm3)

30

46.00

4.00

50.00

0.00

60

41.00

9.00

30

41.50

8.50

90

38.00

12.00

60

35.00

15.00

90

31.00

19.00

120

34.00

16.00

120

28.00

22.00

150

31.00

19.00

150

25.00

25.00

180

28.00

22.00

180

22.50

27.50

210

25.00

25.00

210

21.00

29.00

240

22.00

28.00

240

19.50

30.50

270

20.00

30.00

270

18.00

32.00

300

18.00

32.00

300

17.00

33.00

330

16.00

34.00

330

16.50

33.50

360

14.00

36.00

360

16.00

34.00

390

15.50

34.50

390

12.00

38.00

420

15.00

35.00

420

11.00

39.00

450

15.00

35.00

450

11.00

39.00

480

15.00

35.00

480

11.00

39.00

Masa (s)

Time (s)
Masa (s)

1.3

Mendakan putih terbentuk dengan serta-merta.

Time (s)

60

Pembuakan berlaku dengan serta-merta. Pembuakan


berhenti selepas beberapa saat.

Mendakan kuning terbentuk hanya selepas lima saat.

III
1.2

10

Pemerhatian

A1

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Experiment II: Hydrochloric acid, HCI with crushed marble


chips

1.4

Eksperimen II: Asid hidroklorik, HCl dengan serpihan marmar


yang kecil

Time (s)
Masa (s)

Burette reading
(cm3)

Jumlah isi padu gas yang


terkumpul (cm3)

50.00

0.00

30

42.00

8.00

60

35.00

15.00

90

30.00

20.00

120

25.00

25.00

150

20.00

30.00

180

17.00

33.00

210

14.00

36.00

240

12.00

38.00

270

11.00

39.00

300

11.00

39.00

330

11.00

39.00

360

11.00

39.00

390

11.00

39.00

420

11.00

39.00

450

11.00

39.00

480

11.00

39.00

Total volume of gas


collected (cm3)
Jumlah isi padu gas
yang terkumpul (cm3)

Results

Total volume of gas


collected (cm3)

Bacaan buret
(cm3)

240

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

300

360

420

480

Volume of 0.2 mol dm


thiosulphate, Na2S2O3 solution,
V1 (cm3)

45

40

35

30

25

10

15

20

Volume of 1.0 mol dm3


sulphuric acid, H2SO4 (cm3)

Total volume of reactants, V2


(cm3)

50

50

50

50

50

Isi padu asid sulfurik, H2SO4


1.0 mol dm3 (cm3)

Jumlah isi padu bahan tindakan, V2


(cm3)

Concentration of sodium
thiosulphate, Na2S2O3 solution,
MV
1 (mol dm3)
0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10
V2
Kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat,
MV1
Na2S2O3,
(mol dm3)
V2

Time taken for the X mark to


disappear from view, t (s)
Masa yang diambil bagi tanda
X tidak kelihatan, t (s)

16

20

27

41

83

1 1
1 ,
1 , 1 (s1) 0.063 0.050 0.037 0.024 0.012

(s ) /

Time t
Masa t

A Graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate,


Na2S2O3 solution (mol dm3) against time (s)

Graf kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat, Na2S2O3 (mol dm3)


melawan masa (s)
Concentration of sodium thiosulphate, Na2S2O3 solution (mol dm3)
Kepekatan natrium tiosulfat, Na2S2O3 (mol dm3)
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02

10

180

Isi padu air suling (cm3)

Experiment I : Large pieces of marble chips


Eksperimen I : Serpihan marmar yang besar

120

Volume of distilled water (cm3)

30

60

Isi padu larutan natrium tiosulfat,


Na2S2O3 0.2 mol dm3, V1 (cm3)

40

Experiment / Eksperimen
3

Experiment II : Crushed marble chips


Eksperimen II : Serpihan marmar yang kecil

20

GUIDED Experiment

Time (s)
Masa (s)

A2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (s)
90 Masa (s)

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

1.6

B Graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate,


1
Na2S2O3 solution (mol dm3) against (s1)
Time

Results

Graf kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat, Na2S2O3 (mol dm3)


1
melawan (s1)
Masa

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

1.5 UNGUIDED

1
(s1)
Time
1
(s1)
Masa

Experiment

No effervescence. The glowing wooden


splinter did not relight.

Effervescence occurred. The glowing wooden


splinter relighted and burned brightly.

Pemerhatian

Tiada pembuakan. Kayu uji berbara tidak menyala


semula.

Pembuakan berlaku. Kayu uji berbara menyala


semula dan terbakar dengan terang.

GUIDED Experiment

Results

Time taken for


the X mark to
Temperature disappear from
Experiment
view, t (s)
(C)
Suhu (C)

Observation

1.7

Experiment I: Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2


with the presence of 0.2 g of manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2
powder

Results

Eksperimen

Test tube

Tabung uji

Concentration of sodium thiosulphate, Na2S2O3 solution (mol dm3)


Kepekatan natrium tiosulfat, Na2S2O3 (mol dm3)
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02

INQUIRY Experiment

Eksperimen I: Penguraian hidrogen peroksida, H2O2 dengan


kehadiran 0.2 g serbuk mangan(IV) oksida, MnO2

1
1
, (s1)
Time t

Masa yang
diambil bagi
tanda X tidak
kelihatan, t (s)

1
1 ,
(s1)

Masa t

28

55

0.018

40

36

0.028

50

23

0.043

60

17

0.059

70

13

0.077

Time (s)

Masa (s)

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

Burette
reading
(cm3)

50.00 36.00 25.00 18.00 13.00 10.00 8.00 7.00

Total
volume
of gas
collected
(cm3)

0.00 14.00 25.00 32.00 37.00 40.00 42.00 43.00

Bacaan
buret (cm3)

Graph of temperature of sodium thiosulphate, Na2S2O3


1
solution (C) against (s1)
time

Jumlah
isi padu
gas yang
terkumpul
(cm3)

Graf suhu larutan natrium tiosulfat, Na2S2O3 (C) melawan


1
(s1)
masa
Temperature (C)
Suhu (C)
60
40
20

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

1
(s1)
Time
1
(s1)
Masa

A3

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Time (s)

Masa (s)

Burette
reading
(cm3)

240

5.00

270

3.00

300

1.00

330

360

0.00

0.00

390

0.00

Time (s)

420

0.00

Jumlah
isi padu
gas yang
terkumpul
(cm3)

Burette
reading
(cm3)

30

60

90

120

150

180

330

360

390

420

Burette
reading
(cm3)

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Total
volume
of gas
collected
(cm3)

50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00

Total volume of gas collected (cm3)


Jumlah isi padu gas yang
terkumpul (cm3)
Experiment II
Eksperimen II
50

Eksperimen II: Penguraian hidrogen peroksida, H2O2 dengan


kehadiran 0.8 g serbuk mangan(IV) oksida, MnO2
Masa (s)

300

Jumlah
isi padu
gas yang
terkumpul
(cm3)

45.00 47.00 49.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00

Experiment II: Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2


with the presence of 0.8 g of manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2
powder

Time (s)

270

Bacaan
buret (cm3)

Bacaan
buret (cm3)

Total
volume
of gas
collected
(cm3)

240

Masa (s)

40
30

210

20
10

50.00 33.00 19.00 11.00 6.00 3.00 0.00 0.00

Bacaan
buret (cm3)

Total
volume
of gas
collected
(cm3)

Jumlah
isi padu
gas yang
terkumpul
(cm3)

Experiment I
Eksperimen I

60

120

180

240

300

360 420

SPM Review

480

Time (s)
Masa (s)

Objective Questions

1. C
6. A
11. C
16. D

0.00 17.00 31.00 39.00 44.00 47.00 50.00 50.00

2. D
7. B
12. A
17. D

3. C
8. A
13. C
18. C

4. C
9. B
14. A
19. B

5. D
10. B
15. C

Subjective Questions

Section A / Bahagian A
1. (a)
Gas
Gas
Delivery tube
Salur penghantar

Hydrochloric acid, HCl


Asid hidroklorik, HCl
Marble chips
Serpihan marmar

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A4

Burette
Buret
Basin
Besen

Water
Air

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

(b) CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

CaCO3(p) + 2HCl(ak) CaCl2(ak) + CO2(g) + H2O(ce)

(c) Average rate of reaction in Experiment I


Kadar tindak balas purata bagi Eksperimen I

(ii) Higher concentration / temperature of potassium


thiosulphate solution / hydrochloric acid
increases the frequency of effective collision
between tiosulphate ions and hydrogen ions.

20
= = 0.33 cm3 s1
60
(d) (i) Experiment II
Eksperimen II

Section B / Bahagian B
3. (a) The pressure in a pressure cooker is higher than
the atmospheric pressure.
[1]

(ii) This is because the concentration of hydrochloric


acid in Experiment II is higher than that in
Experiment I.

Tekanan di dalam periuk tekanan adalah lebih tinggi


daripada tekanan atmofera.

Ini kerana kepekatan asid hidroklorik bagi


Eksperimen II adalah lebih tinggi daripada
Eksperimen I.

A pressure cooker enables water to boil at a


temperature higher than 100C.
[1]

(iii) The number of H+ ions per unit volume in


Experiment II is higher than that in Experiment
I.

Periuk tekanan membolehkan air mendidih pada suhu


lebih tinggi daripada 100C.

Thus, the rate of cooking of food increases.

Bilangan ion-ion H+ per unit isi padu dalam


Eksperimen II adalah lebih tinggi daripada
Eksperimen I.

Dengan demikian, kadar makanan menjadi masak


bertambah.

Frekuensi perlanggaran antara ion-ion H+ dan


serpihan marmar dalam Eksperimen II adalah
lebih tinggi daripada Eksperimen I.

Maka, frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan dalam


Eksperimen II adalah lebih tinggi daripada
Eksperimen I.

20

Experiment I
Eksperimen I

60

Time (s)
Masa (s)

Zn(p) + H2SO4(ak) ZnSO4(ak) + H2(g)

0.2 20

Number of moles of H2SO4 =

Bilangan mol H2SO4 1000

= 0.004 mol [1]

Number of moles of hydrogen gas

5.0
(ii)
1.0 = 0.005 mol
1000
(c) Hydrochloric acid

Bilangan mol gas hidrogen

Isi padu maksimum gas hidrogen

Asid hidroklorik

= 0.004 mol
Maximum volume of hydrogen gas

[1]

= 0.004 24000 = 96 cm3 [1]


(iii) 96 cm3 [1]

(d) (i) Concentration / temperature of potassium


thiosulphate solution / hydrochloric acid

Eksperimen III: Kadar tindak balas purata dalam dua


minit yang pertama


32.0
= = 0.267 cm3 s1
[1]

120
(ii) Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g) [1]

2. (a) K2S2O3 + 2HCl 2KCl + SO2 + S + H2O


5.0
(b) (i)
0.1 = 0.005 mol
1000

Eksperimen II: Kadar tindak balas purata dalam dua


minit yang pertama


16.0
= = 0.133 cm3 s1
[1]

120

Experiment III: Average rate of reaction in the
first two minutes

Volume of gas collected (cm3)


Isi padu gas yang terkumpul (cm3)
Experiment II
Eksperimen II

Eksperimen I: Kadar tindak balas purata dalam dua


minit yang pertama


20.0
= = 0.167 cm3 s1
[1]

120
Experiment II: Average rate of reaction in the
first two minutes

Hence, the frequency of effective collision in


Experiment II is higher than that in Experiment
I.

40

[1]

(b) (i) Experiment I: Average rate of reaction in the


first two minutes

The frequency of collision between H+ ions


and marble chips in Experiment II is higher
than that in Experiment I.

(e)

Kepekatan / suhu larutan kalium tiosulfat / asid


hidroklorik yang lebih tinggi meningkatkan frekuensi
perlanggaran berkesan antara ion-ion tiosulfat dan
ion-ion hidrogen

Kepekatan / suhu larutan kalium tiosulfat / asid


hidroklorik

A5

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

(iv)

Volume of gas collected (cm3)


Isi padu gas yang terkumpul (cm3)

Time (minute)

[3]

Nitric acid, HNO3


Asid nitrik, HNO3
Marble chips
Serpihan marmar

Basin
Besen

[2]

Prosedur:

1. A burette is filled with water until it is full


and it is inverted in a basin of water. The
burette is clamped onto a retort stand. [1]

2. The meniscus of the water in the burette


is adjusted to a reading of 50 cm3. It is
recorded as the initial burette reading. [1]

Meniskus air di dalam buret diselaraskan


kepada bacaan 50 cm3. Bacaan itu direkodkan
sebagai bacaan awal buret.

Maka, frekuensi perlanggaran ion-ion


hidrogen pada permukaan zink meningkat
dan frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan
meningkat.

(ii) Experiment I and experiment III:

3. 20 cm 3 of 0.2 mol dm 3 nitric acid is


measured into a conical flask.
[1]

20 cm3 asid nitrik 0.2 mol dm3 disukat ke dalam


sebuah kelalang kon.

Eksperimen I dan eksperimen III:

The rate of reaction in experiment III is


higher than that of experiment I.
[1]

Kadar tindak balas eksperimen III adalah


lebih tinggi daripada eksperimen I.

4. 2 g of marble chips (in excess) is weighed


using an electronic balance.
[1]

2 g serpihan marmar (berlebihan) ditimbang


dengan menggunakan sebuah penimbang
elektronik.

This is because copper(II) sulphate


solution lowers the activation energy. [1]

Ini adalah kerana larutan kuprum(II) sulfat


merendahkan tenaga pengakitfan.

5. The marble chips are added into the conical


flask.
[1]

Serpihan marmar itu ditambahkan ke dalam


kelalang kon itu.

More particles that collide against each


other are able to overcome the lower
activation energy. Thus, the frequency
of effective collision increases.
[1]

Lebih banyak zarah-zarah yang berlanggaran


dapat mengatasi tenaga pengaktifan
yang lebih rendah itu. Maka, frekuensi
perlanggaran berkesan meningkat.

6. The conical flask is immediately stoppered


as shown in the diagram and the stopwatch
is started.
[1]

Kelalang kon itu ditutup dengan penyumbat


dengan serta-merta seperti yang ditunjukkan
dalam rajah dan jam randik dimulakan.

Section C / Bahagian C

7. The conical flask is shaken throughout the


experiment. [1]

Kelalang kon itu digoncang sepanjang


eksperimen.

4. (a) (i) A chemical substance which alters the rate of


a chemical reaction but remains chemically
unchanged at the end of reaction.
[2]

Satu bahan kimia yang mengubah kadar suatu


tindak balas kimia tetapi tidak berubah secara kimia
pada akhir tindak balas.
Bahan tindak balas: Larutan hidrogen peroksida

Water
Air

Sebuah buret diisi dengan air sehingga penuh


dan ditelangkupkan ke dalam sebuah besen
berisi air. Buret itu diapitkan pada sebuah kaki
retort.

Hence, the frequency of collision of


hydrogen ions at the surface of zinc
increases and the frequency of effective
collision increases.
[1]

(ii) Reactant: Hydrogen peroxide solution

Burette
Buret


(ii) Procedure:

Ini adalah kerana serbuk zink mempunyai


jumlah luas permukaan yang lebih besar
daripada ketulan zink.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Carbon dioxide gas, CO2


Gas karbon dioksida, CO2
Delivery tube
Salur penghantar

This is because zinc powder has a bigger


total surface area than zinc chips. [1]

[1]

Mangkin: Serbuk mangan(IV) oksida

Experiment II
Eksperimen II

Kadar tindak balas bagi ekperimen I adalah


lebih tinggi daripada eksperimen II.

Catalyst: Manganese(IV) oxide powder

Experiment I
Eksperimen I

The rate of reaction in experiment I is


higher than that of experiment II.
[1]


(b) (i)

2
Masa (minit)
(v) (i) Experiment I and experiment II:
Eksperimen I dan eksperimen II:

[1]

Hasil tindak balas: Gas oksigen dan air

96

20
16

Products: Oxygen gas and water

Experiment III
Eksperimen III

32

8. The volume of gas collected in the burette


is recorded at intervals of 30 seconds for
a period of 8 minutes.
[1]

Isi padu gas yang terkumpul di dalam buret


direkodkan pada setiap sela masa 30 saat
selama 8 minit.

[1]

A6

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Graph:

A graph of the volume of gas collected against


time is plotted.
[1]

Graf:

Graf isi padu gas yang terkumpul melawan masa


diplotkan.

III

The purple colour of


acidified potassium
manganate(VII),
KMnO4 solution
remained unchanged.

Warna ungu larutan


kalium manganat(VII),
KMnO4 berasid tidak
berubah.

Volume of gas collected (cm3)


Isi padu gas yang terkumpul (cm3)

The purple
acidified potassium
manganate(VII), KMnO4
solution was decolourised
immediately.
Warna ungu larutan kalium
manganat(VII), KMnO4
berasid dinyahwarnakan
dengan serta-merta.


2.2

Observation

Time (minute)
Masa (minit)

Carbohydrate
used


[2]

The gradient of the graph decreases with time.
Therefore, the rate of reaction decreases as the
reaction proceeds.
[1]

Banyak buih terbentuk dalam ampaian


penapaian. Gas tidak berwarna yang
mengeruhkan air kapur terbebas. Hasil
sulingan merupakan cecair tidak berwarna
yang berbau tajam.

Persamaan kimia:

CaCO3(p) + 2HNO3(ak)
Ca(NO3)2(ak) + CO2(g) + H2O(ce)

Mashed
pineapple and its
juice


[1]

Note / Nota:

The rate of reaction can also be studied by
measuring the change in mass of the conical
flask and its contents against time.

Chapter

2.1

Nanas terhancur
dengan jusnya

Kadar tindak balas juga boleh dikaji dengan


mengukur perubahan jisim kelalang kon dan
kandungannya melawan masa.

Foams were formed in the fermented


mixture. A colourless gas that turned
lime water milky was liberated. The
distillate was a colourless liquid with a
sharp smell.

Banyak buih terbentuk dalam ampaian


penapaian. Gas tidak berwarna yang
mengeruhkan air kapur terbebas. Hasil
sulingan merupakan cecair tidak berwarna
yang berbau tajam.

Carbon Compounds
Sebatian Karbon

2.3

INQUIRY Experiment

INQUIRY Experiment

Observation

Activity I: Combustion of ethanol, C2H5OH

Observation

Aktiviti I: Pembakaran etanol, C2H5OH

Observation

Aspect tested

Pemerhatian

Activity
Aktiviti

Pemerhatian

Glucose, C6H12O6 Foams were formed in the fermented


mixture. A colourless gas that turned
Glukosa, C6H12O6
lime water milky was liberated. The
distillate was a colourless liquid with a
sharp smell.

Kecerunan graf berkurangan dengan masa. Maka


kadar tindak balas berkurangan apabila tindak balas
dibiarkan berterusan.

CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq)
Ca(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Observation

Karbohidrat yang
digunakan

(iii) Chemical equation:


INQUIRY Experiment

Hexane, C6H14
Heksana, C6H14

Heks-1-ena, C6H12

It burned with a sooty It burned with a very sooty


yellow flame.
yellow flame.

II

The brown colour


The brown bromine
of bromine solution
solution was decolourised
remained unchanged. immediately.

Ia terbakar dengan
nyala kuning berjelaga.

Warna perang larutan


bromin tidak berubah.

Aspek yang
diujikan

Hex-1-ene, C6H12

Combustibility

Ia terbakar dengan nyala


kuning yang sangat berjelaga.

A7

Pemerhatian

Kebolehbakaran

The colourless liquid was easily ignited


by the lighted wooden splinter.

Colour and
sootiness of the
flame

The colourless liquid burned with a


non-luminous and non-sooty blue
flame.

Warna dan
kejelagaan nyala

Warna perang larutan bromin


dinyahwarnakan dengan
serta-merta

Observation

Cecair tidak berwarna senang dinyalakan


oleh kayu uji menyala.

Cecair tidak berwarna terbakar dengan nyala


biru yang tidak berkilau dan tidak berjelaga.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Activity II: Oxidation of ethanol, C2H5OH

Calcium
carbonate,
CaCO3 (marble)

Aktiviti II: Pengoksidaan etanol, C2H5OH

Aspect tested

Observation

Aspek yang diujikan

Reaction mixture

Kalsium karbonat,
CaCO3 (marmar)

Pemerhatian

The colour of the reaction mixture


changed from an orange solution to a
green solution.

Campuran bahan
tindak balas

CuO

A colourless oily layer floats on the water.


The product floating on the surface of
Butan-1-ol, C4H9OH the water had a nice fragrant smell.
Lapisan berminyak yang tidak berwarna
terapung di permukaan air. Hasil yang
terapung di permukaan air mempunyai bau
manis dan wangi.

Hasil sulingan adalah suatu cecair tidak


berwarna yang berbau cuka. Ia menukarkan
kertas litmus biru lembap kepada merah.

2.5

Activity III: Dehydration of ethanol, C2H5OH


Aktiviti III: Pendehidratan etanol, C2H5OH

Aspect tested

Aspect / Aspek
Colour, physical
state, and smell of
distillate collected

Pemerhatian

Colour and physical


state of the product

A colourless gas was collected.

Test with bromine


water

The gas decolourised the reddishbrown bromine water.

Test with acidified


potassium
manganate(VII),
KMnO4 solution

The gas decolourised the purple


potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4
solution.

Gas tidak berwarna dikumpulkan.

Diuji dengan air bromin Gas yang terkumpul menyahwarnakan


warna perang-kemerahan air bromin.

2.4

2.6

Physical property

Gas yang terkumpul menyahwarnakan


warna ungu larutan kalium
manganat(VII), KMnO4 berasid.

Sifat fizik

Observation
Pemerhatian

Colour, physical
state, and smell

A colourless liquid with a nice


fragrant smell.

Solubility in water

Two layers of colourless liquid

Warna, keadaan fizik, Cecair tidak berwarna yang berbau manis


dan bau
dan wangi.
Keterlarutan dalam air were formed. Ethyl ethanoate,

Observation

Reaction with

CH3COOC2H5 floated on the surface


of the water.

Observation

Tindak balas
dengan

Magnesium

INQUIRY Experiment

Observation

INQUIRY Experiment

Magnesium

Observation / Pemerhatian
The distillate collected was a colourless
liquid with a nice fragrant smell.

Hasil sulingan yang dikutipkan ialah cecair


Warna, keadaan fizik, tidak berwarna yang berbau manis dan
dan bau hasil sulingan wangi.
yang dikutipkan

Warna dan keadaan


fizik bagi hasil

Diuji dengan larutan


kalium manganat(VII),
KMnO4 berasid

INQUIRY Experiment

Observation

Observation

Aspek yang diujikan

Serbuk hitam terlarut dalam asid etanoik,


CH3COOH akueus dan larutan biru terbentuk.

Butan-1-ol,
C4H9OH

The distillate was a colourless liquid


with a vinegar smell. It turned moist
blue litmus paper to red.

Hasil sulingan

Pembuakan berlaku. Gas tidak berwarna


yang mengeruhkan air kapur terbebas.

Copper(II) oxide, The black powder dissolved in aqueous


CuO
ethanoic acid, CH3COOH and a blue
Kuprum(II) oksida, solution was formed.

Warna campuran bahan tindak balas


berubah daripada larutan jingga kepada
larutan hijau.

Distillate

Effervescence occurred. A colourless


gas that turned lime water milky was
liberated.

Dua lapisan cecair tidak berwarna


terbentuk. Etil etanoat, CH3COOC2H5
terapung di permukaan air.

Pemerhatian

Effervescence occurred. A colourless


gas that exploded with a pop sound
was liberated when tested with a lighted
wooden splinter.

Solubility in
propanone,
CH3COCH3

Etil etanoat terlarut dalam propanon,


CH3COCH3 untuk membentuk larutan tidak
Keterlarutan dalam
propanon, CH3COCH3 berwarna.

Pembuakan berlaku. Gas tidak berwarna


yang meletup dengan bunyi pop terbebas
apabila ia diujikan dengan kayu uji menyala.

Solubility in
methylated spirit

Ethyl ethanoate, CH3COOC2H5


dissolved in methylated spirit to form
Keterlarutan dalam a colourless solution.
spirit bermetil

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Ethyl ethanoate dissolved in propanone,


CH3COCH3 to form a colourless solution.

A8

Etil etanoat terlarut dalam spirit bermetil


untuk membentuk larutan tidak berwarna.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

2.7

INQUIRY Experiment

Vulcanised rubber
Getah tervulkan

Weight
(g)

Observation

Beaker / Bikar

Observation / Pemerhatian

Pemberat
(g)

The latex coagulated rapidly within a few


minutes to form a white solid.

No coagulation occurred. The latex still


existed as a white liquid.

Lateks tergumpal menjadi pepejal putih dalam


masa beberapa minit.

Tiada penggumpalan berlaku. Lateks masih kekal


sebagai cecair putih.

Initial length
(cm)

Panjang awal (cm)

Panjang selepas pemberat


ditanggalkan (cm)

10

8.0

8.0

20

8.0

8.0

30

8.0

8.0

40

8.0

8.0

50

8.0

8.0

The latex coagulated slowly after a few hours


to form a white solid.

1. C
6. B
11. A
16. C
21. B

INQUIRY Experiment

Observation

Type of rubber

Observation

Jenis getah

Pemerhatian

Strip of natural rubber

3. B
8. A
13. C
18. C
23. C

4. C
9. A
14. D
19. B
24. B

5. A
10. B
15. A
20. D

Section A / Bahagian A

Jalur getah adalah lembut.

Strip of rubber dipped into


disulphur dichloride solution in
methylbenzene

2. D
7. B
12. A
17. B
22. B

Subjective Questions

The strip of rubber was


soft.

Jalur getah asli

SPM Review

Lateks tergumpal dengan perlahan-lahan menjadi


pepejal putih selepas beberapa jam.

Objective Questions

2.8

Length after the


removal of weight (cm)

1. (a) Isomers are compounds with the same molecular


formula but different structural formulae.

The strip of rubber was


hard.

Jalur getah adalah keras.

Jalur getah direndam dalam larutan


disulfur diklorida dalam metilbenzena

Isomer-isomer ialah sebatian-sebatian yang mempunyai


formula molekul yang sama tetapi formula struktur yang
berbeza.

(b) Compound R : Pent-2-ene

Sebatian R: Pent-2-ena

Compound T: 2-methylbut-2-ene
2.9

GUIDED Experiment

Sebatian T: 2-metilbut-2-ena

(c)

Results

Weight
(g)

Pemberat
(g)

Unvulcanised rubber

Getah tak tervulkan

Initial length
(cm)
Panjang awal
(cm)

Length after the removal


of weight (cm)
Panjang selepas pemberat
ditanggalkan (cm)

10

8.0

8.0

20

8.0

8.0

30

8.0

8.0

40

8.0

9.0

50

9.0

10.0

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

(d) Hidrogenation

Penghidrogenan

(e) (i) A mixture of compound R and steam is


passed over phosphoric acid as a catalyst
at a temperature of 300C and a pressure of
60 atmospheres.

A9

Satu campuran sebatian R dan stim dialirkan melalui


asid fosforik sebagai mangkin pada suhu 300C dan
tekanan 60 atmosfera.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

(ii)
H

OH H

= 0.48 dm3 at room temperature and pressure

0.48 dm3 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik

atau

Isi padu CO2 (gas Y) yang terhasil

= 0.02 mol 24 dm3 mol1

or

\ Volume of carbon dioxide (gas Y) produced

(d) (i) Substitution reaction

OH H

Tindak balas penukargantian

(ii) The reddish-brown bromine vapour is


decolourised.

Wap perang-kemerahan bromin dinyahwarnakan.

White fumes / steamy fumes are produced

(f) Number of moles of compound P burnt


Wasap putih / wasap stim terbebas

Bilangan mol sebatian P yang dibakarkan

(e) (i) Ethene / Etena


(ii) A mixture of ethene, C2H4 gas and hydrogen,
H2 gas is passed over nickel at a temperature
of 180C to 200C.

300
mol
24 000
= 0.0125 mol

C5H12 + 8O2 5CO2 + 6H2O


(P)
1 mol
5 mol

3. (a)

1 mol of P (C5H12) burnt produces 5 mol of carbon


dioxide.

Unglazed porcelain chips


Serpihan porselin yang tidak licau
Boiling tube
Tabung didih

1 mol P (C5H12) terbakar untuk menghasilkan 5 mol karbon


dioksida.

0.0125
5)

0.0125 mol of P (C5H12) burnt produces (
1
= 0.0625 mol of carbon dioxide.

Mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) formed

(b)

Jisim karbon dioksida (CO2) yang terbentuk

= 0.0625 mol [12 + 16(2)] g mol


= 2.75 g

2. (a) CnH2n + 2
(b)
H

Ethane
Etana

1 mol

1 mol of C2H6 produces 2 mol of CO2

2 mol

OH H

OH

Larutan ungu bertukar menjadi larutan tidak berwarna.

Satu campuran gas propena dan stim dialirkan melalui


mangkin asid fosforik pada suhu 300C dan tekanan
60 atmosfera.

\ Number of moles of CO2 produced

Asid sulfurik pekat

(ii) Propyl propanoate has a nice fragrant smell


whereas alcohol R (propan-1-ol) has a sharp
non-fragrant smell.

Bilangan mol CO2 yang terhasil

= 2 Number of moles of C2H6 burnt

2 Bilangan mol C2H6 yang terbakar

Propil propanoat mempunyai bau wangi manakala


alkohol R (propan-1-ol) mempunyai bau sengit
yang tidak wangi.

= 2 0.01 mol
= 0.02 mol

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Water
Air

(e) C3H7OH + 2[O] C2H5COOH + H2O


(f) (i) Concentrated sulphuric acid

1 mol C2H6 menghasilkan 2 mol CO2

Beaker
Bikar

(d) A mixture of propene gas and steam is passed over


phosphoric acid as a catalyst at a temperature of
300C and a pressure of 60 atmospheres.

Bilangan mol sebatian C2H6 terbakar

0.3 g
=
= 0.01 mol
30 g mol1
7
C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + 3H2O
2

Heat
Panaskan

(c) The purple solution turns colourless.

(c) Number of moles of the compound C2H6 burnt



Propene gas
Gas propena
Test tube
Tabung uji

Glass wool
soaked in
alcohol R
Wul kaca
terendam
dalam
alkohol R

0.0125 mol P (C5H12) terbakar untuk menghasilkan


0.0125
5)
(
1

= 0.0625 mol karbon dioksida.

Satu campuran gas etena, C2H4 dan hidrogen, H2


dialirkan melalui nikel pada suhu 180C hingga
200C.

A10

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Propyl propanoate is insoluble in water


whereas alcohol R (propan-1-ol) is soluble
in water.

manakala kumpulan berfungsi sebatian Q ialah


kumpulan karboksilat, CO .

O

Propil propanoat tidak larut dalam air manakala


alkohol R (propan-1-ol) larut dalam air.

Compound P is a carboxylic acid whereas


compound Q is an ester.
[1]

(g) Sodium hydroxide solution


Sebatian P ialah suatu asid karboksilik manakala


sebatian Q ialah suatu ester.

Larutan natrium hidroksida

(c) (i) About 2 cm3 of each liquid to be differentiated


is poured separately into two different test
tubes. [1]

Section B / Bahagian B
4. (a) (i) Compound Y is an alcohol with the general
formula CnH2n + 1OH. [1]

Kira-kira 2 cm3 setiap cecair yang hendak


dibezakan dituang secara berasingan ke dalam
dua tabung uji yang berlainan.

Sebatian Y ialah suatu alkohol yang mempunyai


formula am CnH2n + 1OH.

A few drops of acidified potassium


dichromate(VI) solution are added into each
test tube. Each test tube is then heated
gently. [1]

Relative molecular mass of CnH2n + 1OH = 46


Jisim molekul relatif bagi CnH2n + 1OH = 46


12n + (2n + 1)(1) + 16 + 1 = 46

14n + 18 = 46

n = 2

Molecular formula of compound Y

[1]

Beberapa titik larutan kalium dikromat(VI) berasid


dituang ke dalam setiap tabung uji itu. Setiap
tabung uji itu dipanaskan dengan perlahan-lahan.

Formula molekul bagi sebatian Y

If the colour of the acidified potassium


dichromate(VI) solution changes from orange
to green, then the liquid tested is methanol.
Jika warna larutan kalium dikromat(VI) berasid

= C2H5OH [1]
(ii) Homologous series of compound Y is alcohol.

Siri homolog bagi sebatian Y ialah alkohol.

Its structural formula is

[1]

berubah daripada jingga kepada hijau, maka cecair


yang diujikan itu ialah metanol.
[1]

Fomula strukturnya ialah


H H
H

If no change occurs, then the liquid tested is


hexane. [1]
Jika tiada perubahan berlaku, maka cecair yang
diujikan itu ialah heksana.

H H

[1]
(iii) C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O [2]

(ii) About 2 cm3 of each liquid to be differentiated


is poured separately into two different test
tubes. [1]

(b) Similarities

Kira-kira 2 cm3 setiap cecair yang hendak


dibezakan dituang secara berasingan ke dalam
dua tabung uji yang berlainan.

Persamaan

Both the compounds P and Q have the same


molecular formula of C2H4O2. [1]

About 2 cm3 of bromine water is added into


each test tube and shaken well.
[1]

Kedua-dua sebatian P dan Q mempunyai formula


molekul C2H4O2 yang sama.

Kira-kira 2 cm3 air bromin dituang ke dalam setiap


tabung uji itu dan digoncang dengan baik.

Both the compounds P and Q are isomers. [1]


Kedua-dua sebatian P dan Q adalah isomer.

If the brown bromine water is decolourised,


then the liquid tested is pent-1-ene.
[1]

Both the compounds P and Q are made up of


carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
[1]

Jika warna perang air bromin dinyahwarnakan,


maka cecair yang diujikan itu ialah pent-1-ena.

Kedua-dua sebatian P dan Q terdiri daripada karbon,


hidrogen dan oksigen.

If no change occurs, then the liquid tested is


methyl methanoate.
[1]

Differences

Jika tiada perubahan berlaku, maka cecair yang


diujikan itu ialah metil metanoat.

Perbezaan

Functional group of compound P is carboxyl


group, COH

O

Section C / Bahagian C
5. (a) (i) A and D are isomers

Kumpulan berfungsi sebatian P ialah kumpulan


karboksil, COH

O

A dan D ialah isomer

A is butan-2-ol

[1]

D is butan-l-ol

[1]

whereas functional group of compound Q is


carboxylate group, CO . [1]

O

A11

[1]

A ialah butan-2-ol
D ialah butan-l-ol

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

The propanoic acid is then mixed with


twice its own volume of propan-1-ol and a
little concentrated sulphuric acid in a small
distillation flask.
[1]

(ii) 1 cm3 of acidified potassium dichromate(VI)


solution is poured into 2 cm3 of compound B
and compound D respectively and the mixtures
are heated.
[1]

1 cm3 larutan kalium dikromat(VI) berasid ditambah


ke dalam 2 cm3 sebatian B dan sebatian D masingmasing dan campuran dipanaskan.

Kemudian, asid propanoik dicampurkan dengan


dua kali ganda isi padu propan-1-ol dan sedikit
asid sulfurik pekat dalam sebuah kelalang
penyulingan yang kecil.

Compound B does not change the orange


colour of the acidified potassium dichromate(VI)
solution. [1]

The mixture is heated gently using the


apparatus set-up as below. Propyl propanoate
is collected as distillate.

Sebatian B tidak mengubah warna jingga larutan


kalium dikromat(VI) berasid.

Campuran ini dipanaskan dengan perlahan-lahan


dengan menggunakan susunan radas seperti
yang ditunjukkan di bawah. Propil propanoat
dikumpulkan sebagai hasil sulingan.

Compound D changes the orange colour of the


acidified pottasium dichromate(VI) solution to
green. [1]

Sebatian D menukarkan warna jingga larutan kalium


dikromat(VI) berasid kepada hijau.

Liebig condenser
Distillation flask
Kondenser Liebig
Kelalang penyulingan Water out
Adaptor
Air keluar
Penyesuai
Beaker
Conical flask
Bikar
Kelalang kon
Water in
Air masuk
Distillate
Mixture of
Hasil sulingan
propan-1-ol,
propanoic acid
Heat
Wooden block
and concentrated Panaskan
Bongkah kayu
sulphuric acid
Oil bath
Campuran propan-1-ol,
Kukus minyak
asid propanoik
dan asid sulfurik pekat

(b) (i) Structural formula of propanoic acid is


Formula struktur bagi asid propanoik ialah


H

C
H

C
H

H C
H O
H C
C O H

Structural
formula
of H
propyl
is
H H O
H propanoate
H

Formula struktur bagi propil propanoat ialah


H C
C C
H C
H H
H H
H C O C
H

H
C

H
C

O
C

H
C

H
C

H
C


Chemical equation for this reaction is

Persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas ini ialah

H H O
H H H

3
(ii) A mixture of 3 cm of propan-1-ol and 10 cm3
of acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution
is heated slowly in a boiling tube using the
set-up of apparatus as shown
[1]

C2H5COOH + C3H7OH

Chapter

Test tube
Tabung uji
Beaker
Bikar

Boiling tube
Tabung didih

3.1

Ice water
Air ais
Distillate
Hasil sulingan

Pengoksidaan dan Penurunan


INQUIRY Experiment

The magnesium ribbon burnt with a bright flame producing


a white solid.

Pita magnesium terbakar dengan nyalaan yang terang dan


menghasilkan pepejal putih.

3.2

Satu cecair tidak berwarna bagi asid propanoik


dikumpulkan sebagai hasil sulingan dalam
sebuah tabung uji yang terendam dalam air ais.

INQUIRY Experiment

Observation

The mixture burnt rapidly with a bright flame. A brown solid


was formed.

[1]

Persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas ini ialah

Campuran itu terbakar dengan cepat dan dengan nyalaan yang terang.
Pepejal perang terbentuk.

C3H7OH + 2[O] C2H5COOH + H2O


Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Oxidation and Reaction

Observation


[1]
A colourless liquid of propanoic acid is
collected as a distillate in a test tube
immersed in ice water.
[1]

Chemical equation for this reaction is

C2H5COOC3H7 + H2O

(c) L : Alcohol / Alkohol [1]



M : Ester / Ester [1]

Q : Alkene / Alkena [1]

Satu campuran mengandungi 3 cm3 propan-1-ol


dan 10 cm3 larutan kalium dikromat(VI) berasid
dipanaskan dengan perlahan-lahan dalam
sebuah tabung didih dengan menggunakan
susunan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan.

Propan-1-ol
Propan-1-ol
+
Acidified
potassium
dichromate(VI)
solution
Larutan kalium Heat
dikromat(VI) Panaskan
berasid

[1]
[1]

A12

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

3.3

3.5

INQUIRY Experiment

Observation

Observation

Solution used

Activity I: Halogens in aqueous solution and


1,1,1-trichloroethane, CH3CCI3

Observation

Larutan yang
digunakan

Pemerhatian

Aktiviti I: Halogen dalam larutan akueus dan 1,1,1-trikloroetana,


CH3CCI3

Iron(II) sulphate, The reddish-brown bromine water was


FeSO4 solution + decolourised. The green iron(II) sulphate,
bromine water
FeSO 4 solution turned brown. When
Larutan ferum(II)
sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution was
sulfat, FeSO4 + air added, a brown precipitate was formed.
bromin
The precipitate was insoluble in excess
sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution.

Halogen
Halogen

Chlorine

Warna perang-kemerahan air bromin


dinyahwarnakan. Larutan hijau ferum(II)
sulfat, FeSO4 bertukar menjadi perang.
Apabila larutan natrium hidroksida, NaOH
ditambahkan, mendakan perang terbentuk.
Mendakan itu tidak larut dalam larutan
natrium hidroksida, NaOH berlebihan.

Klorin

Bromine
Bromin

Iodine
Iodin

Iron(III) sulphate,
Fe2(SO4)3
solution + zinc
powder

Part of the zinc powder dissolved in


iron(III) sulphate, Fe 2(SO 4) 3 solution.
The brown solution turned green. When
sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution was
Larutan ferum(III) added into the filtrate, a green precipitate
sulfat, Fe2(SO4)3 + was formed. The precipitate was insoluble
serbuk zink
in excess sodium hydroxide, NaOH
solution.

Copper(II)
sulphate, CuSO4
solution + zinc
strip

Halogen
used

Halogen
yang
digunakan

Chlorine
water
Air klorin

Chlorine
water

Observation
Pemerhatian

Air klorin

The blue solution turned colourless. Part


of the zinc strip dissolved. A brown solid
was deposited on the zinc strip.

Larutan argentum
nitrat, AgNO3 +
kepingan kuprum

Pale yellow

Colourless

Kuning pucat

Tidak berwarna

Brown

Brown

Perang

Perang

Brown

Purple

Perang

Halide
solution

Ungu

Air bromin

The colourless solution turned blue. Part


of the copper strip dissolved. A shiny
grey solid was deposited.

Bromine
water

Larutan tidak berwarna bertukar menjadi


biru. Sebahagian daripada kepingan kuprum
melarut. Pepejal kelabu berkilat terenap.

Air bromin

A13

Warna bagi

1,1,1-trichloroethane,
CH3CCI3 layer

Larutan
halida

aqueous
layer

Potassium
bromide,
KBr
solution

Perang

Perang

Brown

Purple

Larutan
kalium
bromida, KBr

Potassium
iodide, KI
solution
Larutan
kalium
iodida, KI

Potassium
chloride,
Bromine
KCl
solution
water

Larutan biru bertukar menjadi tidak berwarna.


Larutan kuprum(II) Sebahagian daripada kepingan zink melarut.
Pepejal perang terenap pada kepingan zink.
sulfat, CuSO4 +
kepingan zink

Silver nitrate,
AgNO3 solution
+ copper strip

Warna dalam
1,1,1-trikloroetana, CH3CCI3

Colour of

Observation

Reactant

Warna dalam
larutan akueus

Colour in
1,1,1-trichloroethane,
CH3CCI3

Aktiviti II: Tindak balas penyesaran halogen

INQUIRY Experiment

Bahan tindak
balas

Colour in
aqueous solution

Activity II: Displacement of halogens

Sebahagian serbuk zink terlarut dalam larutan


ferum(III) sulfat, Fe2(SO4)3. Larutan perang itu
bertukar menjadi hijau. Apabila larutan natrium
hidroksida, NaOH ditambahkan kepada dalam
hasil turasan, mendakan hijau terbentuk.
Mendakan itu tidak larut dalam larutan natrium
hidroksida, NaOH berlebihan.

3.4

INQUIRY Experiment

Larutan
kalium
klorida, KCl

Potassium
iodide, KI
solution
Larutan
kalium
iodida, KI

lapisan
akueus

Brown

Perang

Brown

lapisan
1,1,1-trikloroetana,
CH3CCI3

Brown

Ungu

Brown

Perang

Perang

Brown

Purple

Perang

Ungu

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Colour of

Halide
solution

Halogen
used

Larutan
halida

Halogen
yang
digunakan

Iodine
solution
Larutan
iodin

Iodine
solution
Larutan
iodin

3.6

Potassium
chloride,
KCl solution
Larutan
kalium
klorida, KCl

Potassium
bromide,
KBr
solution

Larutan
kalium
bromida, KBr

Reactant

Warna bagi

aqueous
layer

1,1,1-trichloroethane,
CH3CCI3 layer

lapisan
akueus

lapisan
1,1,1-trikloroetana,
CH3CCI3

Brown

Purple

Perang

Potassium
iodide, KI
solution +
acidified
potassium
dichromate(VI),
K2Cr2O7
solution

Ungu

Larutan kalium
iodida, KI +
larutan kalium
dikromat(VI),
K2Cr2O7 berasid

Brown

Perang

Purple

Observation

Larutan ferum(II)
sulfat, FeSO4 +
larutan kalium
manganat(VII),
KMnO4 berasid

The deflection of the galvanometer


pointer showed that the electrode
placed in potassium iodide, KI solution
acted as the negative terminal while the
electrode placed in acidified potassium
dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 solution acted
as the positive terminal. The orange
acidified potassium dichromate(VI),
K2Cr2O7 solution turned green. The
colourless potassium iodide, KI
solution turned brown. When a few
drops of starch solution were added, a
dark blue solution was formed.

Observation

Bahan tindak
balas

Iron(II)
sulphate,
FeSO4 solution
+ acidified
potassium
manganate(VII)
KMnO4 solution

Pemerhatian

Pesongan jarum galvanometer


menunjukkan elektrod yang tercelup dalam
larutan kalium iodida, KI bertindak sebagai
terminal negatif manakala elektrod yang
tercelup dalam larutan kalium dikromat(VI),
K2Cr2O7 berasid bertindak sebagai terminal
positif. Larutan jingga kalium dikromat(VI),
K2Cr2O7 berasid bertukar menjadi hijau.
Larutan kalium iodida, KI yang tidak
berwarna bertukar menjadi perang. Apabila
beberapa titis larutan kanji ditambahkan,
larutan berwarna biru tua terbentuk.

Ungu

INQUIRY Experiment

Reactant

Observation

Bahan tindak
balas

Pemerhatian

The deflection of the galvanometer


pointer showed that the electrode
placed in iron(II) sulphate, FeSO4
solution acted as the negative terminal
while the electrode placed in acidified
potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4
solution acted as the positive terminal.
The purple acidified potassium
manganate(VII), KMnO4 solution
was decolourised. The green iron(II)
sulphate, FeSO4 turned yellow. When
a few drops of potassium thiocyanate,
KSCN solution were added, a blood-red
solution was formed.

3.7

Observation

Observation
Pemerhatian

Test tube

Tabung uji

Intensity of dark
blue colouration
Keamatan warna
biru tua

Pesongan jarum galvanometer


menunjukkan elektrod yang tercelup dalam
larutan ferum(II) sulfat, FeSO4 bertindak
sebagai terminal negatif manakala elektrod
yang tercelup dalam larutan kalium
manganat(VII), KMnO4 berasid bertindak
sebagai terminal positif. Larutan ungu
kalium manganat(VII), KMnO4 berasid
dinyahwarnakan. Larutan hijau ferum(II)
sulfat, FeSO4 bertukar menjadi kuning.
Apabila beberapa titis larutan kalium
tiosianat, KSCN ditambahkan, larutan
berwarna merah darah terbentuk.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

GUIDED Experiment

D
E

A14

Low

Rendah

Moderate

Sederhana

High

Tinggi

Intensity of pink
colouration
Keamatan warna
merah jambu

High

Tinggi

High

Tinggi

Low

Rendah

Low

Rendah

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

3.8

INQUIRY Experiment

Mixture

Observation

Colour of metal
oxide formed
Metal

Logam

Warna oksida
logam yang
terbentuk

Hot

Magnesium
Magnesium

Copper
Kuprum

Iron

White

Putih

Putih

Black

Black

Hitam

Hitam

Brown

Perang

Lead

Brown

Yellow

Zinc
Zink

Yellow
Kuning

Kuning

White
Putih

Terbakar secara perlahanlahan dengan baraan yang


malap

Magnesium
ribbon + carbon
dioxide, CO2

Pita magnesium +
karbon dioksida,
CO2

Terbakar secara perlahanlahan dengan baraan yang


terang

3.10

Terbakar secara perlahanlahan dengan nyalaan yang


sederhana terang

Observation
Pemerhatian

The magnesium ribbon burnt rapidly


with a bright flame. A white solid and
black powder were formed.
Pita magnesium terbakar dengan cepat
dengan nyalaan yang terang. Pepejal
putih dan serbuk hitam terbentuk.

INQUIRY Experiment

Observation

Mixture

Burnt rapidly with a


moderately bright flame

Campuran

Terbakar dengan cepat


dengan nyalaan yang
sederhana terang

Observation
Pemerhatian

Hydrogen +
copper(II) oxide,
CuO

Copper(II) oxide burnt brightly. The


black powder turned brown.

Hydrogen + zinc
oxide, ZnO

No visible change.

Hydrogen + lead(II)
oxide, PbO

Lead(II) oxide burnt brightly. The


yellow powder became shiny grey
globules.

Hidrogen + kuprum(II)
oksida, CuO

Kuprum(II) oksida terbakar dengan


terang. Serbuk hitam bertukar menjadi
perang.
Tiada perubahan.

Hidrogen + zink
oksida, ZnO

Aktiviti I

Karbon + kuprum(II)
oksida, CuO

Campuran itu membara dengan nyalaan


terang. Pepejal kelabu berkilat terbentuk.

Mixture

Activity I

Carbon +
copper(II) oxide,
CuO

The mixture glowed brightly. A shiny


grey solid was formed.

Campuran

Observation

Mixture

Carbon + zinc
oxide, ZnO

Tiada perubahan.

Aktiviti II

INQUIRY Experiment

Campuran

No visible change.

Activity II

Burnt slowly with a faint


glow

Burnt slowly with a


moderately bright glow

Perang

Perang

Terbakar dengan cepat


dengan nyalaan yang terang

Brown

Carbon +
aluminium oxide,
Al2O3

Karbon + zink
oksida, ZnO

Burnt very rapidly with a


bright flame

Burnt slowly with a bright


glow

Ferum

Plumbum

Kecergasan tindak balas

Sejuk

White

Pemerhatian

Karbon + aluminium
oksida, Al2O3

Vigour of reaction

Cold

Panas

3.9

Observation

Campuran

Observation
Pemerhatian

Hidrogen +
plumbum(II) oksida,
PbO

The mixture burnt with a bright flame.


A brown solid was formed.

Campuran itu terbakar dengan nyalaan yang


terang. Pepejal perang terbentuk.

Hydrogen + iron(III)
oxide, Fe2O3

Carbon +
No visible change.
magnesium oxide, Tiada perubahan.
MgO

Hidrogen + ferum(III)
oksida, Fe2O3

Karbon +
magnesium oksida,
MgO

A15

Plumbum(II) oksida terbakar dengan


terang. Serbuk kuning bertukar menjadi
butiran kelabu berkilat.

Iron(III) oxide burnt brightly. The


brown powder became shiny grey
globules.

Ferum(III) oksida terbakar dengan


terang. Serbuk perang bertukar menjadi
butiran kelabu berkilat.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

3.11

INQUIRY Experiment

Observation

Electrolyte
Elektrolit

Anode / Anod
A brown gas with a
pungent smell was
released.

Potassium
iodide, KI
solution

The colourless solution


around the anode
turned brown. The
brown solution turned
dark blue when tested
with starch solution.

Larutan
kalium
iodida, KI

Gas perang berbau


sengit dibebaskan.

Iron /
lead

A shiny grey globule


was found at the
bottom of the
crucible.

Gas bubbles
were released. A
colourless gas which
burnt with a pop
sound was produced.

Penunjuk voltmeter
terpesong.
Pesongan voltmeter
menunjukkan paku
besi bertindak
sebagai terminal
negatif manakala
kepingan plumbum
sebagai terminal
positif.

Gelembung-gelembung
gas terbebas. Gas tidak
berwarna yang terbakar
dengan bunyi pop
terhasil.

INQUIRY Experiment

Chemical
Cell
Sel kimia

Zink /
kuprum

Voltmeter

The voltmeter
pointer deflected.
The deflection
of the voltmeter
pointer showed
that the zinc plate
acted as the
negative terminal
while the copper
plate acted as the
positive terminal.
Penunjuk voltmeter
terpesong.
Pesongan voltmeter
menunjukkan
kepingan zink
bertindak sebagai
terminal negatif
manakala kepingan
kuprum sebagai
terminal positif.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

The iron nail


dissolved
and became
thinner. The
intensity of
the green
colour of
the iron(II)
sulphate,
FeSO4
solution
increased.

Negative
terminal
Terminal
negatif

Positive
terminal

Terminal positif

The lead plate


became thicker.
A grey solid was
deposited on the
lead plate.

Kepingan plumbum
menjadi tebal.
Pepejal kelabu
terenap pada
kepingan plumbum.

Paku besi
melarut dan
menjadi nipis.
Keamatan
warna hijau
larutan
ferum(II)
sulfat, FeSO4
bertambah.

SPM Review

Objective Questions

Observation / Pemerhatian
Voltmeter

Terminal
negatif

The voltmeter
pointer deflected.
The deflection
of the voltmeter
pointer showed
that the iron nail
acted as the
negative terminal
and the lead
plate acted as the
positive terminal.

Ferum /
plumbum

Observation

Zinc /
copper

Voltmeter

Butiran kelabu berkilat


didapati di dasar
mangkuk pijar.

Larutan tidak berwarna


di sekitar anod bertukar
menjadi perang. Larutan
perang itu bertukar
menjadi biru tua apabila
diuji dengan larutan
kanji.

3.12

Cathode / Katod

Negative
terminal

Voltmeter

Sel kimia

Observation / Pemerhatian

Molten
lead(II)
bromide,
PbBr2

Plumbum(II)
bromida,
PbBr2 lebur

Observation / Pemerhatian

Chemical
Cell

1. B
6. C
11. C
16. A
21. C

Positive
terminal

Terminal positif

The zinc
plate
dissolved
and became
thinner.

The copper plate


became thicker.
A brown solid
was deposited on
the copper plate.
Kepingan zink The intensity of
melarut dan
the blue colour
menjadi nipis. of the copper(II)
sulphate,
CuSO4 solution
decreased.

2. C
7. B
12. A
17. D
22. C

3. D
8. C
13. C
18. B
23. B

4. A
9. C
14. D
19. D

5. C
10. A
15. B
20. B

Subjective Questions

Section A / Bahagian A
1. (a) To allow the flow of the ions so that a complete
circuit is formed as well as to separate the two
aqueous solutions.

Untuk membenarkan ion-ion mengalir supaya litar yang


lengkap terbentuk dan juga untuk memisahkan keduadua larutan akueus.

(b) (i) The oxidation number decreases from 0 to 1.

Kepingan kuprum
menjadi tebal.
Pepejal perang
terenap pada
kepingan kuprum.
Keamatan warna
biru larutan
kuprum(II)
sulfat, CuSO4
berkurangan.

Nombor pengoksidaan berkurang daripada 0


kepada 1.

(ii) Br2(aq) + 2e 2Br (aq)

(iii) Reduction

Br2(ak) + 2e 2Br (ak)


Penurunan

A16

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

(c) (i) Iron(II) sulphate solution

(c) Air and water are needed for rusting.

Larutan ferum(II) sulfat

Udara dan air diperlukan untuk pengaratan.

Potassium iodide solution

When the surface of iron is in contact with water,


the middle region of the water droplet (where the
concentration of dissolved oxygen is low) acts as
the anode.
[1]

Larutan kalium iodida

(ii) It acts as a reducing agent. Bromine water is


reduced to bromide ions with the presence of
solution X.

Apabila permukaan besi terdedah kepada air, pusat


titisan air (di mana kepekatan oksigen yang terlarut
adalah rendah) bertindak sebagai anod.

Ia bertindak sebagai agen penurunan. Air bromin


diturunkan kepada ion bromida dengan kehadiran
larutan X.

At the anode, iron is oxidised to Fe2+ ion.


Di anod, ferum dioksidakan kepada ion Fe2+.

(d) (i) From 0 to +2


Fe(s) Fe2+(aq) + 2e [1]

Daripada 0 kepada +2

Fe(p) Fe2+(ak) + 2e

(ii) Ni(s) + Cu (aq) Ni (aq) + Cu(s)

(iii) Copper rod. This is because copper metal is


less electropositive than nickel metal. Hence,
copper metal releases its electrons less readily
than nickel metal.

2+

[1]

2+

The region closer to the outside of the water


droplet (where the concentration of dissolved
oxygen is higher) acts as the cathode.
[1]

Ni(p) + Cu2+(ak) Ni2+(ak) + Cu(p)

Pinggir titisan air (di mana kepekatan oksigen yang


terlarut adalah tinggi) bertindak sebagai katod.

The electrons released flow through the metal to


the cathode where dissolved oxygen is reduced.

Rod kuprum. Ini kerana logam kuprum kurang


elektropositif daripada logam nikel.
Maka, logam kuprum tidak mudah membebaskan
elektron berbanding dengan logam nikel.

Elektron yang terbebas mengalir melalui logam ke


katod di mana oksigen yang terlarut diturunkan.

Section B / Bahagian B

O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e 4OH(aq) [1]

2. (a) (i) Oxidation number of copper in Cu2O

The Fe2+ ions formed combined with the OH ions


to form iron(II) hydroxide which is then oxidised
by air and become the brown hydrated iron(III)
oxide. This hydrated oxide is called rust.
[1]

Nombor pengoksidaan kuprum dalam Cu2O

Nombor pengoksidaan kuprum dalam CuCl2

Nombor pengoksidaan aluminium dalam AlCl3

O2(g) + 2H2O(ce) + 4e 4OH(ak)

= +1

Oxidation number of copper in CuCl2

[1]

= +2

Oxidation number of aluminium in AlCl3

[1]

= +3
(ii) Cu2O: Copper(I) oxide

[1]
[1]

Kuprum(I) oksida

CuCl2: Copper(II) chloride

[1]

AlCl3: Aluminium chloride

[1]

Kuprum(II) klorida

Aluminium klorida

Ion Fe2+ yang terbentuk berpadu dengan ion


OH untuk membentuk ferum(II) hidroksida yang
kemudiannya dioksidakan oleh udara untuk
membentuk ferum(III) oksida terhidrat yang berwarna
perang. Oksida terhidrat ini disebut karat.

Section C / Bahagian C
3. (a) Mg(s) Mg2+(aq)

1 spatula of magnesium powder is added into


a test tube containing 2 cm3 of dilute sulphuric
acid. [1]
Satu spatula serbuk magnesium ditambahkan ke
dalam sebuah tabung uji yang mengandungi 2 cm3
asid sulfurik cair.

(b) (i) Metal X is less electropositive than iron. [1]

Logam X kurang elektropositif daripada ferum.

Iron is oxidised to Fe2+ ions.

Ferum dioksidakan kepada ion Fe2+.

[1]

Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2(g) [1]


Mg(p) + 2H+(ak) Mg2+(ak) + H2(g)

Metal Y is more electropositive than iron. [1]

In the reaction, magnesium undergoes oxidation


while H+ ions undergo reduction.
[1]

Logam Y lebih elektropositif daripada ferum.

Metal Y is oxidised to ion Y. [1]

Dalam tindak balas itu, magnesium mengalami


pengoksidaan manakala ion H+ mengalami penurunan.

Logam Y dioksidakan kepada ion Y.

(ii) In Experiment I, iron is oxidised.




Dalam Eksperimen I, ferum dioksidakan.

[1]

Sodium hydroxide solution is added to the product


formed. [1]

Half-equation: Fe Fe2+ + 2e [1]

Larutan natrium hidroksida ditambahkan kepada hasil


tindak balas yang terbentuk.

Setengah persamaan: Fe Fe2+ + 2e

(iii) Metal Y, iron, metal X

Logam Y, ferum, logam X

Mg(p) Mg2+(ak)

A white precipitate which is insoluble in excess


sodium hydroxide solution is formed.
[1]

Less electropositive
Kurang elektropositif

Mendakan putih yang tidak larut dalam larutan natrium


hidroksida berlebihan terbentuk.

[2]

A17

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

2Cl(aq) Cl2(g)

Chapter

2Cl(ak) Cl2(g)

3 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid is electrolysed using


graphite electrodes.
[1]

4.1

Asid hidroklorik 3 mol dm3 dielektrolisiskan dengan


menggunakan elektrod grafit.

Thermochemistry
Termokimia

INQUIRY Experiment

Observation

2H+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) H2(g) + Cl2(g) [1]


2H+(ak) + 2Cl(ak) H2(g) + Cl2(g)

In the reaction, Cl ions undergo oxidation while


H+ ions undergo reduction.
[1]

Reactant

Dalam tindak balas ini, ion Cl mengalami pengoksidaan


manakala ion H+ mengalami penurunan.

Bahan tindak balas

A piece of moist blue litmus paper is held at the


mouth of the test tube containing the gas collected
at the anode.
[1]
Satu keping kertas litmus biru lembap dipegang
dekat mulut tabung uji yang mengandungi gas yang
terkumpul di anod.

Kertas litmus biru lembap bertukar menjadi merah dan


kemudian dilunturkan.
V

Copper plate
Kepingan kuprum
Copper(II) sulphate solution
Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat


[2]
Zinc is more electropositive than copper and
releases electrons easily.
[1]
Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e [1]
Zn(p) Zn2+(ak) + 2e

Oxidation occurs.

Pengoksidaan berlaku.

Cu 2+ ions accept electrons to form copper


metal. [1]
Ion Cu2+ menerima elektron untuk membentuk logam
kuprum.

Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s)

[1]

Reduction occurs.

[1]

Cu2+(ak) + 2e Cu(p)
Penurunan berlaku.

Heat was
absorbed.

Solid sodium hydroxide,


NaOH + hydrochloric
acid, HCl

Temperature
increased.

Heat was
given out.

Solid sodium hydroxide,


NaOH + distilled water

Temperature
increased.

Heat was
given out.

Solid ammonium
chloride, NH4Cl +
distilled water

Temperature
decreased.

Heat was
absorbed.

Solid ammonium
nitrate, NH4NO3 +
distilled water

Temperature
decreased.

Heat was
absorbed.

Suhu menurun.

Suhu meningkat.

Suhu meningkat.

Suhu menurun.

Pepejal ammonium
klorida, NH4Cl + air suling

[1]

Suhu menurun.

Pepejal ammonium nitrat,


NH4NO3 + air suling

4.2

Haba
diserap.

Haba
dibebaskan.

Haba
dibebaskan.

Haba
diserap.

Haba
diserap.

INQUIRY Experiment

Results

The flow of electrons from the zinc plate to


the copper plate results in the production of
electricity. [1]

Initial temperature of silver nitrate, AgNO 3


solution (C)

27.0

Initial temperature of sodium chloride, NaCI


solution (C)

27.0

Suhu awal larutan argentum nitrat, AgNO3 (C)

Pengaliran elektron dari kepingan zink ke kepingan


kuprum menyebabkan penghasilan elektrik.

The zinc plate is corroded. Zn 2+ ions are


formed. [1]

Suhu awal larutan natrium klorida, NaCl (C)

Kepingan zink terkakis. Ion Zn2+ terbentuk.

Highest temperature of the reaction mixture (C)

Suhu tertinggi campuran hasil tindak balas (C)

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Haba
(dibebaskan/
diserap)

Temperature
decreased.

Pepejal natrium
hidroksida, NaOH + air
suling

Zink lebih elektropositif daripada kuprum dan


membebaskan elektron dengan mudah.

Heat
(given out/
absorbed)

Solid sodium hydrogen


carbonate, NaHCO3 +
hydrochloric acid, HCI

Pepejal natrium
hidroksida, NaOH + asid
hidroklorik, HCl

Zinc plate
Kepingan
zink

Perubahan suhu
(bertambah/
berkurang)

Pepejal natrium hidrogen


karbonat, NaHCO3 + asid
hidroklorik, HCl

The moist blue litmus paper turns red and then


white. [1]
(b)

Temperature
change
(increased/
decreased)

A18

30.5

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

4.3 UNGUIDED

4.5

Experiment

Results

Results

Initial temperature
of copper(II)
sulphate, CuSO4
solution (C)

Reactant

Bahan tindak
balas

Suhu awal larutan


kuprum(II) sulfat,
CuSO4 (C)

Zinc powder
+ copper(II)
sulphate, CuSO4
solution

Highest
temperature
of the reaction
mixture (C)

Magnesium
powder +
copper(II)
sulphate, CuSO4
solution

Sodium
hydroxide,
NaOH

Alkali
Reactant

Suhu tertinggi
campuran hasil
tindak balas (C)

Bahan
tindak
balas

Alkali

Natrium
hidroksida,
NaOH

27.0

Ammonia,
NH3
Ammonia,
NH3

Ammonia,
NH3
Ammonia,
NH3

Ethanoic
Hydrochloric Ethanoic
acid,
acid,
acid, HCl
CH3COOH Asid
CH3COOH

Acid
Asid

Asid etanoik, hidroklorik,


HCl
CH3COOH

37.0
Initial
temperature of
alkali (C)

Serbuk zink +
larutan kuprum(II)
sulfat, CuSO4

Asid etanoik,
CH3COOH

26.8

27.0

27.0

26.8

27.0

27.0

40.0

39.4

39.0

Suhu awal alkali


(C)

27.5

Initial
temperature of
acid (C)

43.5

Suhu awal asid (C)

Serbuk magnesium
+ larutan kuprum(II)
sulfat, CuSO4

4.4

GUIDED Experiment

Highest
temperature of
reaction mixture
(C)
Suhu tertinggi
campuran hasil
tindak balas (C)

GUIDED Experiment

Results

Reaction
mixture

Campuran
bahan tindak
balas

Strong
alkali

Alkali kuat

Strong
acid

Asid kuat

Initial temperature of
strong alkali (C)

Suhu awal alkali kuat (C)

Initial temperature of
strong acid (C)

Suhu awal asid kuat (C)

Highest temperature of
the reaction mixture (C)
Suhu tertinggi campuran
hasil tindak balas (C)

Sodium
hydroxide,
NaOH
Natrium
hidroksida,
NaOH

Hydrochloric
acid, HCl

Asid hidroklorik,
HCl

27.0

27.0

33.8

Potassium
hydroxide,
KOH

4.6

GUIDED Experiment

Results

Kalium
hidroksida,
KOH

Alcohol

Nitric acid,
HNO3

Alkohol

Asid nitrik,
HNO3

27.2

Methanol, Ethanol, Propan-1-ol, Butan-1-ol,


CH3OH C2H5OH
C3H7OH
C4H9OH
Metanol,
CH3OH

Etanol,
C2H5OH

Propan-1-ol,
C3H7OH

Butan-1-ol,
C4H9OH

Mass of
lamp and
alcohol before
combustion (g)

139.36

142.78

141.03

147.35

Mass of lamp
and alcohol after
combustion (g)

138.23

141.93

140.28

146.65

Jisim pelita dan


alkohol sebelum
pembakaran (g)

27.2

34.0

Jisim pelita dan


alkohol selepas
pembakaran (g)

A19

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Mass of alcohol
burnt (g)
Jisim alkohol
terbakar (g)


1.13

0.85

0.75

0.70

Initial
temperature of
water (C)

27.0

27.0

27.5

27.5



57.0

57.0

57.5

57.5

Suhu tertinggi air


(C)

Increase in
temperature
(C)

30.0

30.0

SPM Review

30.0

0.05 57.3
=

1
= 2.865 kJ
(ii) Heat released = mcq

30.0

2. C
7. C
12. A

3. B
8. C
13. A

4
4. A
9. D
14. C

Haba yang dibebaskan = mc

2.865 1000 J = (50 + 50) 4.2 q



Temperature change,

Perubahan suhu,

2865 = 6.8C

q =
100 4.2

Objective Questions

(d) (i) Number of moles of potassium hydroxide

5. D
10. C
15. D

Bilangan mol kalium hidroksida

= MV


Subjective Questions

Section A / Bahagian A

= 0.50 mol dm3 50


dm3
1000
= 0.025 mol
Number of moles of ethanoic acid
Bilangan mol asid etanoik

= MV

1. (a) Formation of one mol of water in the neutralisation


reaction liberates 57.3 kJ of heat energy.

Pembentukan 1 mol air dalam tindak balas peneutralan


membebaskan 57.3 kJ tenaga haba.

= 0.50 mol dm3 50


dm3
1000
= 0.025 mol
KOH(aq) + CH3COOH(aq)

1 mol

(b) The plastic cup becomes warm. / The temperature


of the mixture increases.

Daripada persamaan, 1 mol NaOH bertindak balas


dengan 0.5 mol H2SO4 membebaskan 57.3 kJ haba.

Haba yang dibebaskan apabila 0.05 mol NaOH


bertindak balas dengan 0.025 mol asid sulfurik

50
= 0.5 mol dm3 dm3
1000
= 0.025 mol
From the equation, 1 mol of NaOH reacts with
0.5 mol of H2SO4 gives out 57.3 kJ of heat.
Heat released when 0.05 mol of NaOH
reacts with 0.025 mol of H2SO4

Kenaikan suhu
(C)

1. C
6. C
11. D
16. C

Bilangan mol asid sulfurik

= MV

Suhu awal air (C)

Highest
temperature of
water (C)

= 1.0 mol dm3 50


dm3
1000
= 0.05 mol
Number of moles of sulphuric acid

1 mol

CH3COOK(aq) + H2O(l)

Cawan plastik menjadi panas. / Suhu campuran menaik.

1 mol

Explanation:
Penerangan:


KOH(ak) + CH3COOH(ak) CH3COOK(ak) + H2O(ce)
1 mol
1 mol
1 mol

The energy content of the reactants is higher than


that of the products. The decrease in the chemical
energy content when the reactants change to the
products is converted to heat energy and given out
to the surroundings.

Kandungan tenaga bahan tindak balas adalah lebih


tinggi daripada hasil tindak balas. Pengurangan dalam
kandungan tenaga kimia semasa bahan tindak balas
berubah kepada hasil tindak balas telah ditukarkan
kepada tenaga haba untuk dibebaskan ke sekeliling.

Number of moles of water produced =

Number of moles of KOH or CH3COOH reacted


Bilangan mol natrium hidroksida

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Daripada persamaan, 1 mol KOH bertindak balas


dengan 1 mol CH3COOH menghasilkan 1 mol air.

Bilangan mol air yang dihasilkan

(c) (i) Number of moles of sodium hydroxide = MV


From the equation, 1 mol of KOH reacts with


1 mol of CH3COOH produces 1 mol of water.

A20

bilangan mol KOH atau CH3COOH yang bertindak


balas

= 0.025 mol

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

(ii) Heat released = mcq


= (50 + 50) 4.2 3.25


= 1365 J
= 1.365 kJ
Heat of neutralisation for this reaction, H

= mc = (80 + 80) g 4.2 J g1 C1 1.4C


= 940.8 J
(f) Number of moles of Ca2+ ions

Haba peneutralan bagi tindak balas ini, H


1.365 kJ

=

0.025 mol

= 54.6 kJ mol1
(iii) Energy

(e) The value of heat of neutralisation in Experiment I


is higher than that in Experiment II.

Nilai haba peneutralan dalam Eksperimen I lebih tinggi


daripada nilainya dalam Eksperimen II.

Explanation: Sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid, and


potassium hydroxide dissociate completely in water.
Ethanoic acid dissociates partially in water. Some
of the heat released in neutralisation is used to
dissociate the unionised ethanoic acid molecules.

Penerangan: Natrium hidroksida, asid sulfurik, dan kalium


hidroksida bercerai dengan lengkap dalam air. Asid
etanoik bercerai separa dalam air. Sebahagian tenaga
haba yang terbebas dalam peneutralan telah digunakan
untuk menceraikan molekul-molekul asid etanoik tak
terion.

Bilangan mol CaCO3 termendak

Precipitation of 0.08 mol of CaCO3 absorbed


940.8 J of heat energy.

Pemendakan 0.08 mol CaCO3 menyerap 940.8 J tenaga


haba.

The total heat energy absorbed during the


precipitation of one mole of CaCO3

Heat of precipitation of CaCO3

The temperature of the mixture drops.

Haba pemendakan CaCO3

= +11.76 kJ mol1
(g) The temperature of the mixture will drop by

Ca2+(ak) + CO32(ak) CaCO3(p)

(b) Polystyrene cups are poor conductors of heat, thus


reducing heat loss to the surroundings during the
experiment.

Suhu campuran menurun sebanyak

1.4C
= 0.7C
2

Cawan polistirena adalah konduktor haba yang lemah,


jadi ia dapat mengurangkan kehilangan haba ke
persekitaran semasa eksperimen itu.

Section B / Bahagian B
3. (a) 250 cm3 of distilled water is measured and poured
into a copper can.
[1]

(c) The total energy content of the product is higher


than that of the reactants.

250 cm3 air suling disukat dan dituang ke dalam


sebuah tin kuprum.

Jumlah kandungan tenaga hasilnya lebih tinggi daripada


jumlah kandungan tenaga bahan tindak balas.

The copper can is placed on a tripod stand without


a wire gauze.
[1]

(d) To ensure that the temperature of the mixture is


uniform.

Tin kuprum diletakkan di atas tungku kaki tiga tanpa


kasa dawai.

Untuk memastikan suhu campuran adalah sekata.

The initial temperature of the water is measured


after 5 minutes.
[1]

(e) From the graph, the drop in temperature



Number of moles of CaCO3 precipitated

1

= 940.8 J = 11760 J = 11.76 kJ
0.08

(ii) Ca2+(aq) + CO32(aq) CaCO3(s)

1 mol ion Ca2+bertindak balas dengan 1 mol ion CO32


untuk membentuk 1 mol CaCO3.

Jumlah tenaga haba yang diserap semasa


pemendakan satu mol CaCO3

Suhu campuran berkurang.

1 mole of Ca2+ ions reacts with 1 mole of CO32 ions


to form 1 mole of CaCO3.

Mendakan putih terbentuk.

1 mole

= 0.08 mol

2. (a) (i) A white precipitate is formed.

1 mole

Ca (ak) + CO3 (ak) CaCO3(p)


1 mol
1 mol
1 mol
2+

CH3COOK(aq) + H2O(l)
CH3COOK(ak) + H2O(ce)

Bilangan mol ion CO32

1 mole

H = 54.6 kJ mol1


80 = 0.08 mol
= MV = 1

1000
Number of moles of CO32 ions

80
= MV = 1 = 0.08 mol

1000
Ca2+(aq) + CO32(aq) CaCO3(s)

KOH(aq) + CH3COOH(aq)
KOH(ak) + CH3COOH(ak)

Bilangan mol ion Ca2+

Tenaga

The total heat energy absorbed in the reaction

Jumlah tenaga haba yang diserap dalam tindak balas


itu

Haba yang dibebaskan = mc

Daripada graf, penurunan suhu

Suhu awal air disukat selepas 5 minit.

= (26.6 25.2)C
= 1.4C

A21

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Hence, complete combustion of 1.85 g of butan1-ol in excess air raises the temperature of
250 cm3 of water by 63.5 C.

50 cm 3 of butan-1-ol is poured into a spirit


lamp. The spirit lamp containing butan-1-ol is
weighed. [1]
50 cm3 butan-1-ol dituangkan ke dalam sebuah pelita
spirit. Pelita spirit yang mengandungi butan-1-ol
ditimbangkan.

Maka, pembakaran 1.85 g butan-1-ol yang lengkap


dalam udara berlebihan menaikkan suhu 250 cm3 air
sebanyak 63.5 C.

The lamp is placed on a wooden block under the


copper can as shown in the diagram.
[1]


Maximum: [11]
(b) Molar mass of butan-1-ol, C4H9OH

Pelita ini diletakkan di atas satu bongkah kayu di bawah


tin kuprum seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah.
Windshield
Pengadang angin

Thermometer
Termometer

Copper can
Tin kuprum
Water
Air

The water is stirred continuously using the


thermometer. [1]
Air dikacau berterusan dengan menggunakan
termometer.

Once the temperature of the water increases by


63.5 C, the flame is put out.
[1]

Haba dibebaskan oleh pembakaran 0.025 mol butan-1-ol

= 66675 J

[1]

Haba dibebaskan oleh pembakaran 1 mol butan-1-ol

1
= 66675 J = 2667000 J = 2667 kJ
0.025

[1]

Heat of combustion of butan-1-ol
Haba pembakaran butan-1-ol

= 2667 kJ mol1 [1]


(c) The value of heat of combustion of ethanol is less
than the value of heat of combustion of butan-1-ol.
[1]

Sebaik sahaja suhu air menaik sebanyak 63.5C,


nyalaan itu dipadamkan.

The spirit lamp containing butan-1-ol is weighed


again immediately.
[1]

Nilai haba pembakaran etanol kurang daripada nilai


haba pembakaran butan-1-ol.

Pelita spirit yang mengandungi butan-1-ol ditimbang


semula dengan serta-merta.

This is because the number of carbon and


hydrogen atoms per molecule of ethanol is less
than that of butan-1-ol.
[1]

Results:

Keputusan:

Ini disebabkan oleh bilangan atom karbon dan atom


hidrogen per molekul etanol kurang daripada yang
terdapat dalam butan-1-ol.

Mass of spirit lamp + butan-1-ol before combustion


Jisim pelita spirit + butan-1-ol sebelum pembakaran

= M1 g
Mass of spirit lamp + butan-1-ol after combustion

(d) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH(l) + 6O2(g)


4CO2(g) + 5H2O(l)

Jisim pelita spirit + butan-1-ol selepas pembakaran

CH3CH2CH2CH2OH(ce) + 6O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 5H2O(ce)

= M2 g
Initial temperature = t1 C

The total heat energy given out in the bond


formations of the products (i.e. 4 moles of
O=C=O and 5 moles of HOH) is higher than the
total heat energy absorbed in the bond breakings
of the reactants
(i.e. 1 mole of CH3CH2CH2CH2OH and 6 moles of
O=O). [2]

Suhu awal

Highest temperature = t2 C
Suhu tertinggi

[1]

Mass of butan-1-ol burnt = (M1 M2) g

Jumlah tenaga haba yang dibebaskan dalam


pembentukan ikatan bagi hasilnya (iaitu 4 mol O=C=O
dan 5 mol HOH) adalah lebih tinggi daripada
jumlah tenaga haba yang diserap dalam pemecahan
ikatan bagi bahan tindak balasnya (iaitu 1 mol
CH3CH2CH2CH2OH dan 6 mol O=O)

Jisim butan-1-ol yang dibakarkan


= 1.85 g
The rise in temperature = (t2 t1) C

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Heat given out by the combustion of 0.025 mole of


butan-1-ol

Sumbu pelita dinyalakan dengan serta-merta.

= 63.5 C

[1]

Heat given out by the combustion of 1 mole of


butan-1-ol

The wick of the lamp is lighted immediately. [1]

Kenaikan suhu

Bilangan mol butan-1-ol terbakar

= mc = 250 g 4.2 J g1 C1 63.5C

Radas itu dikelilingi oleh pengadang angin untuk


mencegah gangguan angin.

Isi padu air

= (12 4) + (1 9) + (16 1) + (1 1)
= 74 g mol1
Number of moles of butan-1-ol burnt


1.85 g

= = 0.025 mol
74 g mol1


[1]
The apparatus is shielded using a windshield to
avoid wind disturbances.
[1]

Volume of water = 250 cm3

Jisim molar butan-1-ol, C4H9OH

Tripod stand
Tungku kaki tiga
Spirit lamp
Pelita spirit
Wooden block
Bongkah kayu

Butan-1-ol
Butan-1-ol

[1]

A22

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Procedure:

Hence, excess energy is given out to the


surroundings as heat.
[1]

Prosedur:

Maka, tenaga yang berlebihan dibebaskan ke


persekitaran sebagai haba.

1. 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate


solution is measured and poured into a
polystyrene cup.
[1]

Section C / Bahagian C

50 cm3 larutan kuprum(II) sulfat 0.2 mol dm3


disukatkan dan dituangkan ke dalam sebuah
cawan polistirena.

4. (a) (i) 1 mol of zinc reacts with 1 mol of copper(II)


sulphate to liberate 210 kJ of heat energy.

1 mol zink bertindak balas dengan 1 mol kuprum(II)


sulfat membebaskan 210 kJ tenaga haba.

2. The initial temperature of the solution is


measured after 5 minutes.
[1]

The energy content of the reactants [zinc and


copper(II) sulphate] is higher than the energy
content of the products [zinc sulphate and
copper].

3. 1 g of excess zinc powder is poured quickly


and carefully into the copper(II) sulphate
solution. [1]

Suhu awal larutan ini disukatkan selepas 5 minit.

1 g serbuk zink berlebihan dituangkan dengan


cepat dan cermat ke dalam larutan kuprum(II)
sulfat.

Kandungan tenaga bahan tindak balas [zink dan


kuprum(II) sulfat] lebih tinggi daripada kandungan
tenaga hasil tindak balas [zink sulfat dan kuprum].

(ii) This is because sulphate ions and nitrate ions


are not taking part in the displacement reaction.

4. The mixture is stirred immediately with the


thermometer. [1]

(iii) Number of moles of copper(II) sulphate reacted

5. The highest temperature of the reaction


mixture is recorded.
[1]

Campuran ini dikacau dengan serta-merta


dengan menggunakan termometer.

Hal ini kerana ion sulfat dan ion nitrat tidak mengambil
bahagian dalam tindak balas penyesaran itu.

Bilangan mol kuprum(II) sulfat yang bertindak balas

Suhu tertinggi bagi campuran hasil tindak balas


direkodkan.

1 50
1000
= 0.05 mol
From the energy level diagram, 1 mol of
copper(II) sulphate reacted will liberate 210 kJ
of heat.

6. The experiment is repeated using 50 cm3 of


0.2 mol dm3 copper(II) nitrate solution to
replace 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm3 copper(II)
sulphate solution.
[1]
Eksperimen ini diulang dengan menggunakan
50 cm3 larutan kuprum(II) nitrat 0.2 mol dm3
untuk menggantikan 50 cm3 larutan kuprum(II)
sulfat 0.2 mol dm3.

Daripada gambar rajah aras tenaga, 1 mol kuprum(II)


sulfat yang bertindak balas akan membebaskan
210 kJ haba.

0.05 mol of copper(II) sulphate reacted will


0.05
210 = 10.5 kJ of heat.
liberate
1

Results:

Keputusan:

0.05 mol kuprum(II) sulfat yang bertindak balas


0.05
akan membebaskan
210 = 10.5 kJ haba
1

Reactant

Heat released = mc

Bahan
tindak balas

Haba yang dibebaskan

10.5 1000 J = 50 4.2


10.5 1000


=
20 4.2
= 50C

Maximum rise in temperature = 50C

Zinc +
copper(II)
sulphate

Kenaikan suhu yang maksimum

Zink +
kuprum(II)
sulfat

(b) Variables:


Pemboleh ubah:

(i) Manipulated: Types of copper(II) salt solution


Zinc +
copper(II)
nitrate

Dimanipulasikan: Jenis larutan garam kuprum(II)

(ii) Responding: Value of heat of displacement


Zink +
kuprum(II)
nitrat

Bergerak balas: Nilai haba penyesaran

(iii) Fixed: Volume and concentration of


copper(II) salt solution, mass of zinc powder,
polystyrene cup
[1]
Dimalarkan: Isi padu dan kepekatan larutan garam

Initial
temperature
of copper(II)
salt solution
(C)

Highest
temperature
of the reaction
mixture (C)

t1

t2

t3

t4

Suhu awal
larutan garam
kuprum(II) (C)

Suhu tertinggi
campuran hasil
tindak balas

[1]

kuprum(II), jisim serbuk zink, cawan polistirena

A23

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

Calculations:

Hence, we can conclude that the values of


heat of displacement of copper from different
copper(II) salt solutions by zinc are the same.
Thus, hypothesis is accepted.
[1]

Penghitungan:

For zinc + copper(II) sulphate solution:


Bagi zink + larutan kuprum(II) sulfat:

Jadi, dapat disimpulkan bahawa nilai-nilai haba


penyesaran kuprum daripada larutan garam kuprum(II)
yang berlainan oleh zink adalah sama. Maka, hipotesis
dapat diterima.

Zinc is in excess.

Zink adalah berlebihan.

Number of moles of copper(II) sulphate


Bilangan mol kuprum(II) sulfat


50
= MV = 0.2 = 0.01 mol

1000

Chapter

1 mole

Chemicals for Consumers

Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

1 mole

Bahan Kimia untuk Pengguna

Zn(p) + CuSO4(ak) ZnSO4(ak) + Cu(p)



1 mol
1 mol

5.1

Number of moles of copper displaced by zinc

Observation

Bilangan mol kuprum yang disesarkan oleh zink

= 0.01 mol
Total heat energy given out

Test

[1]

= mc = 50 g 4.2 J g1 C1 (t2 t1)C


= y J
Total heat energy given out when one mole of
copper is displaced from CuSO4 solution by
zinc

Pemerhatian

Examine on the solid


product

A white solid was obtained.

Rub the solid product


between fingers

It had a slippery feeling.

Shake the solid product


with water

A lot of lather was formed


(very foamy).

Pepejal putih diperoleh.

Periksa hasil pepejal

Ia berasa licin.

Gosokkan hasil pepejal antara


jari

Jumlah tenaga haba yang dibebaskan apabila satu


mol kuprum disesarkan daripada larutan CuSO4
oleh zink


1 y J = 100y J
=
0.01
Heat of displacement of copper from CuSO4
solution by zinc

Goncangkan hasil pepejal


dengan air

5.2

Haba penyesaran kuprum daripada larutan CuSO4


oleh zink
[1]
= 100y J mol1

Banyak buih terbentuk.

GUIDED Experiment

Observation

For zinc + copper(II) nitrate solution:


Bagi zink + larutan kuprum(II) nitrat:
Zn(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) Zn(NO3)2(aq) + Cu(s)

Beaker
Bikar

Zn(p) + Cu(NO3)2(ak) Zn(NO3)2(ak) + Cu(p)

Using the similar method of calculation as before,


it can be shown that the heat of displacement of
copper from copper(II) nitrate solution by zinc
Dengan menggunakan kaedah penghitungan yang
sama seperti dahulu, dapat ditunjukkan bahawa haba
penyesaran kuprum daripada larutan kuprum(II) nitrat
oleh zink

Observation

1
= [50 4.2 (t4 t3)]
0.01

1
= w = 100w J mol1
0.01
[1]
When comparing the values of heat of
displacement obtained, it can be observed that
100y = 100w. [1]

Pemerhatian

Apabila membandingkan nilai-nilai haba penyesaran


yang diperoleh, dapat diperhatikan bahawa 100 y =
100 w.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Observation

Ujian

Jumlah tenaga haba yang dibebaskan

INQUIRY Experiment

A24

A lot of
lather was
formed.
The oily
stain was
removed.
The cloth
was
cleaned.

No lather
but a white
precipitate
was formed.
The oily
stain
remained
on the cloth.

A lot of
lather was
formed.
The oily
stain was
removed.
The cloth
was
cleaned.

A lot of
lather was
formed.
The oily
stain was
removed.
The cloth
was
cleaned.

Banyak buih
terbentuk.
Tompok
kotoran
berminyak
disingkirkan.
Kain
menjadi
bersih.

Tiada
buih tetapi
mendakan
putih
terbentuk.
Tompok
kotoran
berminyak
kekal tinggal
pada kain.

Banyak buih
terbentuk.
Tompok
kotoran
berminyak
disingkirkan.
Kain
menjadi
bersih.

Banyak buih
terbentuk.
Tompok
kotoran
berminyak
disingkirkan.
Kain
menjadi
bersih.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

SPM Review

2. (a) (i) T Sodium nitrite

Objective Questions

1. A
6. B
11. A
16. A

3. C
8. A
13. A
18. C

4. B
9. C
14. C
19. A

5. A
10. D
15. A
20. C

Tartrazine can cause hyperactivity in children.

Tartrazina boleh menyebabkan kanak-kanak menjadi


hiperaktif.

Z Food dyes

Pewarna makanan

(b) Keep the food in frozen state in a rerigerator.

Untuk membolehkan sabun termendak keluar daripada


larutan kerana natrium klorida merendahkan keterlarutan
sabun dalam air.

Simpan makanan dalam keadaan beku di dalam peti


sejuk.

Dry the food under the sun to keep it in the dry


state.

(c)

keringan makanan di bawah matahari untuk


mengekalkannya dalam keadaan kering.

Liebig condenser
Kondenser Liebig

Boil the food and then keep it in a sealed can.

Didihkan makanan dan kemudian simpankannya di


dalam tin tertutup.

Water in
Air masuk
Round-bottomed flask
Kelalang berdasar bulat

Heat
Panaskan

Pengantioksida

(b) To allow the soap to precipitate out from the solution


as sodium chloride will reduce the solubility of soap
in water.

Retort
stand
Kaki
retort

Natrium nitrit ialah karsinogen yang boleh


menyebabkan kanser perut.

(iii) Y Antioxidant

Sabun / garam natrium bagi asid lemak

Water out
Air keluar

X Tartrazina

1. (a) Soap / sodium salt of fatty acid

(Any two/Mana-mana dua)


(c) Aspartame To sweeten food

Mixture of corn oil


and concentrated sodium
hydroxide solution
Campuran minyak jagung dan
larutan natrium hidroksida
pekat

Aspartame Untuk memaniskan makanan

Monosodium glutamate To bring out the flavour in


many types of food

Mononatrium glutamat Untuk memberikan rasa sedap


dalam banyak jenis makanan

3. (a) Stabilisers and thickeners

(d) (i) Q : Detergent / Detergen


R : Soap / Sabun
J : Hard water / Air liat
M : Soft water / Air lembut
(ii) The calcium ions and magnesium ions in hard
water (J) reacts with soap (R) to form insoluble
calcium salt and magnesium salt of soap called
scum.

X Tartrazine

W Natrium sitrat

(ii) Sodium nitrite is carcinogenic that can cause


stomach cancer.

Section A / Bahagian A

Subjective Questions

W Sodium citrate

2. C
7. A
12. A
17. C

T Natrium nitrit

Penstabil dan pemekat

(b) (i) Keep the food in frozen state in a refrigerator.


Simpan makanan dalam keadaan beku di dalam
peti sejuk.

Dry the food under the sun to keep it in the


dry state.
Keringkan makanan di bawah matahari untuk
mengekalkannya dalam keadaan kering.

Ion-ion kalsium dan ion-ion magnesium dalam air


liat (J) bertindak balas dengan sabun (R) untuk
membentuk garam kalsium dan garam magnesium
bagi sabun yang tidak larut dalam air yang disebut
kekat.

Boil the food and then keep it in a sealed can.


Didihkan makanan dan kemudian simpankannya
di dalam tin tertutup.

(ii) Sulphur dioxide


(iii) Able to lower the surface tension of water and


hence increases the wetting ability of water.

Sulfur dioksida

(c) (i) Tartrazine / Tartrazina


(ii) Turmeric / Kunyit
(d) (i) Aspartame

Dapat merendahkan tegangan permukaan air,


jadi kebolehan air membasahi permukaan kain
bertambah.


Aspartame

Able to emulsify oil or grease so as to


suspend them in water.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG)


Mononatrium glutamat (MSG)

Dapat mengemulsikan minyak atau gris supaya


mengapungkannya dengan sekata dalam air.

A25

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

(ii) Aspartame is a non-sugar sweetener that


adds a sweet taste to food.

Streptomycin is used to treat tuberculosis,


whooping cough, and pneumonia.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used to


improve the flavour of food so that it tastes
better.

(d) (i) Aspirin is an acid that can cause internal


bleeding and ulceration in the stomach.

(e) (i) To prevent the fats and oils in food from being
oxidised on exposure to the air which will turn
them into acids with an unpleasant smell (i.e.
turn rancid).

Paracetamol can be used to replace aspirin.

Aspartame ialah suatu pemanis bukan gula yang


memberikan rasa manis kepada makanan.

Streptomisin digunakan untuk merawat tibi, batuk


ayam, dan pneumonia.

Aspirin adalah sejenis asid yang boleh


menyebabkan pendarahan dalam dan
pertumbuhan ulser di dalam perut.

Mononatrium glutamat (MSG) digunakan untuk


meningkatkan rasa makanan supaya lebih sedap.

(ii) It is used as a medicine to sedate, calm or relax


emotions of individuals at low doses. At higher
doses, it can induce sleep.
Ia digunakan sebagai ubat untuk menenangkan emosi

Untuk mencegah lemak dan minyak dalam makanan


daripada teroksida apabila terdedah kepada udara
yang akan menukarkannya menjadi asid dengan
satu bau yang tidak menyenangkan (iaitu menjadi
tengik).

individu pada dos rendah. Pada dos tinggi, ia boleh


menyebabkan seseorang itu tidur.

(ii) Ascorbic acid in fruit juice / sodium citrate in


cooked cured meat / butylated hydroxyanisole
(BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in
margarine

Section B / Bahagian B
5. (a) The type of medicine prescribed to Mohamad is
antibiotic. [1]
Jenis ubat yang dipreskripsikan kepada Mohamad
ialah antibiotik.

Asid askorbik dalam jus buah-buahan / natrium sitrat


dalam daging masak terawet / butil hidrosianisol
(BHA) dan butil hidroksitoluena (BHT) dalam
marjerin.

An example of this medicine is penicillin /


streptomycin. [1]

4. (a) (i) To treat depression and for longevity


Satu contoh ubat ini ialah penisilin / streptomisin.

Correct usage:

Untuk merawat depresen (kemurungan) dan juga


untuk panjang umur

(ii) To treat gout, diabetes, and rheumatism

(iii) To increase male libido

Untuk merawat gout, diabetes, dan reumatisme

Untuk meningkatkan libido lelaki

Cara penggunaan ubat yang betul:

Mohamad must finish taking the whole course of


antibiotics prescribed to him even though he feels
better. [1]
Mohamad mesti habiskan semua antibiotik yang
dipreskripsikan kepadanya walaupun dia sudah
berasa lebih baik.

(b) Not all traditional medicines are safe.

Bukan semua ubat tradisional adalah selamat.

For example, garlic capsules combined with


diabetes medication can cause a sudden
decrease in the glucose level in blood.

This is to make sure that all the bacteria are


killed. Otherwise, the undestroyed bacteria may
multiply again and become more resistant to the
antibiotic. [1]

Sebagai contohnya, kapsul bawang putih bercampur


dengan ubat diabetes boleh menyebabkan kandungan
glukosa dalam darah berkurang secara mendadak.

Tindakan ini adalah untuk memastikan semua bakteria


sudah dibunuh dengan sepenuhnya. Jika tidak, bakteria
yang masih belum dimusnahkan akan membiak semula
dan menjadi lebih imun terhadap antibiotik itu.

(c) (i) Ensure that the full course of medicine is taken


based on the dosage and instructions by the
doctor.

The type of medicine prescribed to Chee Kiong


is an analgesic.
[1]

Pastikan semua ubat habis dimakan mengikut dos


dan arahan yang ditetapkan oleh doktor.

Jenis ubat yang dipreskripsikan kepada Chee Kiong


ialah analgesik.

(ii) To make sure that all bacteria are killed.


Otherwise, the patient may become ill again
as the bacteria may become more resistant to
the medicine.

An example of this medicine is aspirin /


paracetamol / codeine.
[1]

Untuk memastikan semua bakteria telah dibunuh


dengan sepenuhnya. Jika tidak, pesakit itu mungkin
jatuh sakit semula kerana bakteria akan menjadi
lebih imun terhadap ubat itu.

Ubat ini digunakan untuk melegakan kesakitan.

[1]

Correct usage:

Cara penggunaan ubat yang betul:

Chee Kiong must take the medicine at the


recommended dose as prescribed by the
doctor. [1]

Penisilin dan streptomisin

(iv) Penicillin is used to treat tuberculosis and


pneumonia.

Chee Kiong harus makan ubat ini mengikut dos yang


disyorkan seperti yang dipreskripsikan oleh doktor.

Penisilin digunakan untuk merawat tibi dan


pneumonia.
Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Satu contoh ubat ini ialah aspirin / parasetamol / kodeina.

This medicine is used to relieve pain.

(iii) Penicillin and streptomycin

Parasetamol boleh digunakan untuk


menggantikan aspirin.

A26

Chemistry Form 5 Answers

(b) (i) Common salt (sodium chloride) absorbs


water by drawing water out of the cells of
microorganisms. [2]

Apart from that, acacia gum is also used as


a stabiliser in food which helps to prevent an
emulsion of oil droplets suspended in water
from separating out.
[1]

Garam biasa (natrium klorida) menyerap air


dengan menarik air keluar daripada sel-sel
mikroorganisma.

Selain daripada itu, gam acacia juga digunakan


sebagai penstabil dalam makanan yang dapat
mencegah suatu emulsi bagi titisan-titisan minyak
terapung dengan sekata dalam air daripada
terpisah keluar.

This retards the growth of microorganisms.



[1]
Ini menghalang pertumbuhan mikroorganisma.

(ii) Sodium nitrite is added to meat to preserve


the meat and also to stabilise the red colour
of meat so as to make it look fresh.
[1]

Section C / Bahagian C
6. (a) (i) Ascorbic acid is used as antioxidant. Its function
is to prevent oxidation of oil in the food so that
it does not turn rancid.
[1]

Natrium nitrit ditambahkan kepada daging untuk


mengawet daging ini dan juga menstabilkan warna
merah daging ini supaya ia kelihatan segar.

When meat is cooked, the nitrite ions in


sodium nitrite will change to nitrosamines
which are carcinogenic. This is the side
effect. [1]
Apabila daging dipanaskan, ion-ion nitrit dalam
natrium nitrit berubah kepada nitrosamina
yang bersifat karsinogenik. Ini adalah kesan
sampingannya.

Asid askorbik digunakan sebagai pengantioksida.


Fungsinya untuk menghalang pengoksidaan minyak
dalam makanan supaya tidak menjadi tengik.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used as


flavouring. Its function is to bring out / enhance
the flavour of food so that it becomes tastier.

(iii) When exposed to air, fats, and oils in oily


food are oxidised to acid with an unpleasant
smell. Hence, the food turns rancid.
[1]

Apabila terdedah kepada udara, lemak dan


minyak dalam makanan berminyak akan
dioksidakan kepada asid dengan bau yang tidak
sedap. Maka, makanan menjadi tengik.

Mononatrium glutamat (MSG) digunakan sebagai


perisa. Fungsinya untuk meningkatkan rasa
makanan supaya ia menjadi lebih sedap.

Tartrazine is used as food dye. Its function is to


add or restore the yellow colour in food.
Tartrazina digunakan sebagai pewarna. Fungsinya
untuk memberi warna kuning kepada makanan
atau memulihkan warna kuning dalam makanan.

(Any one)

(Mana-mana satu)

(ii) Potassium chloride

This problem can be overcome by adding


antioxidants to the oily food to prevent
oxidation of fats and oils.
[1]

(b) (i) Substance E is sulfuric acid.

[1]

Gas Y is sulphur dioxide.

[1]

Masalah ini dapat diatasi dengan menambahkan


antipengoksida kepada makanan berminyak
untuk mencegah pengoksidaan lemak dan
minyak.

[1]

Kalium klorida

Bahan E ialah asid sulfurik.

Gas Y ialah sulfur dioksida.

(ii) Sulphur dioxide is an acidic and poisonous


gas. The gas can cause air pollution, water
pollution, and soil pollution by making the air,
water, and soil acidic.
[1]

For example, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)


and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are used
as antioxidant in margarine whereas sodium
citrate is used as antioxidant in cooked cured
meat. [1]

Sulfur dioksida ialah gas berasid dan beracun.


Gas ini boleh menyebabkan pencemaran udara,
pencemaran air dan pencemaran tanah akibat
udara, air, dan tanah menjadi berasid.

Sebagai contohnya, butil hidroksianisol (BHA)


dan butil hidroksitoluena (BHT) digunakan
sebagai antipengoksida dalam marjerin manakala
natrium sitrat digunakan sebagai antipengoksida
dalam daging masak terawet.

Acid rain caused by sulphur dioxide can


corrode buildings, monuments, and statues
made from metals and marbles.
[1]

(iv) Pectin is used as a thickener in jams and


jellies. [1]

Hujan asid yang disebabkan oleh sulfur dioksida


boleh menghakiskan bangunan, monumen, dan
patung yang diperbuat daripada logam dan
marmar.

Pektin digunakan sebagai pemekat dalam jam


dan agar-agar.

Acacia gum is also used as a thickener in


chewing gum, jelly, and wine.
[1]

Acidic water caused by sulphur dioxide can


kill aquatic organisms like planktons, fish, and
plants. [1]

Gam acacia digunakan sebagai pemekat dalam


gula-gula getah, agar-agar, dan wain.

Air berasid yang disebabkan oleh sulfur dioksida


boleh membunuh organisma akuatik seperti
plankton, ikan, dan tumbuhan.

The function of thickeners is used to thicken


food. [1]
Fungsi pemekat adalah digunakan untuk
memekatkan makanan.

(iii) Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate


A27

Natrium alkilbenzena sulfonat

[1]

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Chemistry Form 5 Answers


(c) Method I:

Kaedah I:

Freezing food in a refrigerator.

Oily stains stuck onto the surface of the piece of


cloth. Soap ions move randomly in the water. [1]

[1]

Membekukan makanan dalam peti sejuk.

Tompok kotoran berminyak terlekat pada permukaan


sehelai kain. Ion-ion sabun bergerak secara rawak di
dalam air.


Explanation:

The long-chain hydrocarbon part of the soap ions


(i.e.hydrophobic part) dissolve in oil while the ionic
part, COO of soap ions (i.e. hydrophilic part)
dissolve in water. Soap ions bind the water and
oil together.
[1]

Penerangan:

All the water in the food is frozen to become ice.


The absence of water in the form of liquid retards
or prevents the growth of microorganisms.
[1]
Semua air dalam makanan itu dibekukan untuk menjadi
ais. Ketidakhadiran air dalam bentuk cecair menghalang
atau mencegah pertumbuhan mikroorganisma.

Method 2:

Drying food under the hot sun.

Explanation:

Under the hot sun, all the water in the food is


vapourised, leaving the food completely dried. The
absence of water prevents microorganisms from
growing. [1]

Kaedah II:

Bahagian hidrokarbon berantai panjang bagi ion


sabun (iaitu bahagian hidrofobik) larut dalam minyak
manakala bahagian ion, COO bagi ion sabun (iaitu
bahagian hidrofilik) larut dalam air. Ion-ion sabun
memegangkan air dan minyak bersama.

[1]

Soap ions reduce the surface tension of water.


This allows water to wet the surface of the cloth
and causes the oil to detach from the surface of
the cloth. The oil moves away from the surface
as tiny droplets.
[2]

Mengeringkan makanan di bawah matahari yang panas.


Penerangan:

Ion-ion sabun merendahkan tegangan permukaan air.


Ini membolehkan air membasahi permukaan kain dan
menyebabkan minyak tertanggal daripada permukaan
kain. Minyak bergerak menjauhi permukaan kain
sebagai titisan-titisan kecil.

Di bawah matahari panas, semua air dalam makanan


itu akan tersejat, meninggalkan makanan yang kering
sepenuhnya. Ketidakhadiran air dalam keadaan cecair
mencegah pertumbuhan mikroorganisma.

The tiny droplets of oil with negative charges on


their surfaces repel each other. This prevents
them from redepositing onto the surface of the
cloth. [1]

(Any of the two methods)

(Salah satu kaedah)

(d) A soap particle consists of two parts:

Titisan-titisan minyak kecil yang mempunyai cas-cas


negatif di permukaannya menolak satu sama lain.
Ini mencegahnya daripada terenap semula pada
permukaan kain.

Satu zarah sabun mengandungi dua bahagian:

A long chain hydrocarbon part which is


hydrophobic (i.e. soluble in fat / grease but
insoluble in water).

The oil droplets disperse in the water forming an


emulsion. Disposal of emulsified water and lather
followed by rinsing, leave the surface clean. [1]

Bahagian hidrokarbon berantai panjang yang


bersifat hidrofobik (iaitu larut dalam lemak/gris
tetapi tidak larut dalam air).

Titisan-titisan minyak ini bersebar dalam air untuk


membentuk emulsi. Pembuangan air beremulsi
dan buih-buihnya diikuti dengan pembilasan akan
menjadikan permukaannya bersih.

Ionic part COO which is hydrophilic (i.e.


soluble in water but insoluble in fat / grease).
Bahagian ion COO yang bersifat hidrofilik (iaitu
larut dalam air tetapi tidak larut dalam lemak /
gris).
[1]

An example of a soap particle is shown below:


[1]

Satu contoh zarah sabun ditunjukkan di bawah:


CH3

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

O
Hydrophobic part
Bahagian hidrofobik

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Hydrophilic part
Bahagian hidrofilik

A28