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27 Aufrufe11 Seitenhow the pollution is occured in insulator

Sep 13, 2015

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how the pollution is occured in insulator

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27 Aufrufe

how the pollution is occured in insulator

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Various Types of Long String Insulators Under

Low Atmospheric Pressure Conditions

Zhijin Zhang, Xinliang Jiang, Yafeng Chao, Ling Chen, Caixin Sun, and Jianlin Hu

of various types of porcelain, glass, and composite insulators is

investigated. It also presents analysis of the dc flashover process

of polluted insulator string at high altitude using insight from

high-speed photography. The research results indicate that the

relationship between the dc pollution flashover voltage and the

string length of insulators is basically linear, the characteristic

exponents describing the influence degree of air pressure on pollution flashover voltage vary between 0.35 and 0.77 and are related

to the insulator types and pollution degree, etc., the characteristic

exponents describing the influence degree of pollution on flashover

voltage vary between 0.24 and 0.36 and are related to the insulator

types and air pressure, etc. Based on the flashover phenomena

using the insight from high-speed photography, a new physical

model explaining the flashover mechanism for a polluted insulator

string at high altitude is introduced, which can be expressed as

an electrical circuit consisting of a surface arc of length 1 and

air-gap arc of length 2 in series with a resistance representing

the wet pollution layer. In addition, the exponent

describing

the influence degree of air pressure on flashover voltage for the

polluted insulator is discussed.

Index TermsDC, external insulation, flashover performance,

insulator string, low air pressure, pollution.

I. INTRODUCTION

NVIRONMENTAL pollution can cause the outdoor

insulators to become progressively coated with dirt and

chemicals in the long term. In the presence of wet atmospheric

conditions, the contamination particles on the insulator surface

will dissolve into the water and provide a continuous conducting path between the high-voltage electrode and ground

which makes a leakage current flow on the polluted layer of the

insulator. The formation of dry bands on the surface because

of the influence of the leakage current will result in arcing. The

arcs may suddenly elongate across the wet surface, leading to

a total flashover [1].

Manuscript received September 23, 2009; revised January 13, 2010. First

published August 23, 2010; current version published September 22, 2010.

This work was supported in part by the National Basic Research Program of

China (973 Program) (No. 2009CB724503) and in part by the foundation of

Chongqing University. Paper no. TPWRD-00714-2009.

The authors are with the State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission

Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University,

Chongqing 400044, China (e-mail: zhangzhijing@cqu.edu.cn; xljiang@cqu.

edu.cn; yfchao@cqu.edu.cn; suncx@cqu.edu.cn; hujianlin@cqu.edu.cn;

cxxxz@163.com).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2049132

lines, a great number of research on dc flashover performance

of polluted insulators has been conducted at home and abroad

[1][34]. The artificial pollution tests of HVDC insulators, initiated by CIGRE and completed with the cooperation of corresponding IEEE working groups, show that dc flashover voltage

of the polluted insulators is about 20% lower than ac flashover

voltage under the same conditions [2]. References [3] and [4]

also give similar conclusions. References [5][6][7] give the

long-term research results of operation performance of composite insulators under dc voltage, and the results show that the

peak leak current of composite insulators energized dc voltage

is obviously lower than those of energized ac. The research on

pollution accumulation conducted by Sweden ASEA Co. and

American BPA Co., etc. show that the amount of accumulated

pollution on insulator surface under dc voltage is 20% 50%

heavier than that under ac voltage under the same condition [8].

The research [9] on the polarity effect of composite insulator

conducted by French researchers shows that the difference of dc

pollution flashover voltage between negative and positive polarity is less than 3%, so the polarity effect can be neglected.

Similar results are obtained by Chongqing University in China

in [10]. Researchers have conducted dc artificial pollution tests

on different types of insulators and the results show that under

the condition of moderate pollution, the flashover voltage of

composite insulators is 30% higher than that of glass insulator

string; the more serious the pollution is, the greater superiority

of composite insulators can be shown; the composite insulators

dc pollution flashover performance is better than its ac pollution flashover performance [11], [12]. U.S. The Electric Power

Research Institute (EPRI) conducted the dc pollution flashover

tests on five types of composite insulators with different shapes

(the length is about 3.5 m). The results show that the flashover

124 kV/m when the salt deposit density (SDD)

gradient is

is

mg/cm , and the configuration of composite insulators

has a great influence on dc pollution flashover voltage [9].

As is known to all, the effect of high altitude on transmissionline insulation has considerable influence on the hardware selection and operating conditions. Several investigations, mostly

experimental [13][18], have already addressed the problem of

altitude effects on pollution flashover of high-voltage insulators. The results show that the relationship between the flashover

voltage and air pressure for polluted insulators can be expressed

as follows:

(1)

is the flashover voltage of polluted insulators at

pressure ,

101.32 kPa, and is the exnormal atmosphere pressure

ponent describing the influence degree of air pressure which, in

general, depends on the type of voltage stress, insulator profile,

and pollution severity.

Rudakova and Tikhodeev [14] reviewed the Russian literature

on the subject, including field, laboratory, and vacuum chamber

tests and found that the exponent is in the range of

for dc. The experimental results [19] of Ishii et al., which were

obtained with half-scale insulator, showed that the exponent

is 0.35 for negative dc. DC pollution tests were performed on

98.6

different types of insulators in the pressure range of

kPa, and the results showed that varies in the range of

for different pollution severity and insulator types [20]. The

is

for cap-and-pin insulators and

for

post insulators according to the experimental tests [21], [22].

Despite the aforementioned experiments, the literature on the

air pressure dependence of flashover mechanism for insulators

shows very little reported work. Some attempts to model the

flashover mechanisms on polluted insulators beginning with results obtained with arcs struck between metallic electrodes are

analyzed by Wilkins [23] and by Novak [24]. Based on revised

values for thermal properties of air at high temperature by considering the effect of ambient pressure on the physical parameters of the dielectric recovery equation, Rizk introduced the

model of altitude effects on the ac flashover of polluted highvoltage insulators [25].

The need for Chinas rapid socioeconomic development for

electrical power promotes the fast development of the electrical

power industry. The unbalanced distribution of energy and load

center promotes the constructions of long-distance bulk HVDC

power transmission projects. But two-thirds of the territory of

China is plateau and mountainous areas with an altitude that is

higher than 1 km. Besides, the pollution is another main threat to

the power system in China. So the HVDC projects in China face

the compounding effects of pollution and high altitude. With the

change of altitude/air pressure, the pollution flashover performance will be different.

For example, the 800-kV dc Yun-Guang line (from Yunnan

Province to Guangdong Province) has a 268 km run through

areas higher than 2 km, and the highest area reaches about 2.7

km and the pollution level of equivalent salt deposit density

mg/cm .

(ESDD) is about

But present research cannot provide enough references to

the construction and operation of the 800-kV HVDC line. So

knowing how to deal with the combined influence of high altitude and pollution on the flashover performance of the insulators on ultra-high voltage (UHV) dc transmission lines is a key

technical problem faced by Chinese UHV projects. To solve the

problem of the pollution flashover in order to ensure the 800

kV transmission lines safe and reliable operation, it is important

and urgent to study the pollution flashover performance of UHV

dc transmission-line insulators at high altitude sites. This paper

also presents the analysis of the dc flashover process of polluted

insulator at high altitude using insight from high-speed photography. It then introduces a new physical process to explain the

flashover performance for the polluted insulator at high altitude.

2133

A. Test Facilities

All tests were performed in the multifunction artificial climate chamber with a diameter of 7.8 m and a height of 11.6 m,

and the power supply is led by a 330-kV wall bushing. The temC by the

perature of climate chamber can be lowered to

refrigeration system, and the atmospheric pressure can be depressed to 30 kPa by vacuum pump. Furthermore, in the climate

chamber, strong ultraviolet light can be simulated, and the wind

velocity can be adjusted from 0 m/s to 12 m/s.

The dc power supply is a 600-kV/0.5-A cascade rectifying

circuit controlled by the thyristor voltage-current feedback

system which ensures that the voltage ripple factor is less than

3.0% when load current is 0.5 A, the dynamic voltage drop

is less than 5%, and the relative voltage overshoot, due to

load-release, is less than 8%. The test power supply satisfies

the requirements recommended by [26][30].

B. Test Specimens

The specimens are porcelain, glass, and composite insulators,

as shown in Fig. 1. Their main parameters are shown in Table I.

In Table I,

is the length of insulator in millimeters; is the

creepage distance in millimeters, and is the diameter of shed

in millimeters. SIR is the abbreviation of silicone rubber.

C. Test Procedures

1) Polluting Manners: Before the tests, all samples were

carefully cleaned so that all traces of dirt and grease were removed and dried naturally. For composite insulators, the surfaces of the samples were coated by a very thin layer of dry

kieselguhr to destroy the hydrophobicity which would be at the

degree of WC4 or WC5. Since the layer of kieselguhr was very

thin, the effect of the kieselguhr on the nonsoluble deposit density (NSDD) could be neglected.

The insulators were polluted by quantitative coating with

pasting method. Sodium chloride and kieselguhr were used to

simulate conductive and inert materials, respectively. First, the

required amount of sodium chloride and kieselguhr were calculated and weighed according to the specified SDD, NSDD, and

the surface areas of the specimens, and the errors of the weight

of sodium chloride and kieselguhr were less than 1% and

10%, respectively. Then, the sodium chloride and kieselguhr

were mixed to slurry with appropriate volume of deionized

. In 1 h after the pretreatment, the

water

specimens were polluted by fully stirred suspension. After 24

h of natural drying, the specimens were suspended into the

climate chamber.

It is well known that the nonuniformity between the upper

surface and the lower surface of a suspension-type insulator affects the pollution flashover voltage. The SDD and NSDD of the

upper surface are equal to that of the lower surface of all insulators in this paper.

2) Arrangement: The minimum clearances between any part

of the samples and any earthed objects met the requirements

of [31].

3) Wetting: The polluted insulators were wetted by steam

fog. The steam fog was generated by a 1.5 t/h boiler, the nozzles

2134

TABLE II

COMPARING THE RESULTS BETWEEN U AND U

than

the simulated/target value. Then, the valve of fog generator was

turned on to let the steam fog in. In order to keep the fog spray

rate at the target value, the opening degree of the valve at this

of that at normal air pressure. The

condition was

flashover test was conducted when the pressure in the chamber

reached the target value and the pollution layer was sufficiently

wetted.

4) Determination of Flashover Voltage: In this study, an

even-rising voltage method was adopted and the step-up rate

was 3 kV/s. Flashover tests were carried out on

strings

times per string at the same pollution

of insulators and

degree. The flashover voltages, whose deviation was less than

10% compared to the mean value of those flashover voltages,

was defined as valid flashover voltages. The average value of

valid flashover voltage was defined as average flashover voltage

at that pollution degree

of insulator string

(2)

Fig. 1. Profiles of test insulators. (a) Type A: XP-160. (b) Type B: XZP-210.

(c) Type C: LXZP-210. (d) Type D: LXZP-300. (e) Type E: FXBW-500/160.

(f) Type F: FXBZ- 800/400.

TABLE I

PARAMETERS OF INSULATORS

between them was greater than 3.5 m. The input rate of fog is

, and the temperature in the chamber was

C

C. The wetness degree of the

controlled between

pollution layer on the insulators was determined by measuring

the layer conductivity. The test voltage was applied to the samples immediately when the conductivity reached the maximum

value.

The input of steam fog would raise the air pressure in the

chamber, and the air pressure difference between the inside and

the outside of chamber would accelerate the rate of input of fog,

so the following measures were taken when testing dc pollution

flashover performance of the insulator string under lower air

pressure:

(3)

where

is the average flashover voltage of the insulator (in

kilovolts), is the pollution flashover voltage for the time (in

kilovolts), is the number of valid flashover voltages, and

is the relative standard deviation of the test results.

To evaluate the method, the up and down method was also

used in this paper with the voltage step being 5% of the ex, and the results are shown

pected 50% withstand voltage

in Table II.

and

of the inThe conclusions can be drawn that the

is

sulator decrease with the increase of SDD and the value of

higher, about 4 6% than that of

under the same conditions.

Numerous experimental results indicate that the relationship

between the dc pollution flashover voltage and SDD can be expressed as follows [2][12]:

(4)

where is the coefficient that is related to the insulator types,

materials, air pressure and voltage types; SDD is the salt deposit

density mg/cm ; is the characteristic exponent describing the

influence degree of SDD on pollution flashover voltage and it

is related to the insulator types, air pressure, and voltage types,

etc.

2135

TABLE III

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DC POLLUTION FLASHOVER VOLTAGE (U ) AND STRING LENGTH ( )

TABLE IV

POLLUTION FLASHOVER VOLTAGES OF INSULATORS AT LOW AIR PRESSURE

are 0.29 and 0.30 for the even-rising voltage method and up

and down method, respectively. Thus, according to the results

of these two test methods, the change law of the

or

on

the SDD is basically identical. The even-rising voltage method

was applied because of its high efficiency in this paper.

III. DC POLLUTION FLASHOVER PERFORMANCE OF INSULATOR

STRINGS UNDER LOW AIR PRESSURE

A. Test Results

The dc pollution flashover performances of various insulators were investigated according to the aforementioned test processes; the results are shown in Tables III and IV.

The conclusions according to Tables III and IV are as follows.

1) The dispersion of the test results is small and the relative

of these results are all less than

standard deviations

7%.

with an increase of SDD and a decrease of air pressure.

3) With the increase of SDD, the influence of air pressure on

dc pollution flashover voltage of the insulator is reduced.

Take the string of 21 units XP-160 (Type A), for example,

Table IV, the air pressure decrease from 98.6 kPa to

are 44.1 kV

70.1 kPa, the decreasing amplitudes of

and 18.4 kV when SDD is

mg/cm and SDD is

0.15 mg/cm , respectively.

4) There is a nearly linear relation between

and the

insulator string length up to 21 units at high altitude.

The reason is that the polluted insulator string can be

equivalent to series resistances under dc voltage, and

the resistance performance of the polluted insulators is

mainly determined by the resistance of the surface pollution layer which depends on the physical properties of

the contaminants themselves; it is not related to the air

pressure.

2136

: mg/cm . (b)

= 0 03

P=P

(a) SDD

98.6 kPa. (b) P

70.1 kPa.

SDD (a) P

TABLE V

VALUES OF U AND n FOR VARIOUS INSULATORS UNDER DIFFERENT SDD

flashover voltage, Type B is the smallest and type A is the

greatest.

C. Relationship Between the Flashover Voltage and Pollution

The general conclusion is that dc and ac discharge voltage

of the polluted insulators decreases with the decrease of the air

pressure. Fitting the test results in Table IV with (1), the fitting

curves are shown in Fig. 2, and the values of and for various

insulators under different SDDs are shown in Table V.

The conclusions according to Fig. 2 and Table V are as follows.

and is related to insulator

1) The value of is

types and SDD.

severity as shown in Table IV. DC pollution flashover voltage

decreases with the increase of pollution degree.

Fitting the test results in Table IV according to (4), the values

of and of various insulators under different air pressures are

shown in Table VI and the fitting curves are shown in Fig. 3.

The conclusions according to Fig. 3 and Table VI are as

follows.

1) The value of of dc pollution flashover voltage is

.

2) The value of is related to air pressure and decreases with

the decrease of air pressure. The reason is that there is a

phenomenon of arc floating during the process of dc pollution flashover, and the higher the altitude/lower air pressure

is, the heavier the arc floating will occur (i.e., the greater

proportion of air-gap arcs in partial arcs will be. The performance difference of the air-gap arcs and surface arcs

makes the characteristic exponent decrease.

2137

TABLE VI

FITTING VALUE OF A, b ACCORDING TO THE TEST RESULTS OF WITH (4)

(SDD = 0:05 mg/cm ) .

0 05 mg/cm ).

Table VI, for the influence degree of pollution on the dc

pollution flashover voltage, Type B is the largest and Type

F is the smallest. It means that type F is superior in the

heavy polluted locations because of composite insulators

under pollution condition arising from the smaller diameter

of the sheds which, in turn, limits the leakage current.

Definine the insulators creepage flashover gradient as the

to the creepage distance

ratio of pollution flashover voltage

, namely,

, define the insulators string length

flashover gradient as the ratio of pollution flashover voltage

to the length of insulator , namely,

. The

and

of various types polluted insulators are shown in Figs. 4 and

5 according to the test results and the basic technical parameters

of the insulators in Table I.

The conclusions according to Figs. 4 and 5 are as follows: The

and

are different for various types of insulators. Under

the same pollution degree and the same pressure, the

and

of the composite insulators is higher than that of the porcelain and the glass insulators. Type E has the maximal creepage

flashover gradient, which indicates that the utilization rate of the

leakage distance of this composite insulator is the best.

IV. DC FLASHOVER PROCESS OF THE POLLUTED INSULATOR

AT HIGH ALTITUDE

To reveal the question as to how air pressure affects the dc

pollution flashover performance of the insulator string, the dc

at high altitude is obtained through the high-speed framing

camera of HG-100 K while setting the imaging rate 1000

frames/s, as shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6 shows that the dc flashover process of the polluted insulator string at high altitude includes four stages as follows: 1)

wetness of the contamination layer on the insulator surface, 2)

formation of dry bands, 3) burning and elongate of the partial

arc, and 4) finally flashover. The phenomenon of extinguishing

and re-burning the arc is not evident during the process of dc

partial arc elongation.

Some of the partial arcs may deviate from the surface of polluted insulator string at high altitude and form the air-gap arc,

which may become more serious with the increment of altitude.

That is to say, the partial arcs include two main parts: air-gap

arc and surface arc during the flashover process for the polluted

insulator string at high altitude.

The existence of the air-gap arc during the flashover process

for the polluted insulator string at high altitude makes the distance of discharge path shorter than the total leakage distance of

the insulator string. It takes about 6 s from the burning of partial arc to flashover for the 5-unit XP-160 insulator string at the

air pressure of 63.6 kPa, that is to say, the average propagation

velocity of the partial arc is lower than 10 m/s at high altitude.

According to the aforementioned insight of the dc flashover

process of polluted insulator at high altitude from high-speed

photography, the physical flashover process of the polluted insulator string at high altitude can be simply described, as shown

in Fig. 7.

Based on the Obenaus model, a new physical model explaining the flashover mechanism for polluted insulator at high

altitude can be put forward in this paper. It can be simply exand

pressed as a circuit consisting of a surface arc of length

in series with a resistance representing

air-gap arc of length

the wet pollution layer supplied by a constant voltage.

In order to reveal the mechanisms underlying the decrease in

flashover voltage of an insulator at high altitude, the air-gap arc

and surface arc characteristics at high altitude (especially the

difference between them, which had been mentioned by D.A.

Swift in his discussion of [25]) must be determined.

Many studies have been carried out to determine the arc characteristics [23][25], [32][34]. The voltage gradient-current

2138

Fig. 6. Pollution flashover process of five units of XP-160 (P = 63:6 kPa; SDD = 0:05 mg/cm ).

dc air-gap arc characteristics at low air pressure and obtained the

characteristics as follows [35]:

Negative

(8)

flashover process at high altitude with a static voltage is given

(9)

can be expressed as follows:

(5)

is the voltage gradient along arc (in volts per cenwhere

timeter; is the current through arc (in amperes); is the air

pressure corresponding to determine the arc characteristics (in

is the normal atmosphere pressure

101.32 kPa;

kPa);

, , and are the constants of the arc characteristics.

Using a plane triangular glass sample, we investigated the

dc flashover on a polluted surface under high altitude conditions and obtained the surface arc characteristics shown as follows [35]:

Positive arc

(6)

Negative arc

(7)

leakage current passing through the polluted insulator string;

is the surface resistance of the pollution layer;

is the length

is the length of the air-gap arc; is the

of the surface arc;

,

,

length of residual pollution layer of insulator string;

and

are the constants of the surface arc characteristics;

,

, and

are the constants of the air-gap arc characteristics

represents the electrode fall voltage. The total length of

and

, , and

is shorter than the total leakage distance

of

units of the insulator string.

The surface resistance of the pollution layer is

(10)

where

is the equivalent diameter of the polluted insulator

is the surface conductivity. The equivalent diameter of

and

the insulator, which is expressed in centimeters, is defined [33]

as

(11)

where is the form factor of the insulator and

of units in an insulator string

is the number

(12)

2139

where

is the insulator diameter as a function of the position

on the insulator.

Usually, it is very difficult to obtain the general solution of a

multiple power function. To reveal the flashover mechanism of

the polluted insulator string, the best approach is to discuss the

extreme condition.

0)

1) Suppose the partial arcs are all surface arcs (i.e.,

during the flashover process for the polluted insulator string at

high altitude. Then, (9) can be changed as follows:

TABLE VII

VALUES OF CUR

at high altitude, the air-gap arc and surface arc may occur at the

same time. Thus, the exponent describing the influence degree

of air pressure is

(13)

(22)

Suppose is constant, using

, the minimum

to maintain an arc with certain length can be devoltage

rived. When

0.50,

0.52,

0.92,

Taking

into (22), the following can be reached:

0.28 [35],

(23)

(14)

(15)

, the critical arc length

From

by numerical solution

can be obtained

(16)

Thus, it can be seen that the exponent describing the influence degree of air pressure is in the range of 0.33 0.72 according to (23). The value of depends on the ratio of the length

of the air-gap arc to the length of the surface arc during the

flashover process for the polluted insulator string at high altitude. The main reason that makes the of insulators different is

the partial arc fluttering degree difference for insulators.

V. DETERMINATION OF STRING LENGTH

-KV UHV LINE

ON

are

on insulators in service is uneven. So the experimental results

should be corrected [9] by

(17)

(24)

(18)

Equation (18) shows that the exponent describing the influence degree of air pressure is

under the condition.

0)

2) Suppose the partial arcs are all air-gap arcs (i.e.,

during the flashover process for the polluted insulator string at

high altitude. Then, (9) can be changed as follows:

the value of takes 0.38 according to major experiences in the

is the pollution uneven coefficient which is defined

world;

as the ratio of SDD on the upper shed surface to that on the lower

are shown in Table VII.

shed surface The values of

For the 800-kV dc UHV transmission line, its rating voltage

is 800 kV and its maximum operating voltage

is

816 kV. Considering the dispersion and certain safety margin,

the target withstand voltage of its suspension insulator string is

(19)

where is the ratio of the distance of the discharge path to the

total leakage distance of insulator strings and

.

Using the aforementioned method, the critical current and

critical flashover voltage can be obtained as follows:

(25)

where is the standard deviation of experimental results, and

takes 7% according to the design and operation experience.

is 1033 kV. Experimental

So the target withstand voltage

research results show that the discrepancy of average flashover

voltage and 50% flashover voltage is a standard deviation.

(20)

A. String Length for the Porcelain or Glass Insulator

ence degree of air pressure is

(21)

If the porcelain or glass insulator is used in the 800-kV transmission line, the number of insulator units can be determined by

(26)

2140

TABLE VIII

NUMBER OF SUSPENSION INSULATOR UNITS OBTAINED BY EXPERIMENT

3)

TABLE IX

STRING LENGTH OF THE INSULATOR OBTAINED BY EXPERIMENT (in meters)

4)

5)

6)

where

is the average flashover voltage of the insulator

is the string length; and it

per unit obtained by experiment;

takes the minimum integer larger than or equal to the calculated

result depending on whether the calculated result is decimal. So

according to the experimental results, the number of insulator

units for the 800-kV line is shown in Table VIII.

B. String Length for Composite Insulator

If the composite insulator is used in the 800-kV transmission line, the sting length of insulator can be determined by

(27)

is the insulators string length flashover grawhere

dient by experiment, and is the string length (in meters). So

according to the experimental results, the string length for the

800-kV line is shown in Table IX.

According to the calculation results, the string length is about

10.88 m for XZP-210 or 8.43 m for the composite insulator

in the regions with an air pressure of 89.8 kPa (about height

mg/cm . The

altitude of 1000 m) and below and the SDD of

composite insulator has advantages in the selection of external

insulation in heavy pollution areas.

VI. CONCLUSION

Based on the dc pollution flashover performance tests performed on different types of porcelain, glass long insulator

strings, and the composite long-rod insulator in an artificial climate chamber where high altitude was simulated, conclusions

are obtained as follows.

1) From the viewpoint of engineering applications, the relationship between pollution flashover voltage of the insulator under high-altitude conditions and string length is ba.

sically linear when

2) DC pollution flashover voltage decreases with the increase of pollution level, and the characteristic exponent

7)

flashover voltage is related to insulator type, air pres, the values of are

sure, etc. For the types of

,

,

,

,

, and

, respectively.

DC pollution flashover voltage decreases with the decrease

of air pressure, and the characteristic exponent describing

the influence degree of air pressure on pollution flashover

voltage is related to insulator type, pollution degree, etc.

, the values of are

,

For the types of

,

,

,

, and

, respectively.

The influence degree of pollution and air pressure on the dc

flashover voltage of the insulator is related to the material

of the insulator. The composite insulator has advantages in

the selection of external insulation in heavy pollution areas.

From the dc flashover process of the polluted insulator at

high altitude by a high-speed photograph, it can be obviously seen that the partial arcs include two main parts: 1)

air gap arc and 2) surface arc.

A new physical model explaining the flashover mechanism

of the polluted insulator at high altitude is introduced by

and

using a circuit consisting of a surface arc of length

air-gap arc of length

in series with a resistance representing the wet pollution layer supplied by a constant

voltage.

deAccording to mathematic solution, the exponent

scribing the influence degree of air pressure is given,

. The value of

which is in the range of

depends on the ratio of the length of air to the length of

surface arc during the flashover process for the polluted

insulator string at high altitude.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

insulation research team in Chongqing University for their hard

work to obtain the experimental data in this paper.

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in 1976. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D.

degrees from Chongqing University, Chongqing,

China, in 1999, 2002, and 2007 respectively.

Currently, he is an Associate Pofessor of the

College of Electrical Engineering at Chongqing

University, Chonqing, China. His main research

interests include high voltage, external insulation,

numerical modeling, and simulation. He is the author

or coauthor of several technical papers.

on July 31, 1961. He received the M.Sc. and Ph.

D. degrees from Chongqing University, Chonqing,

China, in 1988 and 1997, respectively.

His employment experiences include the

Shaoyang Glass Plant, Shaoyang; Hunan Province;

Wuhan High Voltage Research Institute, Wuhan

Hubei Province; and College of Electrical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing China.

His special fields of interest include high-voltage

external insulation, transmission lines icing and

protection. He published his first monograph-Transmission Lines Icing and

Protection in 2001, and has published more than 80 papers about his professional work. He received the Second-Class Reward for Science and Technology

Advancement from the Ministry of Power in 1995; Beijing Government in

1998; Ministry of Education in 1991 and 2001, respectively; the First-Class

Reward for Science and Technology Advancement from the Ministry of Power

in 2004; the Third-Class Reward for Science and Technology Advancement

from the Ministry of Power in 2005; the Second-Class Reward for Science

and Technology Advancement from the Ministry of Technology in 2005; the

First-Class Reward for Science and Technology Advancement from Ministry

of Education in 2007; and the First-Class Reward for Science and Technology

Advancement from Chongqing City in 2007.

on February 19, 1982. He received the M.Sc. degree

from Chongqing University, Chonqing, China, in

2008, and is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree

in the College of Electric Engineering, Chongqing

University, Chonqing, China.

His main research interests include high-voltage

technology, external insulation, and transmission-line icing. He is the author or coauthor of

several technical papers.

November 1982. He received the B.Sc. degree

from Harbin University of Science and Technology,

Harbin, China in 2005 and the M.Sc. degree from

Xihua University, Sichuan, China, in 2008, and is

currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in the College

of Electric Engineering, Chongqing University,

Chonqing.

His research interests include high voltage and

transmission-line icing and deicing.

2142

Caixin Sun was born in Chongqing, China, on December 13, 1944. He graduated from Chongqing University, Chonqing.

Currently, he is Professor and Doctorate Advisor

of the College of Electrical Engineering, Chongqing

University. His current research includes electrical

external insulation technology in complex climatic

environments, online detection of insulation condition, and insulation fault diagnosis for high-voltage

apparatus and high voltage techniques applied in

biomedicine.

Mr. Sun is a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering.

in January 1978. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc.

degrees from Chongqing University, Chongqing,

China, in 2001 and 2003, respectively, where he is

currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree.

He has been a Teacher in the College of Electrical

Engineering, Chongqing University, since 2003. His

main research interests include high-voltage external

insulation.

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