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HTM209 Hospitality

Operations Management
Semester Two - 2014

HTM 209 Hospitality


Operations Management

Tutor : Julian Galt


Room : B2-24

E mail : julianv.galt@sit.ac.nz

HTM209 Operations Delivery:


Managing Project Operations

The nature of
planning and
control
Planning and
control

The market
requires products
and services delivered to
requested time, quantity
and quality

The operation
supplies... delivered
products and services

Direct

Design

Operations
management

Deliver

Develop

Organised or not???

In your groups consider, discuss and prepare


to report on the following;

To what extent do you plan your work or other


activities? Identify examples of things you plan for?

Are your plans written or unwritten?


What steps do you take to manage your plan to
ensure it works out as intended?
If you want to manage your own plans, what
approaches could you use to keep things on track?

Which of these strategies do you think would be


most effective for giving a good result?

Planning and Control

Planning

Control

A record of what is intended to happen at some


future time; an intention, but not guaranteed
Addresses the changes in circumstances that
arise during plan implementation

Control Activities

Adjustments made to get a plan back on track,


in order to achieve the plan objectives

Planning and Control

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Workplace Projects#1

In your groups consider, discuss and prepare


to report on the following;

Staff frequently get asked to contribute to a


project team

What reasons may your employer have for


implementing a project rather than using
usual operational processes?

In the hospitality industry what are some


examples of project operations that you may
encounter?

Project
Management

Direct

Design
Project
management
The market requires
specified time, quality and
cost of a project

The operation supplies..

the delivery of the project ontime, on-specification and to


budget

Figure 16.1 This chapter covers project planning and control

Operations
management

Deliver

Develop

Workplace Projects#2

In your groups consider, discuss and prepare


to report on the following;

If your employer asked you to plan a one-off expoevent to take place in your hotel conference facility,
in order to promote tourism in the region

What information and resources would you need


to have in order to plan your event?

What would you do to ensure the project


proceeded according to plan?
In what ways would this operation be different to
business as usual operations?

Operations vs. Projects


Operations:
Repetitive
Ongoing
Evolutionary change
Stable resources
Balanced objectives
Processes based on;

Roles
Experience
Efficiency
Stability

Projects:
Unique
Finite
Revolutionary change
Transient resources
Unbalanced objectives
Processes based on;

Goals
Risk and uncertainty
Effectiveness
Flexibility

Project
Management;
What is the purpose?
What is the scope of the work to be
completed?
How is the project to be organised
what are the requirements?

How much time, and how managed?


What is the cost, and how managed?
What represents quality? What is
expected? Assessment criteria?

Definition and Planning...#1


With reference to the text, pages 497-499...
Explain the Typology of Projects diagram in
Figure 16.2, on page 498
Despite the differences, projects have five key
elements in common

With reference to page 497, identify and


briefly explain these, and illustrate with a
suitable example from the service /
hospitality sector

Stages in project management


Stage
1

Stage
2

Stage
3

Understanding
the project
environment
Changes
Project definition

Project planning

Corrective

action
Stage
4

Technical
execution

Figure 16.3 The project management model

Stage
5
Project control

The project environment


The project environment consists of all the factors that
can affect the project
Econo-political
environment
Economy
Government

Geo-social
environment
Geography
National culture
The Project

Business
environment
Customers
Competitors
Suppliers/subcontractors

Internal
environment
Company strategy
Resources
Other projects

Matrix management in projects


Matrix management structures often result in staff reporting to more
than one project manager as well as their own department...
Full-time equivalent
resource
Reporting
relationship
Project A

Project B

Department
1

Department Department
2
3

How projects can be defined


Project
strategy

Project
scope

The project
Phase 1

Phase 3

Phase 4
Phase 2

Milestones

Project
objectives

Definition and Planning...#2


With reference to the text, pages 504-506...
Explain the dynamic relationship between
the three key project objectives of;

Time

Cost
Quality

Then define...

Project scope
Project strategy, including milestones and
stagegates

The three project objectives of quality,


cost and time
Quality
New aircraft
project

Music festival
Fixed-grant
research project

Cost
Figure 16.5 The project objectives triangle

Time

Projects and Planning


The Millau Bridge;
With reference to the text, page 496...

What factors made the Millau bridge a


particularly complex project?

What factors contributed to uncertainty in the


project and how might these factors have
been dealt with?
Why was the rigour et convivialit regarded
as being so important to the success of the
project?

Projects and Planning: The Millau Bridge;


What factors made the Millau bridge a particularly
complex project?

First of all, the sheer scale of the project made it


complex.
Second, it was a public project with significant public
funding and therefore both popular and political
attention focussed on it.
Third, with any outdoor project of this kind, the weather
and its unpredictability can have a significant effect on
how the project is managed in detail. More than
anything though, the project used pioneering methods
of construction. Usually, pioneering means uncertain
and risky.

Projects and Planning: The Millau Bridge;


What factors contributed to uncertainty in the project
and how might these factors have been dealt with?

Some factors of uncertainty are described above.

The political uncertainty would have need very careful


stakeholder management as would relationships with local
communities.

Weather- related uncertainty is more difficult to cope with


but weather forecasts will have played a large part in
project planning.

The main method of dealing with the uncertainty around


the pioneering construction methods would have involved
both pilot testing and the establishing of detailed
contingency plans.

Projects and Planning: The Millau Bridge;


Why was the rigour et convivialit** regarded as
being so important to the success of the project?

Such an approach would have been particularly useful


because of the disparate nature of the work force and
the fact that it was in place for a long period.

It also enabled the very large site to be divided into


more manageable units with staff being able to feel
part of a relatively small team.
Certainly, any construction project of this type where
industrial relations are poor is very unlikely to finish on
time or on budget.
** Rigorous quality and friendly cooperation

Projects and Planning...


Stakeholders...;
With reference to the text, pages 501 - 503...; discuss
note and prepare to report;

What is a project stakeholder; and why is communication


with stakeholders important?
Who are the main stakeholders in your BHM project at
SIT? Where would you locate the most important 2-3 on the
power-interest grid on p503?

If a motel business on Tay Street purchased a neighbouring


property for the purpose of removing the house and building
a new accommodation block,

Who would the main stakeholders be?

Which of these would have the greatest power and interest?

How should they be managed?

The stakeholder powerinterest grid


High

Keep satisfied

Manage closely

Monitor

Keep informed

Stakeholder
power

Low

Low

Stakeholder interest

Figure 16.4 The stakeholder powerinterest grid

High

Definition and Planning...:


The National Trust Workhouse Project
With reference to the text, pages 503-504...

Who do you think were the main stakeholders for the


Workhouse project?

How might not involving them damage the project?

How would involving them benefit the project?

To what extent were the key project objectives


accomplished?

How projects are planned


Identify activities
Estimate time and resources
Identify relationships and dependencies
Identify schedule constraints

Fix the schedule

So, how do we manage this...?


Plan

Do

Project Charter
Scope Statement
Work Breakdown
Monitor against baseline plan
Monitor cost vs. budget; time against schedule
Monitor against product specification

Manage performance and progress


Control Document and agree all changes to baseline

Project Planning & Monitoring


Tools
Statement of Work
Work Breakdown Structure
PERT/CPM Diagram
Resource Leveling Software
Gantt Charts
Human Resource Matrix

Cost/Schedule Integration Graphs

Stages in the project planning process

Adjust as
necessary
Identify
the
activities
in the
project

Estimate
the times
and
resources
for
activities

Figure 16.6 Stages in the planning process

Identify the
relationships
and
dependencies
between the
activities

Identify
time and
resource
schedule
constraints

Fix the
schedule
for time
and
resources

Definition and Planning...#3


With reference to the text, pages 505-510...

Note the key purposes of project planning

Figure 16.6 identifies what should happen at each


project planning stage. For each of these stages
record how this may be achieved...;

Identify project activities

Estimate times and resource


Identify dependencies
Identify schedule constraints
Fix the schedule

Definition and Planning...#3-A


With reference to the text, pages 505-510...

Note the key purposes of project planning

Decides project cost and duration

Identifies resource needs

Allocates work and provides base for monitoring


progress
Enables assessment of impact of project changes

Definition and Planning...#3-B


With reference to the text, pages 505-510...
Figure 16.6 identifies what should happen at each project planning stage.
For each of these stages record how this may be achieved...;

Identify project activities break project into parts, and subdivide


these into work packages; each with time cost quality requirements.
This is the Work breakdown structure (WBS)

Estimate times and resource Identify time and resource


requirements of each work package. May range from optimistic to
expected, to pessimistic times

Identify dependencies Some activities need to be in particular


order, and tasks cannot start till others are completed; dependent
relationship. Others are independent

Identify schedule constraints Project requirements are compared


with available resources. Projects may be resource constrained, not
exceeding available resources, or time constrained, time is priority...

Fix the schedule In accordance with project objectives

Work breakdown structure


Serve breakfast in
bed

Produce
glass of
orange
drink

Obtain
juice

Produce
boiled
egg in
egg cup

Obtain
glass

Produce
boiled
egg

Obtain
egg

Obtain
egg
cup

Produce
buttered
toast

Produce
toast

Obtain
bread
Obtain
water

Figure 16.7 A work breakdown structure for a simple domestic project

Obtain
butter

Arrange
tray

Obtain
plates
and
cutlery

Obtain
tray

Making breakfast do activities at earliest time


Time (mins)
0

Orange
Bread

Toast

Activities requiring
operator time

Butter

Boil egg

Boil water

Water

Bed room

Staff required

Tray

4
3
2

1
0 0

Time (mins)
Figure 16.9 Initial project plan for a simple project, with resources

Making breakfast minimizing staff requirements


Time (mins)
0

Orange
Bread
Water

Toast

Activities requiring
operator time

Butter

Boil water

Bed room

Boil egg

Staff required

Tray

4
3
2
1
0 0

Time (mins)
Figure 16.10 Revised plan with levelled resources

Making breakfast minimizing staff requirements (Cont)


Time (mins)
0

Orange
Bread

Toast

Boil water

Water

Butter

Boil egg

Bed room

Staff required

Tray

4
3

Activities requiring
operator time

2
1
0 0

Time (mins)
Figure 16.11 Revised plan with levelled resources and warm toast

Work breakdown structure (Continued)


Work breakdown structure for a project to design an information
interface for a new sales knowledge management system in an
insurance company.
Design information
interface for new sales
knowledge management
system

Training

Form and
train user
group

Specify
sales
training

Installation

Install
systems

Design
initial
screen
interface

Testing

Test
interface
in pilot
area

Modify
interface

Gantt charts
A Gantt chart for the project to design an information
interface for a new sales knowledge management system in
an insurance company
Activity
a Form and train user group
b Install systems
c Specify sales training

d Design initial screen interface


e Test interface in pilot area
f Modify interface
0

10

20
30
40
Time (days)

50

60

Project lifecycle example; house


extension

Management
and Control
Work Breakdown
Structure
(WBS)

Hierarchical breakdown

Ref: Larsen, E. & Gray C. (2011). Project


management.. New York. USA. McGraw-Hill
Companies Inc.

WBS, and costing house


project...;

Ref: Burke, R. (2007). Introduction to


project management. UK. Burke
Publishing

Once you have the work broken


down (WBS)...
Project Deliverable

Sub-deliverable
Work-packages

...you can then decide;

Who will do the work for each...

How long to spend on each one

What the budget for each part will be

You are then able to control these within your Baseline Plan...

Create a WBS using the following


template
Discuss and develop this in your groups...;

Apply this to a simple plan for a new service or product

Identify the service / product at Level 1, main deliverables at


Level 2, and the key work packages at Level 3...

WBS template;
1

Why work in this way..?


In your groups, consider and come up with four
reasons and advantages to a project manager, of
breaking the project down in this way...;
Reason
1
2
3
4

Advantage