Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components

Contents

1

2

Introduction and General .................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Establishing of a Eurocode on Structural Glass ............................................................ 1

1.2

Eurocode rules applicable to glass structures............................................................... 3

1.3

Structuring of the Eurocode .......................................................................................... 6

Material properties ............................................................................................................ 15
2.1

Glass .......................................................................................................................... 15

2.1.1

General ............................................................................................................... 15

2.1.2

Characteristics of annealed glass ........................................................................ 15

2.1.3

Toughened glass................................................................................................. 20

2.1.4

Breakage pattern................................................................................................. 21

2.1.5

Definition of the zones 1 to 4 ............................................................................... 23

2.1.6

Test methods according to EN 1288 ................................................................... 25

2.1.7

Statistical evaluation of the bending strength ...................................................... 27

2.1.8

Quality control by non-destructive methods, stress optics ................................... 28

2.2

Interlayer .................................................................................................................... 28

2.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 28

2.2.2

Viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ................................................................... 28

2.2.3

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour with “small size” tests ...................... 29

2.2.4

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour in the panel-torsion-test................... 30

2.2.5

Durability of PVB interlayer ................................................................................. 33

2.2.6
Design shear modulus of PVB- interlayer in dependence of temperature and time
during wind loading ........................................................................................................... 34
3

Products ........................................................................................................................... 39
3.1

General ...................................................................................................................... 39

3.2

Float glass.................................................................................................................. 40

3.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 40

3.2.2

Geometrical properties ........................................................................................ 40

3.2.3

Surface processing ............................................................................................. 41

3.2.4

Forming ............................................................................................................... 41

3.3

Patterned glass .......................................................................................................... 42

3.4

Wired glass ................................................................................................................ 43

3.5

Drawn sheet glass ...................................................................................................... 43

3.6

Thermally toughened glass (TTG) .............................................................................. 43

3.7

Heat strengthened glass (HSG) ................................................................................. 46

3.8

Laminated and laminated safety glass ....................................................................... 47
Page I

................................................. 79 5....................................................................................... 61 4.5....................... 101 6............3 Supports and bearing concept.....................................5 Further general construction rules ..........................4 Mechanical description of the viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers .............. 51 3..... 63 4.................................... 94 6...................................................................................3...............................5.................................................................................................................. 80 5.......................5 Embedded systems ....................... 93 6..6 Page II Glass Floors .......5................................................. 100 6..1 General ....................................... 66 4.......5 Point fixed glazing ......................................3...........3 Secondary structural elements: robustness and residual capacity .................................................................. 62 4................. 89 Design of secondary structural glass components ...........................................................5 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal or axial loading .................................................................. 108 6............................................. 83 5.............5.............................. 70 4.......................................................1 Seismic structures .......................................3.....................1 General .....................................10 Chemically strengthened glass .........................................................................................................7 Post-glass breakage strength of laminated glass ................................ 81 5..............2 Classification of structural elements of glass .......................... 52 Principles and Basic Rules for the design of glass components and safety approach ..... 98 6........5....................................................................................2 Consideration of the shear bond of laminated glass panels ....... 55 4........ 55 4.....................3 Plates with monolithic sections of glass under transverse loading .....................................................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 4 3......................... 51 3.........2 Blast loads ..... 65 4. 88 5..............5 Special loading situations .....................1 General ................................................................... 79 5..................................2 Clamping systems ........................12 Channel shaped glass ..........................3 Point fixings with drilled holes.................. 68 4.. 108 ....................... 100 6.................. 74 5 Mechanical basics and verification approach for monolithic and laminated plates and beams ..........3..............................................5.............................. 79 6 5................4 Adhesively bonded point fixings ................... 62 4......................11 Insulating glass .........................................................1 Calculation of monolithic plates ................................................... 50 3............1 General ..............6 Potential classification of glass components .....................................3 Insulating glass plates ...........................4 Linearly supported glazing.................................................... 63 4........................................... 93 6.... 107 6......................9 Thermally curved glass ....................................... 68 4................................ 93 6.............................................................................................................................................................4 Primary structural elements: glass-robustness and damage tolerance .......... 62 4..2 Linear and non-linear plate theory ................................8 Numerical analysis and experimental testing .................................................3................................................................................6 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal loading without axial load 85 5.....................................................................................................5...................................2 Composition and strength of the glass section ..4 Failure scenario...................................................................................................................... 102 6.................................

.... 160 8. 159 8.... 119 7...................................... 126 7............................................................ 171 8......2 Analytical verification of a bolted connection in glass ................1 General .................................6 Hybrid structures and hybrid glass components with enhanced pre..4...............1 Monolithic sections .........................................4.....................2 Consistent buckling curves for monolithic pane-like glass columns .......3 Influence of the connection stiffness....................... 151 7................................ 171 8................2.......2 Lateral torsional buckling of glass beams with laminated cross sections ..............4 Columns ................8 Retaining Glass Barriers and Glass Parapets.............................. 136 7..... 126 7................................................................. 146 7...................................4 Adhesive bonding ......................................................................... 116 6................................and post-failure performance ..1 Detailing of a structural bolted connection of bolts in shear in glass holes ..... 175 8...............................2...................................................................................... 110 6......................................... 151 8 Joints and Connections ........................2 Buckling of continuously supported shear panels ......................................................... 110 6...... 173 8.....8 Conclusions ..2....... 150 7.... 159 8..................7 Horizontal Glazing accessible for maintenance ....................................................................2.........................................................................4 Buckling of columns with laminated sections ...........5 Critical load of laminated bars under axial loads with blocked end slip ........4......................3 Present state of standardization .........................................4......................4 Current research .............................................................4................................. 118 Design of primary structural components ..........................2.....................................................................................................3 Experimental tests of monolithic glass columns.............................3 Friction Joints ...6 Interaction of axial loads with bending moments ........ 120 7.............................. 128 7...........................5 Beam-columns .................... 150 7.... 161 8............. 126 7............................................2.....................7 Consideration of short term – long term loading effects on the stability ..................................9 Cold bent glass ..................................................................4..... 136 7............................................................ 168 8....2 Bolted connections ...............................................................................11 Reinforced glass components with enhanced redundancy ..................................4.........4. 140 7...........................................................4.......... 150 7....................1 Buckling of shear panels with single point load introduction at the corners along the diagonal (corner loaded shear panels) .....................4................................4................................1 General ......................3 Beams with bending about the strong axis – Lateral torsional buckling ................................. 119 7...................................................................2..... 120 7.....................2 Shear panels .............................................................................3................ 159 8.... 177 Page III .........................3..................................................3 Elastic response of an in-plane loaded solid pane ..........................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 7 6.............................. 124 7...................10 Glass in Photovoltaic applications (PV modules) .1 General .............. 169 8................................................2 Types of adhesive ............................. 160 8..................... 117 6...........1 General ................................................................................4..................................... 137 7.....................4 Approximation and engineering formula ............................................................................ 143 7.............

............................. 183 Page IV ............... 178 8..................................................................................... 181 10 References ................................................................5 Proposals for the calculation ..... 178 9 Concluding Remarks .......Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 8...6 Future prospects .......................................4.........................................4............................................................................................................

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