Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components

Contents

1

2

Introduction and General .................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Establishing of a Eurocode on Structural Glass ............................................................ 1

1.2

Eurocode rules applicable to glass structures............................................................... 3

1.3

Structuring of the Eurocode .......................................................................................... 6

Material properties ............................................................................................................ 15
2.1

Glass .......................................................................................................................... 15

2.1.1

General ............................................................................................................... 15

2.1.2

Characteristics of annealed glass ........................................................................ 15

2.1.3

Toughened glass................................................................................................. 20

2.1.4

Breakage pattern................................................................................................. 21

2.1.5

Definition of the zones 1 to 4 ............................................................................... 23

2.1.6

Test methods according to EN 1288 ................................................................... 25

2.1.7

Statistical evaluation of the bending strength ...................................................... 27

2.1.8

Quality control by non-destructive methods, stress optics ................................... 28

2.2

Interlayer .................................................................................................................... 28

2.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 28

2.2.2

Viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ................................................................... 28

2.2.3

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour with “small size” tests ...................... 29

2.2.4

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour in the panel-torsion-test................... 30

2.2.5

Durability of PVB interlayer ................................................................................. 33

2.2.6
Design shear modulus of PVB- interlayer in dependence of temperature and time
during wind loading ........................................................................................................... 34
3

Products ........................................................................................................................... 39
3.1

General ...................................................................................................................... 39

3.2

Float glass.................................................................................................................. 40

3.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 40

3.2.2

Geometrical properties ........................................................................................ 40

3.2.3

Surface processing ............................................................................................. 41

3.2.4

Forming ............................................................................................................... 41

3.3

Patterned glass .......................................................................................................... 42

3.4

Wired glass ................................................................................................................ 43

3.5

Drawn sheet glass ...................................................................................................... 43

3.6

Thermally toughened glass (TTG) .............................................................................. 43

3.7

Heat strengthened glass (HSG) ................................................................................. 46

3.8

Laminated and laminated safety glass ....................................................................... 47
Page I

..............................1 Calculation of monolithic plates .3..................................................................... 79 5.................... 63 4.........................................2 Linear and non-linear plate theory ..............................................2 Blast loads ..................8 Numerical analysis and experimental testing ................3..........................................3 Point fixings with drilled holes.................................................................................. 68 4..........1 General .............................. 93 6.........................2 Composition and strength of the glass section ......................................... 108 ........................5 Special loading situations .......................4 Adhesively bonded point fixings ................... 51 3........... 63 4........................................................................ 70 4.......................................................1 General ..........................3.............................................. 52 Principles and Basic Rules for the design of glass components and safety approach ... 98 6..................................3 Insulating glass plates ...........................................................................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 4 3.6 Potential classification of glass components ........................ 101 6................................................ 79 6 5.... 62 4.................................................................................................. 100 6............4 Mechanical description of the viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ............................................ 61 4.................................. 65 4.................2 Classification of structural elements of glass ...... 62 4.................................... 50 3..................................................................... 68 4...........................4 Linearly supported glazing......................................3 Supports and bearing concept..........12 Channel shaped glass ............ 94 6.......................7 Post-glass breakage strength of laminated glass ......................................................................................5.3.......................................... 100 6............................................5 Embedded systems ................4 Primary structural elements: glass-robustness and damage tolerance .................5 Point fixed glazing ................. 55 4.........................................................................................3 Secondary structural elements: robustness and residual capacity .....................5................ 107 6......... 102 6.................................................................10 Chemically strengthened glass .. 83 5................................... 108 6......................................................................................... 81 5................................................ 51 3......................................11 Insulating glass .......................................................1 General ............................................5.........................3 Plates with monolithic sections of glass under transverse loading .............. 74 5 Mechanical basics and verification approach for monolithic and laminated plates and beams .................................................... 62 4.................................5............................2 Clamping systems .........5 Further general construction rules ..5.. 88 5....................................................2 Consideration of the shear bond of laminated glass panels .......................................... 93 6....6 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal loading without axial load 85 5....3..........................................................................................5........................5................... 79 5.4 Failure scenario.............................................1 Seismic structures .....9 Thermally curved glass ....... 66 4........................... 80 5......................................................................................................................1 General ......................5 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal or axial loading ....................................... 93 6......................................................................... 55 4..6 Page II Glass Floors ....................... 89 Design of secondary structural glass components ...............................................................................................................

.......2 Consistent buckling curves for monolithic pane-like glass columns ......................... 171 8. 120 7...................................................... 116 6... 119 7................................................................................ 159 8.......4.................5 Beam-columns ............................................................3 Influence of the connection stiffness..... 118 Design of primary structural components .............7 Horizontal Glazing accessible for maintenance ....4 Adhesive bonding ....................9 Cold bent glass .................................................................................1 Buckling of shear panels with single point load introduction at the corners along the diagonal (corner loaded shear panels) ...................2 Types of adhesive ....................................4.......1 General ............................................................................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 7 6...................................2 Analytical verification of a bolted connection in glass .............4........ 140 7....4 Buckling of columns with laminated sections .....................................................3.... 150 7............................... 124 7.........2.................2........3 Experimental tests of monolithic glass columns..................2 Shear panels ...........2 Lateral torsional buckling of glass beams with laminated cross sections ................................ 146 7......... 160 8....................................................3 Beams with bending about the strong axis – Lateral torsional buckling .......................2...4...................... 150 7................ 151 7.......... 150 7.................. 171 8.....11 Reinforced glass components with enhanced redundancy ............ 136 7..................... 126 7......... 110 6...........................................................................................................1 General ................................................. 160 8.......................................................................................2 Bolted connections ....................................... 168 8.............................8 Retaining Glass Barriers and Glass Parapets......................................................................8 Conclusions ......................................... 175 8.4....6 Hybrid structures and hybrid glass components with enhanced pre.....10 Glass in Photovoltaic applications (PV modules) ...............1 General .....4................................ 120 7......................... 173 8...7 Consideration of short term – long term loading effects on the stability ...............3 Present state of standardization ............................ 110 6............... 169 8.................................................................... 126 7.2.............................. 136 7....4.................................2...................................................... 126 7................................2.4.......... 119 7.............4 Current research ................4................................................................................and post-failure performance ..............................................................................1 Detailing of a structural bolted connection of bolts in shear in glass holes . 159 8.......3 Elastic response of an in-plane loaded solid pane ..................2 Buckling of continuously supported shear panels .........4................................................................................................................ 159 8....5 Critical load of laminated bars under axial loads with blocked end slip ............................................... 151 8 Joints and Connections ..... 137 7......................... 117 6...............................................2.....................................4....3..................................................................................................................4 Approximation and engineering formula ..... 128 7............4............................6 Interaction of axial loads with bending moments ....................................1 General ..3 Friction Joints .........................................1 Monolithic sections .......................................................................................................... 143 7................................................4 Columns ............................ 161 8.................. 177 Page III ...........................................................

.................................................................4.. 178 9 Concluding Remarks .................................... 178 8............................................................5 Proposals for the calculation ....................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 8............. 181 10 References ................................................................... 183 Page IV ............6 Future prospects ......4...................................................................................................................

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