Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components

Contents

1

2

Introduction and General .................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Establishing of a Eurocode on Structural Glass ............................................................ 1

1.2

Eurocode rules applicable to glass structures............................................................... 3

1.3

Structuring of the Eurocode .......................................................................................... 6

Material properties ............................................................................................................ 15
2.1

Glass .......................................................................................................................... 15

2.1.1

General ............................................................................................................... 15

2.1.2

Characteristics of annealed glass ........................................................................ 15

2.1.3

Toughened glass................................................................................................. 20

2.1.4

Breakage pattern................................................................................................. 21

2.1.5

Definition of the zones 1 to 4 ............................................................................... 23

2.1.6

Test methods according to EN 1288 ................................................................... 25

2.1.7

Statistical evaluation of the bending strength ...................................................... 27

2.1.8

Quality control by non-destructive methods, stress optics ................................... 28

2.2

Interlayer .................................................................................................................... 28

2.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 28

2.2.2

Viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ................................................................... 28

2.2.3

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour with “small size” tests ...................... 29

2.2.4

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour in the panel-torsion-test................... 30

2.2.5

Durability of PVB interlayer ................................................................................. 33

2.2.6
Design shear modulus of PVB- interlayer in dependence of temperature and time
during wind loading ........................................................................................................... 34
3

Products ........................................................................................................................... 39
3.1

General ...................................................................................................................... 39

3.2

Float glass.................................................................................................................. 40

3.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 40

3.2.2

Geometrical properties ........................................................................................ 40

3.2.3

Surface processing ............................................................................................. 41

3.2.4

Forming ............................................................................................................... 41

3.3

Patterned glass .......................................................................................................... 42

3.4

Wired glass ................................................................................................................ 43

3.5

Drawn sheet glass ...................................................................................................... 43

3.6

Thermally toughened glass (TTG) .............................................................................. 43

3.7

Heat strengthened glass (HSG) ................................................................................. 46

3.8

Laminated and laminated safety glass ....................................................................... 47
Page I

1 General ....... 102 6................................ 100 6............................................. 62 4...........2 Classification of structural elements of glass .........................1 General ....................................5 Point fixed glazing .................. 93 6...............................8 Numerical analysis and experimental testing ....3 Insulating glass plates .............................................7 Post-glass breakage strength of laminated glass ...........................................3............... 83 5.................................... 66 4......4 Primary structural elements: glass-robustness and damage tolerance ...................6 Page II Glass Floors ............Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 4 3............... 63 4......... 52 Principles and Basic Rules for the design of glass components and safety approach ......................... 79 5...............2 Composition and strength of the glass section ............................................................ 93 6.................................................................................................3 Plates with monolithic sections of glass under transverse loading ...................... 107 6....................................................3....... 62 4........................................ 108 ............ 74 5 Mechanical basics and verification approach for monolithic and laminated plates and beams ............... 65 4........................ 88 5..........................................4 Adhesively bonded point fixings .................11 Insulating glass .................................................. 70 4...1 Calculation of monolithic plates ...................................................................3 Secondary structural elements: robustness and residual capacity ..........................................................5....10 Chemically strengthened glass .........12 Channel shaped glass .........................................5........................................................5 Embedded systems ...... 50 3.............................................5................................4 Failure scenario...........5..........................................................................................................................................................................................................3.. 79 5........................................................................... 108 6............................. 93 6...................4 Linearly supported glazing.3 Supports and bearing concept.......................................................................... 80 5................................................ 100 6.........2 Consideration of the shear bond of laminated glass panels ............... 68 4........................................... 61 4...................................5 Further general construction rules ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 51 3............................................................2 Clamping systems ........................................................................................................ 101 6............5...........................1 General ...................................................... 51 3... 89 Design of secondary structural glass components ..........2 Linear and non-linear plate theory ....................3.......... 79 6 5................5..4 Mechanical description of the viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ...................................................6 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal loading without axial load 85 5................................3...................................5 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal or axial loading ...............9 Thermally curved glass ...................................... 63 4. 62 4...........................5.......................................................................... 55 4............5 Special loading situations ................................................................................................................1 Seismic structures .......... 98 6...........3 Point fixings with drilled holes...6 Potential classification of glass components .......2 Blast loads ............................................................................................................................................1 General ...... 94 6........ 81 5............................................. 55 4............................... 68 4...........................

159 8................... 160 8........... 173 8.............................................................. 126 7............................ 150 7..................................................................... 143 7..............................6 Hybrid structures and hybrid glass components with enhanced pre...........................................9 Cold bent glass ................................................ 168 8.........3................................... 150 7.................................................11 Reinforced glass components with enhanced redundancy ............................................ 117 6...............4............................. 161 8...........4...............................2........... 151 7..4..............................4......... 126 7.........................................................................................................3 Elastic response of an in-plane loaded solid pane .. 120 7.... 171 8........ 119 7.....4 Current research .................................................... 136 7.....................................................................3 Influence of the connection stiffness............................................ 159 8........8 Conclusions ......... 136 7................................................................................3 Present state of standardization ..........................4..........2......3 Friction Joints ....................................................................................... 159 8.. 119 7..................................................................... 150 7...........................4 Buckling of columns with laminated sections ...........................................................................................4.....................................................................8 Retaining Glass Barriers and Glass Parapets.......................... 177 Page III .......................2 Consistent buckling curves for monolithic pane-like glass columns .......................................5 Critical load of laminated bars under axial loads with blocked end slip ...10 Glass in Photovoltaic applications (PV modules) ......2...................3 Experimental tests of monolithic glass columns..................................................................3 Beams with bending about the strong axis – Lateral torsional buckling .......4.................................................................1 Monolithic sections .........................................................................2 Buckling of continuously supported shear panels ........... 124 7..2 Lateral torsional buckling of glass beams with laminated cross sections .....1 General .............. 110 6..........................................................................................1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 126 7.............................. 140 7......2 Analytical verification of a bolted connection in glass ......................................... 160 8................4............................. 171 8........................................2............................................................................. 120 7......................................................1 General ...................4.... 175 8....... 169 8........7 Consideration of short term – long term loading effects on the stability ...............1 Detailing of a structural bolted connection of bolts in shear in glass holes ..................4........1 Buckling of shear panels with single point load introduction at the corners along the diagonal (corner loaded shear panels) ...............2 Shear panels ........................2..................................................................2 Bolted connections ........ 146 7...1 General ..............Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 7 6..3...4 Adhesive bonding ....2 Types of adhesive .......2.4...4 Approximation and engineering formula .......7 Horizontal Glazing accessible for maintenance .... 137 7.............................. 128 7...................and post-failure performance ..................5 Beam-columns ............................... 118 Design of primary structural components ..............................4..2......................................6 Interaction of axial loads with bending moments ................. 110 6....................... 116 6...............4 Columns ........... 151 8 Joints and Connections ...................................................

........4............................................................................5 Proposals for the calculation ...........................................................................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 8...................6 Future prospects ...... 183 Page IV ........................... 181 10 References ..................................... 178 9 Concluding Remarks . 178 8...................................4................................................................................................................

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