Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components

Contents

1

2

Introduction and General .................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Establishing of a Eurocode on Structural Glass ............................................................ 1

1.2

Eurocode rules applicable to glass structures............................................................... 3

1.3

Structuring of the Eurocode .......................................................................................... 6

Material properties ............................................................................................................ 15
2.1

Glass .......................................................................................................................... 15

2.1.1

General ............................................................................................................... 15

2.1.2

Characteristics of annealed glass ........................................................................ 15

2.1.3

Toughened glass................................................................................................. 20

2.1.4

Breakage pattern................................................................................................. 21

2.1.5

Definition of the zones 1 to 4 ............................................................................... 23

2.1.6

Test methods according to EN 1288 ................................................................... 25

2.1.7

Statistical evaluation of the bending strength ...................................................... 27

2.1.8

Quality control by non-destructive methods, stress optics ................................... 28

2.2

Interlayer .................................................................................................................... 28

2.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 28

2.2.2

Viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ................................................................... 28

2.2.3

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour with “small size” tests ...................... 29

2.2.4

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour in the panel-torsion-test................... 30

2.2.5

Durability of PVB interlayer ................................................................................. 33

2.2.6
Design shear modulus of PVB- interlayer in dependence of temperature and time
during wind loading ........................................................................................................... 34
3

Products ........................................................................................................................... 39
3.1

General ...................................................................................................................... 39

3.2

Float glass.................................................................................................................. 40

3.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 40

3.2.2

Geometrical properties ........................................................................................ 40

3.2.3

Surface processing ............................................................................................. 41

3.2.4

Forming ............................................................................................................... 41

3.3

Patterned glass .......................................................................................................... 42

3.4

Wired glass ................................................................................................................ 43

3.5

Drawn sheet glass ...................................................................................................... 43

3.6

Thermally toughened glass (TTG) .............................................................................. 43

3.7

Heat strengthened glass (HSG) ................................................................................. 46

3.8

Laminated and laminated safety glass ....................................................................... 47
Page I

.............. 93 6............................ 98 6..............................................................1 General ...............3 Plates with monolithic sections of glass under transverse loading ...3......................................................................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 4 3...... 89 Design of secondary structural glass components ..... 62 4..................................... 51 3........................................................ 94 6..........................10 Chemically strengthened glass ........ 107 6.......5...................5 Point fixed glazing ...................................................................................12 Channel shaped glass ..3.........3.... 55 4..................4 Adhesively bonded point fixings ..................................... 100 6..... 68 4..................................3 Supports and bearing concept.......................................................5............3..................................................5.......................................... 88 5......................6 Page II Glass Floors ........................................................ 63 4..................3 Insulating glass plates ..............................................................7 Post-glass breakage strength of laminated glass ...........9 Thermally curved glass ......................5 Special loading situations .........................................1 General .... 52 Principles and Basic Rules for the design of glass components and safety approach ...................... 81 5.......................................2 Consideration of the shear bond of laminated glass panels .......... 66 4.... 108 ........ 79 6 5..........5.......................................................................... 65 4......................................... 62 4..... 102 6.........................................................................1 Seismic structures .....................................................8 Numerical analysis and experimental testing .................................................6 Potential classification of glass components ........................................3 Secondary structural elements: robustness and residual capacity ....................................4 Failure scenario.....3.......................1 General ................6 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal loading without axial load 85 5.....................................................4 Mechanical description of the viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ......................................................................................................................................5 Embedded systems .................................. 93 6........................5.....2 Clamping systems ........1 General ........................... 83 5...............................3 Point fixings with drilled holes.....5 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal or axial loading ......................................... 50 3............................................................................................ 63 4...... 101 6.......................................................................................... 108 6............................................................. 61 4.......4 Primary structural elements: glass-robustness and damage tolerance .................................. 79 5........................................................... 79 5...5 Further general construction rules ............................................................................. 68 4........................................................................................................................2 Blast loads ..11 Insulating glass ................................................... 93 6...................................................... 74 5 Mechanical basics and verification approach for monolithic and laminated plates and beams ................................................................2 Composition and strength of the glass section ................................................4 Linearly supported glazing.. 100 6................................................................... 80 5.................................................................... 70 4.........5...... 62 4.................................................................................... 51 3........................2 Linear and non-linear plate theory ..2 Classification of structural elements of glass ...............................................1 Calculation of monolithic plates ................................. 55 4..................................5............

.................................................................7 Consideration of short term – long term loading effects on the stability .................... 159 8..... 175 8...................................................2 Bolted connections . 110 6................................. 118 Design of primary structural components ..11 Reinforced glass components with enhanced redundancy ......................................... 126 7.............................5 Critical load of laminated bars under axial loads with blocked end slip ..............................................................................4..1 General ..... 137 7................................6 Hybrid structures and hybrid glass components with enhanced pre...4.................... 159 8...................4...................3................................................................................................. 110 6......................................... 151 7................1 General ............3 Beams with bending about the strong axis – Lateral torsional buckling ....................................................................... 160 8...................... 177 Page III ........... 146 7................................. 161 8....1 Detailing of a structural bolted connection of bolts in shear in glass holes . 116 6......................................................10 Glass in Photovoltaic applications (PV modules) ....... 150 7......................................2 Lateral torsional buckling of glass beams with laminated cross sections ..............................2.....................2.....................6 Interaction of axial loads with bending moments ..........2....................4......................3 Elastic response of an in-plane loaded solid pane ...............4 Buckling of columns with laminated sections .........................4.......................................... 120 7.4.........................................2 Shear panels ..................................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 7 6..............................8 Retaining Glass Barriers and Glass Parapets.............................................................................................................4 Current research ...............5 Beam-columns .................1 General .......... 140 7........................................................................4............. 124 7....2...........................................3 Experimental tests of monolithic glass columns.....3........................ 128 7...............................................4 Columns .......................2 Analytical verification of a bolted connection in glass ....2........2 Consistent buckling curves for monolithic pane-like glass columns .............................4.... 119 7........................ 171 8................................ 143 7....2 Buckling of continuously supported shear panels ...............................................................................1 General ................................ 171 8...........2..... 126 7............................... 168 8........................3 Influence of the connection stiffness.................................... 126 7........................... 120 7........................................................................................................... 119 7...4 Adhesive bonding ................................4......................................4 Approximation and engineering formula ..................................................................................2........2 Types of adhesive .........1 Buckling of shear panels with single point load introduction at the corners along the diagonal (corner loaded shear panels) ..........................................................................7 Horizontal Glazing accessible for maintenance ....................................... 169 8.and post-failure performance ....................................... 173 8...................................4.......... 159 8.......................................................................................... 136 7............................................................................9 Cold bent glass ......3 Present state of standardization .. 136 7..... 150 7.......................................8 Conclusions ................3 Friction Joints ................................ 160 8........4..................4............................. 151 8 Joints and Connections .......................1 Monolithic sections ......... 117 6........................................... 150 7............

....6 Future prospects ............................................................ 178 8.........................................................................................................................................................................................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 8.........4............ 181 10 References ...................................5 Proposals for the calculation ... 178 9 Concluding Remarks ...................................... 183 Page IV ....4..............................................