Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components

Contents

1

2

Introduction and General .................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Establishing of a Eurocode on Structural Glass ............................................................ 1

1.2

Eurocode rules applicable to glass structures............................................................... 3

1.3

Structuring of the Eurocode .......................................................................................... 6

Material properties ............................................................................................................ 15
2.1

Glass .......................................................................................................................... 15

2.1.1

General ............................................................................................................... 15

2.1.2

Characteristics of annealed glass ........................................................................ 15

2.1.3

Toughened glass................................................................................................. 20

2.1.4

Breakage pattern................................................................................................. 21

2.1.5

Definition of the zones 1 to 4 ............................................................................... 23

2.1.6

Test methods according to EN 1288 ................................................................... 25

2.1.7

Statistical evaluation of the bending strength ...................................................... 27

2.1.8

Quality control by non-destructive methods, stress optics ................................... 28

2.2

Interlayer .................................................................................................................... 28

2.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 28

2.2.2

Viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ................................................................... 28

2.2.3

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour with “small size” tests ...................... 29

2.2.4

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour in the panel-torsion-test................... 30

2.2.5

Durability of PVB interlayer ................................................................................. 33

2.2.6
Design shear modulus of PVB- interlayer in dependence of temperature and time
during wind loading ........................................................................................................... 34
3

Products ........................................................................................................................... 39
3.1

General ...................................................................................................................... 39

3.2

Float glass.................................................................................................................. 40

3.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 40

3.2.2

Geometrical properties ........................................................................................ 40

3.2.3

Surface processing ............................................................................................. 41

3.2.4

Forming ............................................................................................................... 41

3.3

Patterned glass .......................................................................................................... 42

3.4

Wired glass ................................................................................................................ 43

3.5

Drawn sheet glass ...................................................................................................... 43

3.6

Thermally toughened glass (TTG) .............................................................................. 43

3.7

Heat strengthened glass (HSG) ................................................................................. 46

3.8

Laminated and laminated safety glass ....................................................................... 47
Page I

................................5.............................................................................................................................. 70 4.....5 Point fixed glazing ..10 Chemically strengthened glass ........................................................................ 55 4.......................................3 Point fixings with drilled holes........... 55 4.........2 Clamping systems ............................................................. 68 4.3 Insulating glass plates .................................................... 51 3...................................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 4 3............................................................................3............................................... 62 4..................................................................................4 Mechanical description of the viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ....1 Calculation of monolithic plates ... 108 .........8 Numerical analysis and experimental testing ........................5 Embedded systems ....... 65 4......................................... 79 5. 81 5..5........ 66 4............................................................................................................................4 Primary structural elements: glass-robustness and damage tolerance ......................................... 108 6.................................................................2 Blast loads ............................................................................................................ 79 6 5...................................................................1 General .............. 61 4........................................................................3.........................................................................................3........................................................................................................ 50 3.................................... 107 6......................................... 89 Design of secondary structural glass components . 52 Principles and Basic Rules for the design of glass components and safety approach .. 93 6.................................................... 98 6. 93 6.... 100 6...........................................................................................6 Page II Glass Floors . 80 5............................................2 Consideration of the shear bond of laminated glass panels ........11 Insulating glass ..............4 Failure scenario.........................3 Plates with monolithic sections of glass under transverse loading .............................................5.........3 Secondary structural elements: robustness and residual capacity ......7 Post-glass breakage strength of laminated glass .......................6 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal loading without axial load 85 5..............................................3.........................................................6 Potential classification of glass components ................................................................. 83 5...................... 100 6..........................................................9 Thermally curved glass ... 88 5......................................................................................................5 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal or axial loading .................5................... 62 4............................5................................................................................................................................................................................................1 General .................................2 Linear and non-linear plate theory ... 102 6........................................................................................................4 Adhesively bonded point fixings ........5 Further general construction rules .................... 74 5 Mechanical basics and verification approach for monolithic and laminated plates and beams ............................................. 94 6........5...3 Supports and bearing concept..............................1 General .....................................1 General ..........3.......... 63 4......................................................... 51 3.....2 Classification of structural elements of glass ................4 Linearly supported glazing........12 Channel shaped glass ....... 101 6............... 93 6...... 68 4.....2 Composition and strength of the glass section .................... 63 4...........5........ 79 5................5 Special loading situations ..................1 Seismic structures ................ 62 4.....

................................................................................................................4.3..4....................4........ 169 8........5 Beam-columns ..............1 General .............4................................................................... 150 7.................................................2 Bolted connections ...............8 Conclusions ........................and post-failure performance ..........................................................................10 Glass in Photovoltaic applications (PV modules) ............................................................. 159 8.............. 151 8 Joints and Connections ............ 151 7........ 120 7.............................2...........................4........................................................ 116 6.................................................................... 120 7............... 117 6........................2...................7 Horizontal Glazing accessible for maintenance .................2 Buckling of continuously supported shear panels ................2..........1 Monolithic sections ..........................................................4....................... 126 7....2..............................4......... 143 7.............2....................... 150 7.............2 Consistent buckling curves for monolithic pane-like glass columns ...................................................................................3......................................................................5 Critical load of laminated bars under axial loads with blocked end slip ....... 171 8......................... 124 7..........4 Approximation and engineering formula ...........................7 Consideration of short term – long term loading effects on the stability ......................................................................................................... 161 8..2............... 159 8.....................................3 Beams with bending about the strong axis – Lateral torsional buckling .............Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 7 6.................... 110 6........ 128 7................. 137 7.................... 136 7..............................3 Experimental tests of monolithic glass columns..............................1 General ..............4........................................ 160 8.............2 Lateral torsional buckling of glass beams with laminated cross sections ....2 Shear panels ...........1 General .........................1 General ..........................................................4 Current research .3 Present state of standardization .............. 171 8....4. 177 Page III ........ 118 Design of primary structural components ..... 146 7............... 160 8........................................................................................................ 126 7.........................................................................................4 Columns ............4 Adhesive bonding .........3 Friction Joints ......................................................................... 126 7............................................4.........2 Analytical verification of a bolted connection in glass .............................................................................3 Elastic response of an in-plane loaded solid pane ................6 Interaction of axial loads with bending moments ...................... 119 7.............................................................4 Buckling of columns with laminated sections ........................................................ 119 7.. 110 6......................... 140 7...................... 159 8......... 168 8.............................................2 Types of adhesive ....................11 Reinforced glass components with enhanced redundancy .................................... 175 8........... 150 7..........................................4........................................................................... 173 8...........................................1 Buckling of shear panels with single point load introduction at the corners along the diagonal (corner loaded shear panels) .............3 Influence of the connection stiffness.............................1 Detailing of a structural bolted connection of bolts in shear in glass holes .....8 Retaining Glass Barriers and Glass Parapets...................... 136 7...6 Hybrid structures and hybrid glass components with enhanced pre..........2.............................................4.........................9 Cold bent glass ...................

........................4.............................................................................................................................................. 178 8.............. 183 Page IV .........................6 Future prospects ......................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 8.............................................................................. 178 9 Concluding Remarks ...........................4.......5 Proposals for the calculation .................................... 181 10 References .....................