Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components

Contents

1

2

Introduction and General .................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Establishing of a Eurocode on Structural Glass ............................................................ 1

1.2

Eurocode rules applicable to glass structures............................................................... 3

1.3

Structuring of the Eurocode .......................................................................................... 6

Material properties ............................................................................................................ 15
2.1

Glass .......................................................................................................................... 15

2.1.1

General ............................................................................................................... 15

2.1.2

Characteristics of annealed glass ........................................................................ 15

2.1.3

Toughened glass................................................................................................. 20

2.1.4

Breakage pattern................................................................................................. 21

2.1.5

Definition of the zones 1 to 4 ............................................................................... 23

2.1.6

Test methods according to EN 1288 ................................................................... 25

2.1.7

Statistical evaluation of the bending strength ...................................................... 27

2.1.8

Quality control by non-destructive methods, stress optics ................................... 28

2.2

Interlayer .................................................................................................................... 28

2.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 28

2.2.2

Viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ................................................................... 28

2.2.3

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour with “small size” tests ...................... 29

2.2.4

Determination of the viscoelastic behaviour in the panel-torsion-test................... 30

2.2.5

Durability of PVB interlayer ................................................................................. 33

2.2.6
Design shear modulus of PVB- interlayer in dependence of temperature and time
during wind loading ........................................................................................................... 34
3

Products ........................................................................................................................... 39
3.1

General ...................................................................................................................... 39

3.2

Float glass.................................................................................................................. 40

3.2.1

General ............................................................................................................... 40

3.2.2

Geometrical properties ........................................................................................ 40

3.2.3

Surface processing ............................................................................................. 41

3.2.4

Forming ............................................................................................................... 41

3.3

Patterned glass .......................................................................................................... 42

3.4

Wired glass ................................................................................................................ 43

3.5

Drawn sheet glass ...................................................................................................... 43

3.6

Thermally toughened glass (TTG) .............................................................................. 43

3.7

Heat strengthened glass (HSG) ................................................................................. 46

3.8

Laminated and laminated safety glass ....................................................................... 47
Page I

..........3 Insulating glass plates ...................... 65 4...6 Potential classification of glass components .......4 Mechanical description of the viscoelastic behaviour of interlayers ........................................4 Primary structural elements: glass-robustness and damage tolerance ....................................5.............11 Insulating glass ...1 Calculation of monolithic plates ............................................... 83 5..................................................................2 Blast loads .........................3....... 51 3....5 Further general construction rules .........5.................................................................................9 Thermally curved glass ............ 55 4.................................................................................... 100 6..... 100 6..............................2 Composition and strength of the glass section ..........5 Point fixed glazing ........... 107 6................................5...... 55 4............................................................................................................................................................. 50 3......................3........................ 61 4............................................................................................................ 101 6..........................................5....................6 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal loading without axial load 85 5.........................................................12 Channel shaped glass ............................... 70 4....1 General ........ 102 6...................... 79 6 5............................................... 108 ............................................................6 Page II Glass Floors ...5................. 79 5.5 Special loading situations ..................4 Linearly supported glazing............3........ 93 6................2 Clamping systems .................2 Consideration of the shear bond of laminated glass panels .......................................................7 Post-glass breakage strength of laminated glass ........... 80 5... 88 5......1 General ..........2 Linear and non-linear plate theory ................................................................................................................ 93 6................ 51 3......................................................................3 Plates with monolithic sections of glass under transverse loading ..............................................................................................1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 62 4................................................................ 63 4..... 89 Design of secondary structural glass components ............................................ 74 5 Mechanical basics and verification approach for monolithic and laminated plates and beams ......10 Chemically strengthened glass ............................................................... 68 4....4 Failure scenario........Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 4 3. 108 6..................................................1 General ...... 93 6............................ 94 6.......................................................... 66 4.............................................................................5 Bending behaviour of laminated sections due to transversal or axial loading ................................5..... 68 4..............................1 Seismic structures ...........................................2 Classification of structural elements of glass ....... 79 5............................................................ 52 Principles and Basic Rules for the design of glass components and safety approach ........4 Adhesively bonded point fixings .............................................3 Point fixings with drilled holes...............................................3...... 81 5..........................................5 Embedded systems .......... 62 4............................ 63 4...................... 62 4.......................................................................................................8 Numerical analysis and experimental testing ................... 98 6...........................3 Secondary structural elements: robustness and residual capacity ...................3.................................................3 Supports and bearing concept...............................................................................5..........

.............. 136 7....................... 173 8...................2.....2 Types of adhesive ..... 116 6.......and post-failure performance ......................4..................2 Shear panels .............. 120 7.... 140 7....................................................................................................... 120 7....4................... 117 6..........2...............4.............................4...........4 Columns ....3 Beams with bending about the strong axis – Lateral torsional buckling .................. 143 7..................................................................................... 146 7...............................8 Conclusions ............................. 159 8......................11 Reinforced glass components with enhanced redundancy ..................................................................1 General .......................................................................2 Analytical verification of a bolted connection in glass .............6 Interaction of axial loads with bending moments . 110 6................................................3.......3 Present state of standardization ....................................... 151 7.................... 151 8 Joints and Connections .....................................................................2 Buckling of continuously supported shear panels ......................................................1 Buckling of shear panels with single point load introduction at the corners along the diagonal (corner loaded shear panels) ................................3 Friction Joints ..........................4 Current research ......................2 Lateral torsional buckling of glass beams with laminated cross sections ....4.........................................................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 7 6...................1 General ......................................5 Critical load of laminated bars under axial loads with blocked end slip ....................4...................................... 126 7..............................................10 Glass in Photovoltaic applications (PV modules) ......................................... 159 8........................................................ 128 7......6 Hybrid structures and hybrid glass components with enhanced pre........................2 Bolted connections ..........4............................... 150 7....................3..........4.7 Horizontal Glazing accessible for maintenance .......2...............4...........................2.... 137 7............. 161 8.......................................4....... 177 Page III .............................................................................................................................. 159 8........................................... 110 6..........9 Cold bent glass .. 150 7................................1 General ..1 General ........................................................................4.....................2...........................2 Consistent buckling curves for monolithic pane-like glass columns ............................................ 119 7.............................3 Experimental tests of monolithic glass columns.... 168 8...............8 Retaining Glass Barriers and Glass Parapets.............................................1 Detailing of a structural bolted connection of bolts in shear in glass holes .......................... 171 8.........4 Approximation and engineering formula ......... 150 7.......................3 Elastic response of an in-plane loaded solid pane .................... 119 7..................1 Monolithic sections .............................................................................................. 136 7....................4 Buckling of columns with laminated sections ........................ 175 8.......4..........3 Influence of the connection stiffness........................................................................................................ 126 7....................2..................................5 Beam-columns ..................................... 124 7................................................ 160 8.................................7 Consideration of short term – long term loading effects on the stability ............................ 126 7....................4 Adhesive bonding ........................................... 171 8...... 169 8............................................ 118 Design of primary structural components ........2.................................................................. 160 8..........................

.................Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components 8. 181 10 References ..............................................................................................................................5 Proposals for the calculation .......................... 183 Page IV ........................... 178 9 Concluding Remarks .......................6 Future prospects ......................4................................... 178 8..................................................4.....................................................................

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