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Department of Production Engineering

Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

Theory of Metal Cutting
Module I and Module II
Module I
Tool materials and types, single point cutting tool, cutting speed feed and depth of cut, theory of
orthogonal cutting.
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What are the main characteristics that a cutting tool material should possess?
What are the main cutting tool materials? Describe each in brief stating its principal
characteristics and applications.
How are the cutting tool classified? Name a few tool of each type.
Explain the terms cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, as applicable to metal cutting. Explain
the basis of their selection.
With the help of neat sketches, indicate the different parts and angles of a single point tool.
Explain the importance and functions of different tool angles and other parameters
associated with the geometry of a single point cutting tool.
What is tool signature? Explain with an example the tool signature used in ASA system.
What do you understand by Orthogonal and Oblique cutting? How do they differ from each
other?
Give two examples each of orthogonal cutting and oblique cutting.

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1 r sin

, where = Shear angle, angle

of shearing surface measured from tool direction, and = Rake angle, slant angle of tools
With the help of suitable diagram, derive expression for finding out shear velocity and chip
flow velocity when cutting velocity, shear angle and rake angle are known.
What are the assumptions made in the study of orthogonal cutting?
Explain the procedure to construct a merchants force circle diagram.
Explain merchants force circle diagram.
Draw a merchants circle diagram and derive expressions to show relationship among the
different forces acting on the cutting tool.
How is coefficient of friction determined for and orthogonal cutting process?
With the help of merchant circle diagram establish the relationship of various forces acting
on the chip with the horizontal and vertical cutting force.
What assumptions were made by merchant in arriving at his famous merchants theory?
Prove with the help of Merchants circle diagram that for orthogonal cutting:
1
= ( ) where, = Shear angle = Friction angle = Rake angle
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r cos

With a suitable diagram find out an expression for shear strain in orthogonal metal cutting.

Tutorial sheets of Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

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In orthogonal turning of a 50 mm diameter mild steel bar on a lathe he following data were
Obtained: Rake angle = 15o, cutting speed =100m/min, feed 0.2 mm/rev, cutting force
=1800 N. Feed force=600 N. Calculate the chip thickness ratio, shear plane angle,
coefficient of friction, cutting power, the chip flow velocity and shear force, if the chip
thickness is 0.3 mm.
During orthogonal machining of a mild steel part, a depth of cut of 0.8 mm is used at 55 rpm.
If the chip thickness is 1.6 mm determine the chip thickness ratio. Also calculate the length of
chip removed in one minute if the work diameter is 50 mm before the cut is taken. Assume a
continuous type of chip.
For orthogonal cutting of a component, the feed force was 750N and cutting force was 1500N.
Find out the shear force and normal to shear force (compressive force) on the shear plane and
the coefficient of friction of the chip on the tool face. Assume chip thickness ratio as 0.28 and
tool rake angle as 100.

Module II
Different types of chips, chip breakers, tool wear: mechanism and types, tool life, machinability, cutting
fluid
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How many types of chips are formed in metal cutting? What factors are responsible for
formation of these different types of chips? What is built up edge and how it is formed?
Discuss the conditions favorable for formation of continuous and discontinous chips.
Why are chip breakers necessary? Discuss. What are the common methods of chip breaking?
What are the different sources and areas of heat generation during metal cutting? Explain.
What are the indications for inefficient performance of a cutting tool?
Explain the reasons and theory of tool failure.
What are the common mechanisms causing wear on cutting tools? Explain in brief.
Discuss the crater wear, flank wear, and nose wear of a cutting tool.
What do you understand from the term tool life as applicable to metal cutting? In what terms
it is expressed.
What are the main factors that influence tool life?
Explain the effect of cutting speed on tool life.
How is tool life affected by variations in feed and depth of out?
What is the effect of tool geometry on tool life? Discuss.
What is the Taylors tool life equation? Define each term.
A rod of diameter 150 mm machined at a cutting speed of 25 m/min has a life of 1 hr in
roughing cut. Determine its life in finishing cut, if tool life index is 1/8 and 1/10 in roughing
and finishing cut respectively.
While machining a mild steel work-piece with HSS tool the following data were recorded:
cutting speed 32 m/min, tool life 50 minutes. If the cutting speed is increased by 50%, how
tool life will be affected? Assume exponent n of Taylors equation = 0.2.
Calculate the percentage change in cutting speed required to give 65% of reduction in tool
life Assume n = 0.2.
What do you understand by machinability? By which parameter it is generally influenced?
Which criteria determine machinability? Explain the term machinability index.
What is a cutting fluid? What are the important functions of a cutting fluid?
How do you classify the cutting fluid?
Why cutting fluid acts only as a coolant at higher cutting speed?
Tutorial sheets of Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

Home Assignment
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What are the properties of diamond and what precautions are necessary while cutting with
diamond?
The friction between the chip and the tool plays a significant role in the cutting process. How
this friction can be reduced?
Sketch three view diagram of a 25 mm square tool bit having tool signature
a) 12, 12,10,10,15, 10 (3mm)
b) -8,+8,10,10,10,6 (6mm)
Explain the significance of providing rake angle and clearance angle on a tool?
Compare the coordinate system with orthogonal system of tool nomenclature.
Establish the tool life equation and calculate the cutting speed for 5 minutes tool life from the
following data. A tool life of 75 mm was obtained at a speed of 25 mpm and that of 10 min
when cutting at 60mpm.
When machining at 50 mpm, the tool life noted was 100 mins. Calculate the tool life if a
similar tool cuts at 20% higher speed. Also find out the value of cutting speed if the tool is
required to machine for 170 mins without failing. Take n = 0.27 in the Taylor tool life
equation.
A carbide tipped tool of designation 0-10-6-6-8-90-1 mm is used to turn a steel work piece of
50 mm dia., with a cutting speed of 240 mpm and feed of 0.25 mm/rev. The data obtained
shows the cutting force= 1800N, feed force= 1000N and chip thickness = 0.32 mm. Calculate
shear angle, shear force, normal force acting on the shear plane, friction force, coefficient
of friction, friction angle and chip flow velocity.
For an orthogonal cutting operation, using the data given below, calculate (1) shear angle, (2)
work done in shear, and (3) shear strain. Cutting velocity= 85 m/min, Cutting force = 250N,
Feed force 100N, Rake angle = 18o, Depth of cut = 0.25 mm, Chip thickness = 0.5 mm.

Reference Books
1. B.S.Raghuwanshi, A course in Workshop Technology-Dhanpat Rai & Sons.
2. Hajra Choudhury, Elements of Workshop TechnologyVol.-II, Media Promoters and
Publishers.
3. P.N. Rao, Manufacturing Technology Metal Cutting and Machine Tools, TMH.
4. DeGarmo et al., Materials and processes in Manufacturing, PHI.
5. Klapakjian et al., Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, Pearson.
6. O P Khanna, Production Technology-(Vol. II)
7. R K Jain, Production Technology
8. HMT, Production Technology, HMT
9. Amitabha Battacharya , Metal Cutting Theory and Practice
10. George Schneider,Jr. CMfgE, Cutting Tool Applications
11. William J Patton, Machine tool Operations, Reston publishing company
12. O W Boston, Metal Processing, 2nd edition 1951, John Wiley and Sons

Department of Production Engineering

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi

Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

Lathe Machine, Capstan and turret lathe
Module III
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What is the main function of a lathe? List various types of lathes.

With a block diagram of an engine lathe, describe in brief an engine lathe.
What are the basic parts of an engine lathe? Discuss the function of its parts.
a) Differentiate between the motion of cross slide and a compound rest.
b) What are the different types of lathe bed-ways? Why there is a gap in the bed?
Discuss the following components of lathe: Headstock, Tailstock, Carriage & its component
State the operations which may be performed on a lathe.
How a lathe is specified? Discuss.
What is the function of a back gear in lathe machine?
Why chucks are used? List various types of chucks used in lathes. Describe any one in brief.
What is a mandrel? Why they are used in lathes. List different types of mandrels.
What are the different machining operations performed on a lathe by holding work-pieces
between centers or chucks?
Distinguish rough and finish turning.
Define taper. How is the amount of taper expressed? Name different methods of taper turning
done on a center lathe drawing simple sketches?
A steel rod is 100 mm long is to be tapered for a length of 40 mm from its one end. Diameter
of the workpiece is 20 mm and the smaller end of the tapered part ends in a point. Find the
angle through the compound rest should be swiveled in order to turn the required taper.
Explain with schematic diagram the principle of thread cutting on a lathe. Find out the
relation between ratio of change gears to the work pitch and lead screw pitch.
The pitch of a lead screw is 6 mm and the pitch of the thread to be cut in 1.5 mm. Find the
change gear.
Discuss how the change gears required for thread cutting operation is selected. If the pitch of
the lead screw is 4 threads per inch and the pitch of the thread to be cut is 7mm. Find the
change gears.
If the pitch of the lead screw is 6mm and the pitch of the thread to be cut is 1.25mm. Find the
change gears.
A component to be machined from a stock of steel of 40mm diameter and 75mm long as
shown in figure. Calculate the actual machining time required for machining the product. Use
a speed of 30 m/min, feed of 0.30 mm/rev and depth of cut 2 mm.
40 mm

22 mm

32 mm

75 mm

Tutorial sheets of Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

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Calculate the actual machining time required for machining the product shown in figure
below. The available spindle speeds are 70, 110, 176, 210, 440, 700, and 1000 rpm. Use a
roughing speed of 25 m/min and finishing speed of 45m/min. Feed for roughing speed is
0.24 mm/rev while that for finishing 0.1 mm/rev. Maximum depth of cut for roughing is 1
mm and finishing allowance is 0.5 mm. The initial diameter of the workpiece is 40 mm.
50 mm

50 mm

36 mm
32 mm

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What are the advantages of Turret lathe over engine lathe?

Distinguish between a Ram type or Capstan and Saddle type or a Turret lathe.
With a neat diagram explain the turret indexing mechanism.
Discuss some important tool holding devices used in a turret lathe.
Explain how tooling layout is done on a turret lathe.
Discuss how the given hexagonal bolt can be made on a turret lathe.
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37 mm

16 mm

Hexagonal Bolt

Home Assignment
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Write short notes on the following

a) Combination chuck
b) Magnetic chuck,
c) Air and hydraulic chucks, and
d) Collet chuck.
What is a face plate? Where will you prefer its use and why?
Sketch and describe the following:
a) Angle plate, and
b) Lathe dogs.
What is the difference between three jaw chuck and four jaw chuck? Name various types of
chucks used in lathes.
Define Knurling, Thread cutting, Taper turning, Facing and Polishing.
Define speed, Feed and depth of cut in terms of lathe machine operation. How do you
estimate machining time?
Determine the cutting speed in machining a work piece of 200 mm dia. rotating at a speed of
100 rpm.
Tutorial sheets of Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

Department of Production Engineering

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi

Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

Shaper, Planer & Slotter
Module IV
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Explain with the help of neat sketch the working principle of a shaper. Also discuss its
various parts.
How the different type of shaper is classified?
What are the common mechanisms used for quick return of ram of the shaper. Explain any
one of them.
With a neat drawing explain the crank and slotted link driving mechanism used in a shaper.
Also explain how the adjustment of length and position of stroke is done.
With a schematic diagram explain the working of hydraulic drive used in shaper. Also explain
how quick return mechanism is achieved in this drive.
With a neat diagram explain the feed mechanism of a shaper
Name and explain the common work holding devices used on a shaper.
Define cutting speed, feel and depth of cut for shaping operations.
Find out the expression for average cutting speed and total time required for one cut in a
shaper.
Derive an expression for machining time for shaper.
A shaper is operated at 120 cutting strokes per minute and is used to machine a work piece of
250mm length and 120mm in width. Use a feed of 0.6mm per stroke and a depth of cut of
6mm. The forward stroke is completed in 2300. Calculate the machining time for machining
the component and percentage of time when the tool is not in contact with the work piece.
Also calculate the material removal rate.
Calculate the cutting speed of the shaper when it makes 60 strokes/min each 30 cm long.
Assume cutting stroke to return stroke ratio of 3:2.
Calculate the time required to machine 250 mm long plate, 100 mm wide. Tool clearance at
each end of stroke is 30 mm and 20 mm respectively. Cutting speed is 10 m/min and return
speed is 20 m/min. Feed is 1 mm per cycle and the distance the tool moves on either side of
the work in width direction is 10 mm each.
Describe the various operations which can be performed on a shaper machine.
Explain the method of cutting gear teeth on shaper.
Describe the operations of cutting T-slots on a shaper.
What are the different types of planers? Discuss in short each one of them.
What are the different parts of a double housing planer? Discuss in brief.
How will specify a double housing planer?
With a neat diagram explain the belt drive mechanism of a planer.
With a neat diagram explain the friction disc feed mechanism of a planer.
What is difference between following:
a) Planer and shaper
b) Shaper and slotter.

Tutorial sheets of Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

Home Assignment
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Describe with a neat sketch the working principle of planer. Also describe its various parts.
What are the main driving mechanisms used in a planer? How belt drives is used for quick
return motion of the planer table.
Describe in detail the feed mechanism of planer.
What the common work holding devices used in planer?
Define cutting speed, feed and depth of cut for planer.
Explain the different parts of a slotter with a neat sketch.
Describe the different drive mechanism of the slotter.
Explain the different work holding devices used on slotting machine.

Department of Production Engineering

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi

Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

Milling Machine, operations and indexing, Drilling Machine and related operations
Module V
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Explain the principle of Milling. What are the different types of milling machine?
Differentiate between:a) Plain milling machine and universal milling machine.
b) Plain milling machine and vertical milling machine.
Sketch and describe a planner type milling machine.
Describe the working principle of planetary milling machine.
What are the principal parts of column and knee type milling machine. Explain in brief.
How will you specify the milling machine?
What are the standard and special types of milling attachments?
With the help of suitable sketches describe the construction and working of the following:a) Spindle
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Arbor c)
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Collets.
a) What are the common work holding devices used in milling machine?
c) What are the different devices for holding and rotating milling cutter?
What are the various milling operations? Explain them with suitable sketches.
What do you mean by milling operations? Explain the relative merits of up and down milling
operation.
With sketch discuss the differences between up milling and down milling.
In short discuss the following milling operations: Gang milling, straddle milling, form
milling, and end milling.
What materials are used in the manufacture of milling cutters? Discuss their relative
Classify and explain the various types of milling cutter. What materials are used in the
manufacture of milling cutters? Discuss their relative merits.
With a neat sketch show the various elements of a plain milling cutter.
What is negative rake milling? What are its various advantages?
Discuss various milling cutters. What are its specific advantages?
Define the terms cutting seed feed and depth of cut as applied to milling operation.
What are the different methods of expressing feed in milling machine?
What do you mean by indexing and what is its purpose?
What are the common methods of indexing? Describe their basic principles.
Explain the procedure for differential indexing.
Explain the procedure for compound indexing.
What is angular indexing?
How you can mill a hexagonal bolt head? Describe the different steps.
Find the indexing movement needed of milling the sides of a hexagonal nut using direct
indexing. The index plate has 24 holes.
Tutorial sheets of Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

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a) Index 60 divisions by compound indexing.

b) Calculate the change gears for differential indexing 73 divisions.
Index 87 division using compound indexing. Use an index plate having 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33
holes circles.
Index 69 divisions by both deferential and compound indexing.
Index 51 divisions by compound indexing.
Index 241 divisions by differential indexing.
Write short notes on the following:
a) Gear cutters, b)
T-slot milling cutters, c)
Fly cutters
How many types of drilling machine you know? Give a brief description of any one of them.
Why a flat drill is considered obsolete in modern practice when it is cheapest of all drills?
What is a twist drill? Give a neat sketch of it illustrating its various parts. What are the
Explain the theory of drill action.
How is a drilling machine specified?
Draw a neat sketch of a straight shank twist drill clearly indicating the nomenclature of the
twist drill.
A hole of 40mm diameter and 50mm depth is to be drilled in a mild steel component. The
cutting speed can be taken as 65m/min and feed as 0.25mm/rev. Calculate the machining
time.
What are the different operations which you can perform on a drilling machine?

Department of Production Engineering

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi

Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

Gear cutting, Grinding, Finishing operations, Jigs & Fixtures
Module VI & VII
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Explain with help of sketch the different gear cutting operations.

Differentiate between:
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Forming and generating process
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Hobbing, shaping and milling
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Gear honing and gear shaving.
Explain the forming and generating methods of gear manufacturing.
What is grinding? And justify the need of grinding.
Grinding is micro-milling Justify the statement.
How a wheel can be made harder and softer?
What are the natural and artificial abrasives?
Name the artificial abrasives commonly used in grinding.
Upon what factors the efficiency of abrasive particles depend?
Explain the classification of grain sizes.
Why bonds are used in grinding wheels?
Name the different types of bonds.
Discuss Grain size, Grade, and Structure with respect to grinding?
How a grinding wheel is specified?
What do you understand by A-46-k-o-u grinding wheel?
What are the various factors to be considered in selection of a grinding wheel? Discuss each
in detail.
What will happen during machining if the grinding wheel is made of loosely packed abrasive
grains?
List the precautions to be taken before mounting a grinding wheel.
Explain wheel truing and Dressing.
What are the safety measures you are going to take during grinding?
Explain the principle of working of center-less grinding process.
What are the advantages of center- less grinding?
Name the different types of surface grinders and explain the working of any one.
Write short notes on (a) Broaching (b) Honing (c) Lapping (d) Buffing.
What is broaching? Discuss any three merits and demerits of broaching.
What is broaching. When is broaching preferred over other machining process?
What are the important principles of Jig design?
Define tools, Jigs & futures in brief. What are their advantages?
What are the essential characteristics in the proper design of Jigs fixtures?
How work pieces are located?
Write notes on
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Clamps
b)
Clamping

Tutorial sheets of Manufacturing Processes I (PE 5005)

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What do you understand by location of a work piece & what are the important principles of
location and the type of locations commonly used?
What do you understand by principle of least points and principle of extreme positions?
What is meant by 3-2-1 principle of location?
What are the disadvantages of locating a piece against an inclined surface compared to
perpendicular plane?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of four locating points in a plane?
What are the cause of errors in the design and operations of jigs & fixture? What measures
should be taken to minimize the effects of the causes of error?

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