112 views

Uploaded by paarth93

Etab project

- Pile Cap Design
- Crane Pedestral Design
- Design Optimization of Hydraulic Press Plate using Finite Element Analysis
- 405446
- Stiffness of Concrete Slabs
- Ansys - Vm List
- ETABS Building Design Manual
- Design of Jack and Bore Pipe
- prob06
- 3TB1(400x600)fixed.xlsx
- Purlin Design
- Analytical Model for J-Tube Pull-in .pdf
- Wall Thickness X52 14 Inch
- Behavior of marine pipelines under seismic faults_11.pdf
- Wall Design
- Contents.pdf
- An Improved Numerical Model for Calculating Ship_hull Frame Transversal Structure
- Sub structure design document
- MENG_1010_CHAPTER_1_POWER_POINT.ppt
- ANSYS Presentation 3

You are on page 1of 79

HOSPITAL BUILDING

K.Aslam

[Reg.No.11609103006]

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

IN

CIVIL ENGINEERING

THIRUVALLUR

APRIL 2012

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report entitled

SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF MULTI STROREYED HOSPITAL

BUILDING is the bonafied project work done by K.ASLAM (Reg.No.11609103006) in

partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Engineering Degree in

Civil Engineering under Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering & Technology during

the year 2011-2012.

Internal Guide

S.SANTHANA RAMAN,M.E,C.A.R(CSU)USA

Dean& Project Guide

Department of Civil Engineering.

S.V.C.E.T.

Mrs.GAYATRI PADHY,B.E

Head of the Department

Department of Civil Engineering

S.V.C.E.T.

External Guide

Dr.S.JUSTIN

Engineering Manager

SDDH,

EDRC, Larsen & Toubro,

Chennai.

Mr.UP.VIJAY

Assistant Engineering Manager,

EDRC, Larsen & Toubro,

Chennai.

Mr.M.RAMPRATHAP

Assistant Engineering Manager,

EDRC, Larsen & Toubro,

Chennai.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this oppurtunity to thank Mr.Bikram K.Naik [HR Manager, EDRC Division] and

Mr.Mukesh Kumar Singh [HR Manager P&OD] for giving me the oppurtunity to work with

Larsen & Toubro.

I thank Dr.S.Justin [Engineer Manager (SDDH),EDRC], Mr.UP.Vijay [Assitant Engineering

Manager] and Mr.M.Ramprathap [Assistant Engineering Manager] without them this project

would not have been possible. Their feedback, comments and suggestions were helpful

throughout the entire work.

I also thank all other Engineers of the Health and Leisure Division of B&F, L&T for guiding

me throughtout the program.

I thank Dr.Suresh Mohan Kumar M.Tech,Ph.D our Principal, for giving me the oppurtunity

to work with Larsen & Toubro Limited and I thank Mr.S.Santhanaraman M.E,C.A.R (CSU)

USA and Mrs.Gayatri Padhy,B.E. without them this project would not have been possible

throughout the entire work.

Last but not the least I thank my friends and family for their whole hearted support and

cooperation.

K.ASLAM

ABSTRACT

Industrial training is an essential in the development of the practical and professional skills

required of an Engineer and as an aid to prospective employment undertaking the training in

a reputed firm adds to the advantage. The training was done with Larsen & Toubro, Chennai.

The work allotted during the Indutrial Training period was the Seismic Analysis and Design

of multistoryed New Teaching Hospital block at Agartala one of the projects undertaken by

L&T.

Earthquake Engineering was developed a lot from the early days and seismically analysing

the structures requires specialized explicit finite element analysis software,which divides the

element into very small slices and models the actual physics. The seismic analysis of the

proposed building was done in the software ETABS, version- 9.7, which is one of the most

advanced software in the structural design field. The loads applied on the structure was based

on IS:875(part I)-1987[dead load],IS:875(part II)-1987[live load], IS:875(part III)-1987[wind

load], IS:1893-2000 [Earthquake load]. Scale factor is calculated from the design base shear

(Vb) to the base shear calculated using fundamental time period (Ta).

Once the analysis was completed all the structural components were designed according to

Indian standard code IS:456-2000. Footing, columns, beams, slab, staircase and shear wall

were designed. Ductile detailing of the structural elements were done as per code IS:139201993.

LIST OF CONTENTS

PAGE NO.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

10

13

14

14

14

14

15

16

4.7.8 Analysis

17

18

23

23

23

24

24

25

26

26

26

26

28

5.11 Output

30

36

6.1 General

36

36

37

37

38

39

39

39

40

40

41

7.1 General

41

42

42

42

43

43

44

44

45

46

8.1 General

46

47

47

47

48

48

49

49

49

50

51

51

53

53

53

54

54

54

55

55

56

57

10.1 General

57

7

59

59

59

60

60

61

11.1 General

61

61

62

62

62

63

63

64

64

12. Conclusion

65

13. References

66

LIST OF SYMBOLS

Asc

Ast

A sv

Ag

B.M

Bending Moment

C/C

Center to Center

Effective depth

DL

Dead load

Df

Depth of flange

EL

Earthquake load

fck

fy

Clear Span

L.L

Live Load

k1

K1

K2

Ld

Development Length

Leff

Effective length

Lx

Ly

M.F

Modification factor

9

M.R

Moment of Resistance

Mu

Ultimate Moment

Mu limit

Pu

Pt

Percentage of reinforcement

R.C.C

Spacing of reinforcement

S.F

Shear force

Torsion moment

Vu

Shear force

WL

Wind load

Zp

10

LIST OF TABLES

PAGE NO.

11

11

12

12

5. Seismic zone

14

17

18

19

20

20

22

28

54

54

11

LIST OF FIGURES

PAGE NO.

1. Location map

01

2. Panel drawing

07

09

10

5. Soil classification

15

22

23

23

24

24

25

25

26

26

27

27

28

30

31

32

21. Diaphragm

33

34

12

35

36

38

40

41

45

50

51

53

55

56

58

60

61

64

13

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 NEW TEACHING HOSPITAL BUILDING:

Figure1-location map

The New teaching hospital block located at Agartala. The total build up area of the hospital

building is 12596.67 square meter and having five floors (G+5). The Hospital building

consists of various divisions like Ortho ward,Orthopedic ward, Opthamal ward, ENT ward,

major and minor operation theaters, out patient ward, seminar halls for medical students,

scanning and X-ray centre and medicine store room etc. The building located at seismic

prone zone (zone factor V). The building has designed according to the Earthquake resistant

considerations.

14

1.2.1 Vision and Mission

The design and execution of New teaching hospital block were awarded to Larsen & Toubro

Limited (L&T) is an Indian multinational conglomerate company headquarted in Mumbai,

India. The company has four main sectors; Technology, Engineering, Construction and

Manufacturing. L&T has an international presence with a global spread of office and

factories further, supplemented by a comprehensive marketing and distribution network. The

firm has more than 60 units in 25 countries. Domestic business with in India dominates, but

the company steadily growing its global operations with a focus on China and Middle East.

The company was founded in Mumbai in 1938 by Danish Engineers, Mr.Henning HlockLarsen and Seren Kristian Toubro. In 1944 ECC was incorporated by the partners; presently

ECC(Engineering Construction & Contracts Division of L&T) is the largest contruction

organization. L&T covers various disciplines of construction- Civil, Mechanical,

Instrumentation and Electrical.

The design wing of L&T, EDRC division provides consultancy design and total Engineering

solutions to customers. It carries out both residential and commercial projects. The training

work was carried out in the EDRC division of L&T.

2.0 FEATURES OF PROJECT

The project consists of Seismic Analysis and Design of New Teaching Hospital block (NTH)

located at Agartala. The architectural drawings of NTH were done in the Auto CAD 2010 and

the structural modeling was done by using ETABS software. The concrete mix used for all

the structural member is M 30 and steel is Fe 500. The load combination were taken to obtain

the maximum design loads, bending moments and shear forces. The structural element

designs were carried as per IS:456-2000 for the load combinations. Earthquake resistant

design detailing of the structure was done as per IS:13920-1993.

15

ETABS is sophisticated software for analysis and design program developed specifically for

buildings systems. ETABS version-9.7 features an in intuitive and powerful graphical

interface coupled with unmatched modeling, analytical, and design procedures, all integrated

using common database. Although quick and easy for simple structures, ETABS can also

handle the largest and most complex building models, including a wide range of nonlinear

behaviors, making it the tool of choice for structural engineers in the building industry.

3.1 MODELING FEATURES

The ETABS building is idealized as an assemblage of area, line and point objects. Those

objects are used to represent wall, floor, column, beam, brace and link / spring physical

members. The basic frame geometry is defined with reference to a simple three-dimensional

grid system. With relatively simple modeling techniques, very complex framing situations

may be considered.

The building may be unsymmetrical and non-regulator in plan, Torsional behavior of the

floors and understory compatibility of the floors are accurately reflected in the results. The

solution enforces complete three-dimensional displacement compatibility, making it possible

to capture tubular effects associated with the behavior of tall structures having relatively

closely spaced columns.

Semi-rigid floor diaphragms may be modeled to capture the effects of in plane floor

deformations. Floor objective may span between adjacent levels to create sloped floors

(ramps), which can be useful for modeling parking garage structures.

3.2 ANALYSIS FEATURES

Static analysis for user specified vertical and lateral floor on story loads are possible. If floor

elements with plate bending capability are modeled, vertical uniform loads on the floor are

transferred to the beams and columns through bending of the floor elements.

The program can automatically generate lateral wind and seismic load patterns to meet the

requirements of various building codes. Three dimensional mode shapes and frequencies,

model participation factors, direction factors and participating mass percentage are evaluated

16

using Eigen vector or Ritz-vector analysis-Delta analysis effects may be included with static

or dynamic analysis.

Response spectrum analysis, linear time history analysis, nonlinear analysis and static

nonlinear analysis are possible. The static nonlinear capabilities also allow you to perform

incremental construction analysis, so that forces that arise as a result of construction sequence

are included. Results from the various static load cases may be combined with each other or

with the results from the dynamic response dynamic response spectrum or time history

method.

Output may be viewed graphically, displayed in tabular output, the types of output include

reactions, member forces, mode shapes, participation factors, static and dynamic story

displacements and story shears inter story drifts and joint displacements, time history traces

and more.

17

4.1 GENERAL DATA

Structure

=G+5

= 4.0 m

= M 30

= 25kN/m3

= 24kN/m3

= 10kN/m3

= 20kN/m3

4.2.1 TYPICAL FLOOR SLAB:

Self-weight of slab (150mm thick)

= 3.75 kN/m2

Floor Finish

= 1.5 kN/m2

Total Load

= 5.25 kN/m2

Self-weight of slab (150mm thick)

= 3.75 kN/m2

= 3.20 kN/m2

Total Load

= 6.95 kN/ m2

Living room, Toilet & Bath room

= 3.00 kN/m2

= 3.00 kN/m2

= 4.00 kN/m2

18

= 4.00 kN/m2

Terrace Floor

= 1.5 kN/m2

ICU

= 3.00 kN/m2

Lounge

= 3.00 kN/m2

Nurse station

= 3.00 kN/m2

Operation Theatres

= 3.00 kN/m2

Dining room

= 4.00 kN/m2

Waiting room

= 4.00 kN/m2

4.4.1 Member load due to 230mm thick exterior wall

Wall thickness

= 230 mm

Floor Height

= 4000 mm

Beam Depth

= 750 mm

= 15kN/m

Wall thickness

= 115 mm

Floor Height

= 4000 mm

Beam Depth

= 750 mm

(0.115 (4-0.75) 20

= 7.5 kN/m

4.5.1 PLINTH LEVEL

Beam size

= 300750mm

= 250.75 0.33.42

19

= 19.24kN/m

Self-weight of beam (B2)

= 25 0.75 0.34.28

= 24.08kN/m

= 25 0.75 0.33.60

= 20.25kN/m

= 25 0.75 0.34.95

= 27.85kN/m

= (0.115(4-0.75)20

= 7.5kN/m

Column size

= 750750mm

Self-weight of column C1

= 45.70kN

= 159.62 kN/m

.

Figure 2-Panel drawing

4.5.2 FLOOR LEVEL

Beam size

= 300750mm

20

= 25 0.75 0.33.42

= 19.24kN/m

= 25 0.750.34.28

= 24.08kN/m

= 25 0.75 0.33.60

= 20.25kN/m

= 25 0.75 0.34.95

= 27.85kN/m

Self-weight of Slab

= 25 0.159.237.02

= 242.98kN/m

Column size

= 750750mm

Self-weight of column

= 45.70kN

= 0.115(4-0.75) 20

= 7.5kN/m

= 5.59.237.02

= 356.37kN/m2

Total dead load

= 2417.72kN/m

= 157.50kN/m

= 2138.22kN/m

Total load

= 4713.44 kN/m

= 4737.58 kN/m

21

4.6 WIND LOAD CALCULATION

Wind is air in motion relative to the surface of the earth. The primary cause of wind is traced

to earths rotation and differences in terrestrial radiation. The radiation effects are primarily

responsible for convection either upwards or downwards. The wind generally blows

horizontal to the ground at high wind speeds. Since vertical components of atmospheric

motion are relatively small, the term wind denotes almost exclusively the horizontal wind,

vertical winds are always identified as such. The wind speed is assessed with the aid of

anemometers or anemographs.

4.6.1BASIC WIND SPEED:

Basic wind speed is based on peak gust velocity averaged over a short time interval of about

three seconds and corresponds to mean heights above ground level in an open terrain. Basic

wind speed given in figure1 in IS 875(part):1987.

4.6.2 DESIGN WIND SPEED:

The basic wind speed for any site is obtained from figure and shall be modified to include the

following effects to get design wind velocity at any height shall be modified to include the

following effects to get design wind velocity at any height(Vz) for the chosen structure:

Vz = Vb k1k2 k3

22

The suggested life period to be assumed in design and the corresponding k1 factors for

different structures for different class of structures given in table 1, IS 875(part):1987. k 2 is

the terrain, Height and structure size factor given in table 2, IS 875(part):1987. k3 is the

topography factor given in table 3, IS 875(part):1987.

4.6.3 DESIGN WIND PRESSURE:

The design wind pressure at any height above mean ground level shall be obtained by the

following relationship between wind pressure and wind velocity

Pz = 0.6Vz2

4.6.4 WIND FORCES:

The value of force coefficient apply to the building or structure as a whole and multiplied by

effective frontal area of the building by design wind pressure, P z gives the total wind load on

that particular building or structure. The force coefficients are given in two mutually

perpendicular directions relative to reference axis of the structural member. They are

designed as Cpn and Cpt, give the normal and transverse, respectively to the reference plane.

Fn = Cpn Pzlb

Ft= Cpt Pz lb

Basic wind speed at Agartala (As per IS 875-1987)

= 50km/s (Vb)

=2

=C

= 1.08

=1

a=53.0m

b=36m

a=53.0m

h=28.0m

Fig4.A- Plan

23

In Y-direction (b/a)

= 0.68

In Y-direction (h/a)

= 0.53

= 53.0m

= 36m

Height(m)

K2

10

0.93

15

0.97

20

1.00

30

1.04

50

1.10

Design speed Vz

= Vb K1 K2 K3

Load

Story

Height(m)

K2

Vz(km/s)

X in Load

Pz=0.6Vz2(kN) direction(kN)

in

direction(kN)

FIRST

4.0

0.930

50.22

1.513

351.32

577.36

SECOND

8.0

0.930

50.22

1.513

234.21

384.91

THIRD

12.0

0.950

51.30

1.579

244.43

401.69

FOURTH

16.0

0.979

52.87

1.677

259.60

426.63

FIFTH

20.0

1.000

54.00

1.749

270.75

444.95

TERRACE

24.0

1.016

54.86

1.805

139.71

229.60

Total

1500.02

2465.14

24

Story

Point

Load

FX

FY

FZ

MX

MY

MZ

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

BASE

WINDPX

-3.94

-0.36

-11.44

0.304

-15.199

0.071

BASE

WINDPX

-5.17

0.35

1.63

-1.013

-16.898

-0.036

BASE

58

WINDPX

-0.22

-7.95

-30.13

0.341

-0.544

0.041

BASE

59

WINDPX

-0.35

10.82

42.97

-0.494

-0.649

0.05

BASE

96

WINDPX

-6.44

-0.43

119.41

1.174

-18.245

0.121

BASE

115

WINDPX

-6.22

0.15

-13.46

-0.426

-19.163

-0.216

BASE

379

WINDPX

-27.28

-0.03

-107.35

0.097

-2.789

BASE

380

WINDPX

-27.92

-33.24

0.012

-2.75

BASE

184

WINDPX

-4.39

-0.13

-1.19

0.179

-0.241

-0.001

BASE

191

WINDPX

3.41

-0.67

-16.6

0.358

-0.051

0.007

BASE

200

WINDPX

-3.12

0.06

-2.57

0.054

-0.102

0.002

BASE

201

WINDPX

4.55

-0.78

23.06

0.423

-0.029

-0.007

FX

FY

FZ

MX

MY

MZ

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

Summation

WINDPX 1500.02

Story

Point

Load

BASE

WINDPY

-1.01

-6.36

-33.52

23.774

-3.106

-0.198

BASE

WINDPY

-1.36

-9.92

-34.13

31.666

-3.66

-0.205

BASE

WINDPY

-1.94

-6.61

-39.98

25.27

-4.641

-0.171

BASE

73

WINDPY

-18.29

-0.3

-62.8

0.695

-0.976

-0.097

BASE

74

WINDPY

5.39

-65.76

-255.22

6.363

-0.504

0.21

BASE

117

WINDPY

-0.6

-2.1

-224.58

BASE

119

WINDPY

0.75

-2.38

-229.76

BASE

374

WINDPY

20.31

-0.44

94.16

1.313

1.667

BASE

375

WINDPY

20.38

-0.46

105.38

1.36

1.582

0.001

BASE

197

WINDPY

2.35

0.3

-4.6

0.196

0.157

-0.002

BASE

199

WINDPY

-19.47

-1.77

31.28

0.924

-0.613

0.034

BASE

200

WINDPY

-3.02

0.32

-5.15

0.212

-0.177

0.003

BASE

201

WINDPY

14.03

-2.17

77.89

1.349

0.306

-0.02

Summation

WINDPY

2465.14

25

During an earthquake, ground motions develop in a random manner both horizontally and

vertically in all directions radiating from the epicenter. The ground motions develop

vibrations in the structure inducing inertial forces on them. Hence structures located in

seismic zones should be suitably designed and detailed to ensure strength, serviceability and

stability with acceptable levels of safety under seismic forces.

The satisfactory performance of a large number of reinforced concrete structures subject to

severe earthquake in various parts of the world has demonstrated that it is possible to design

structures to successfully withstand the destructive effects of major earthquakes.

The Indian standard codes IS: 1893-1984 and IS: 13920-1993 have specified the minimum

design requirements of earthquake resistant design probability of occurrence of earthquakes,

the characteristics of the structure and the foundation and the acceptable magnitude of

damage.

Determination of design earthquake forces is computed by the following methods,

1) Equivalent static lateral loading.

2) Dynamic Analysis.

In the first method, different partial safety factors are applied to dead, live, wind earthquake

forces to arrive at the design ultimate load. In the IS: 456-2000 code, while considering

earthquake effects, wind loads assuming that both severe wind and earthquake do not act

simultaneously. The American and Australian code recommendations are similar but with

different partial safety factors.

The dynamic analysis involves the rigorous analysis of the structural system by studying the

dynamic response of the structure by considering the total response in terms of component

modal responses.

4.7.1 ZONE FACTOR (Z):

The values of peak ground acceleration given in units g for the maximum

considered earthquake.

26

The value of (Z/2) corresponds to design basis earthquake damage control in limit

state.

Based on history of seismic activities seism tectonic understanding the entire country

has been divided in to four zones. The zone factor from table 2(IS 1893:2002)

Seismic zone

II

III

IV

Seismic Intensity

Low

Moderate

Severe

Very severe

0.10

0.16

0.24

0.36

4.7.2 RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR (R):

R is the response reduction factor and controls the permitted damage in design basis

earthquake.

special ductile detailing requirements are must and the designer is accepting more

damages but in the controlled manner. The Response reduction factor from table 7(IS

1893:2002)

I is the importance factor and permitted damage could be reduced by setting the value

of I more than 1.

For the buildings like HOSPITALS, communication and community buildings the

value is 1.5 from table 6 (IS 1893:2002).

Seismic weight of the building is measured in Newton. Seismic weight includes the

dead loads (that of floor, slabs, finishes, columns, beams, water tanks, permanent

machines etc.

Seismic weight includes only a part of Imposed loads, for example 25% to 50% of

imposed loads for buildings from table 8 (IS 1893:2002).

27

three different types of curves are recommended in IS 1893:2002 for different

stiffness of supporting media-Rock, Medium soil and Soft soil.

The classification of soil is based on the average shear velocity for 30m of rock or soil

layers or based on average Standard Penetration Test (SPT) values for top 30m.

2.5

Soil)

1.5

0.5

0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Period (s)

Fi

Zone factor of the building

(Z)

= 0.36 (Zone V)

(I)

(R)

Soil type

= Soft soil

= 53.0m

= 36m

= 28m

= 177309kN

28

The design base shear is the sum of lateral forces applied at all levels that are finally

transferred to the ground.

Vb

= Ah W

Ah

= (ZI/2R)(Sa/ g)

= 0.075(h) 0.75

Ta

Ta (X-Direction)

= 0.913

Ta (Y-Direction)

= 0.913

Sa/g

= 1.67/T = 1.83

Ah (X-Direction)

= 0.099

Ah (Y-Direction)

= 0.099

Ta

Ta (X-Direction)

Sa/g

Ah (X-Direction)

= (0.09h)/d

= 0.420 & Ta (Y-Direction) = 0.346

= 2.5

= 0.135 &Ah (Y-Direction)

= 0.135

Base shear (X direction) (AhW)

= 17554kN

= 17554kN

Base shear (X direction) (AhW)

= 23937kN

= 23937kN

29

Base shear in X-direction using Code

= 20746kN

= 20746kN

= 6760kN

= 6173.94kN

4.7.7 ANALYSIS

Analysis options are set before the analysis, the analysis is performed with a scale factor 1.

The number of modes is initially set as 1.5 after anlysis. If the cumulative mass participation

factor is less than 95 percentage, then it is modified accordingly with base shear values

obtained for the earth quake load case the new scale factor is calculated and again the model

is analysed for the new scale factor. It can be observed that the base shear value calculated

from the code and by the software with the new scale factor are the same.

6. Base shear in X-direction using ETABS model- Table 6

Story

Point

Load

FX

FY

FZ

MX

MY

MZ

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

BASE

SPECX 21.12

6.06

51.23

23.359

78.266

0.911

BASE

SPECX 26.97

8.54

30.56

25.089

86.532

1.435

BASE

SPECX 29.62

3.71

63.14

11.368

90.891

1.676

BASE

SPECX 161.37

34.86

772.61

1.607

14.971

0.587

BASE

SPECX 190.16

4.52

19.77

0.66

20.901

0.464

BASE

SPECX 161.54

29.35

759.54

1.607

15.034

0.604

BASE

62

SPECX 36.09

4.51

13.19

12.545

100.706

1.788

BASE

66

SPECX 10.92

1.08

12.92

BASE

115

SPECX 26.77

4.34

63.2

12.201

80.561

2.515

BASE

1591

SPECX 0.11

6.7

0.93

BASE

1592

SPECX 0.82

6.79

5.12

BASE

1594

SPECX 2.23

7.86

15.27

BASE

1595

SPECX 0.08

5.91

11.84

Sum

6760

30

Story

Point

Load

FX

FY

FZ

MX

MY

MZ

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

BASE

SPECY 5.67

14.41

91.79

52.89

17.692

1.018

BASE

SPECY 6.92

25.76

92.27

77.876

19.551

2.137

BASE

SPECY 8.2

18.87

118.39

65.448

21.629

1.569

BASE

SPECY 66.6

69.75

520.95

6.717

4.599

0.125

BASE

159

SPECY 0.34

39.45

118.78

5.311

0.793

0.009

BASE

160

SPECY 0.15

68.93

307.44

6.871

0.433

0.001

BASE

172

SPECY 11.22

0.16

77.79

BASE

174

SPECY 60.13

0.3

402.37

BASE

1587

SPECY 0.19

105.15

76.18

BASE

1588

SPECY 0.1

107.69

219.67

BASE

1591

SPECY 0.01

54.74

65.87

BASE

1592

SPECY 0.2

65.62

205.77

BASE

1594

SPECY 0.47

98.15

299.42

BASE

1595

SPECY 0.03

46.88

222.45

Sum

6173.94

Summation of support reaction gives the seismic weight of the building. Base shear in

X direction calculated as per the code. ETABS did the dynamic analysis and total base shear

in X and Y direction are found from results. The ratio of base shear obtained from code to

that obtained from dynamic analysis gives the shear force in X and Y direction. Since the

spectra value for different time period is calculated manually the base shear values might not

be the same values obtained from manual calculations. Thus the new scale factor is calculated

and the structure reanalyzed to obtain the new base shear values.

Base shear (from Analysis)

Base shear in X-direction using Code

= 20746kN

= 20746kN

31

= 6760kN

= 6173.94kN

= 3.07

= 3.36

Story

Point

Load

FX

FY

FZ

MX

MY

MZ

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

BASE

SPECX 64.85

18.61

157.27

71.713

240.277 2.796

BASE

SPECX 82.81

26.2

93.83

77.024

265.653 4.404

BASE

SPECX 90.92

11.39

193.85

34.901

279.036 5.146

BASE

SPECX 495.42

107.03

2371.91 4.934

45.96

BASE

115

SPECX 82.19

13.33

194.02

37.458

247.321 7.72

BASE

117

SPECX 21.32

6.37

714.21

BASE

119

SPECX 23.94

6.78

724.44

BASE

121

SPECX 13.81

5.94

40.5

BASE

442

SPECX 340.62

9.65

1323.44 8.414

34.379

0.113

BASE

1587

SPECX 0.81

99.15

997.9

BASE

1588

SPECX 0.68

87.3

1162.35 0

BASE

1591

SPECX 0.32

20.57

2.86

BASE

1592

SPECX 2.52

20.84

15.73

BASE

1594

SPECX 6.84

24.14

46.89

BASE

1595

SPECX 0.26

18.13

36.35

Sum

1.803

20753.07

Story

Point

Load

FX

FY

FZ

MX

MY

MZ

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

BASE

SPECY

19.05

48.43

308.4

177.711

59.445

3.419

BASE

SPECY

23.25

86.57

310.02

261.662

65.691

7.179

BASE

SPECY

27.56

63.42

397.8

219.907

72.672

5.271

32

BASE

SPECY

223.79

234.38

1750.39

22.57

15.453

0.422

BASE

119

SPECY

10.08

20.21

2062.4

BASE

121

SPECY

4.34

22.2

24.92

BASE

123

SPECY

2.91

62.47

11.13

156.838

5.821

0.665

BASE

440

SPECY

210.17

7.31

1056.86

14.678

17.001

0.01

BASE

442

SPECY

216.26

17.22

1617.36

21.921

16.802

0.136

BASE

1592

SPECY

0.67

220.5

691.38

BASE

1594

SPECY

1.58

329.78

1006.05

BASE

1595

SPECY

0.09

157.52

747.42

Sum

20744.37

= 20746 kN

= 20746 kN

= 20753.07 kN

= 20744.37 kN

Period

Acceleration

(seconds)

Sa/g

(m2/s)

1.000

0.530

0.1

2.500

1.324

0.2

2.500

1.324

0.3

2.500

1.324

0.4

4.175

2.212

0.5

3.340

1.769

0.6

2.783

1.474

0.7

2.386

1.264

0.8

2.088

1.106

0.9

1.856

0.983

1.670

0.885

1.1

1.518

0.804

1.2

1.392

0.737

33

1.3

1.285

0.681

1.4

1.193

0.632

1.5

1.113

0.590

1.6

1.044

0.553

1.7

0.982

0.520

1.8

0.928

0.491

1.9

0.879

0.466

0.835

0.442

2.1

0.795

0.421

2.2

0.759

0.402

2.3

0.726

0.385

2.4

0.696

0.369

2.5

0.668

0.354

2.6

0.642

0.340

2.7

0.619

0.328

2.8

0.596

0.316

2.9

0.576

0.305

0.557

0.295

3.1

0.539

0.285

3.2

0.522

0.276

3.3

0.506

0.268

3.4

0.491

0.260

3.5

0.477

0.253

3.6

0.464

0.246

3.7

0.451

0.239

3.8

0.439

0.233

3.9

0.428

0.227

0.418

0.221

34

11. Seismic weight output-Table 11

Story

Point

Load

FX

FY

FZ

MX

MY

MZ

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

BASE

SISWT

27.65

21.32

2497.5

-34.428

42.726

0.476

BASE

SISWT

6.31

19.1

4190.33

-33.679

12.518

-0.08

BASE

SISWT

0.11

19.9

3577.2

-33.288

3.005

0.052

BASE

72

SISWT

-17.8

-13.2

2293.75

19.13

-29.645

-0.359

BASE

73

SISWT

55.84

-1.31

243.8

1.129

2.512

-0.173

BASE

74

SISWT

-57.53

62.27

545.42

-4.294

-3.983

0.017

BASE

148

SISWT

-13.74

-31.27

3478.73

54.117

-21.508

0.292

BASE

149

SISWT

-15.04

-14.49

1985.17

20.963

-23.614

0.588

BASE

410

SISWT

21.85

53.21

477.07

-2.793

2.787

-0.171

BASE

416

SISWT

-0.1

22.94

277.04

1.069

0.413

-0.059

BASE

198

SISWT

34.07

-1.58

56.5

0.839

1.065

-0.028

BASE

199

SISWT

-33.99

-1.54

56.36

0.832

-1.057

0.028

BASE

200

SISWT

-7.72

0.22

-8.62

0.142

-0.455

Sum

177309.1

35

The primary purpose of structural analysis in building structure is to establish the distribution

of internal forces and moment over the whole or part of the structure and to identify the

critical design conditions at all sections the geometry is commonly idealised by considering

the structure to make up of linear elements. Here the structural analysis is carried out by

ETABS

5.1 BASIC GRID SYSTEM:

Begin creating the grid system by clicking the File menu > New model command or the New

model icon. The form shown in figure below wil display. Select the No option on that form

the next figure will display.

5.2 DEFINE GEOMETRY:

The Building Plan Grid System and Storey Data form is used to specify horizontal and

vertical grid line spacing, storey data, storey elevation and units. They automatically add the

structural objects with appropriate properties to the model.

36

The material properties of each object in the model is specified in the appropriate form. The

material used is concrete, the grade of concrete, the properties of concrete such as Mass per

unit volume, Modulus of Elasticity of concrete,Poisson ratio are specified and for steel yield

strength is specified.

5.4 DEFINE FRAME SECTION:

Assign the frame section such as Column and Beam. Select the section property as Rectangle

and define the depth,width and reinfprcement details,cover provisions.similarly for various

sections like circular,pipe, steel joist sections aiso assigned with suitable data.

37

5.5 DEFINE WALL OR SLAB SECTION:

Assign the slab or wall section then assign the section name,thickness,material used,type and

reinforcement details.

38

The lateral loads can be in the form of wind or seismic loads, the loads are automatically

calculated from the dimensions and properties of the structure based on built-in options for a

variety of building codes. For Rigid diaphragm systems, the wind loads applied at the

geometric centers of each rigid floor diaphragm.

5.7 DEFINE RESPONSE SPECTRUM FUNCTION:

Functions are defined to describe how a load varies as a function of period, time or

frequency.

5.8 RESPONSE SPECTRUM FUNCTIONS

Response spectrum functions are pseudo spectral acceleration versus period functions for use

in response spectrum analysis. In this program the acceleration values to be normalized; that

39

is, the functions themselves are not assumed to have units. Instead, the units are associated

with a scale factor that multiplies the function and is specified when we define the response

spectrum case.

5.9 STATIC LOAD CASES:

Loads represent the actions upon the structure, such as force, pressure, support displacement,

thermal effects and others. A spatial distribution of loads upon the structure is called static

load case. Define as many load cases as needed. Typically separate load case definitions

would be used for dead load, live load, static earthquake load, wind load, snow load, and

Thermal load.

40

Define the load combinations in the appropriate form; Select the Add new combo option,

then enter the load combination name, assign the loads with suitable scale factor. When the

combination is defined, it applies to the results for every object in the model.

12. Load combination -Table 12

COMB

DEAD LOAD

LIVELOAD<3

LIVELOAD>3

COMB01

1.5 DEADLOAD +

1.5LIVELOAD +

1.5 LIVELOAD

COMB02

1.2 DEADLOAD +

0.6LIVELOAD +

0.3 LIVELOAD

+1.2 E.Q.LOADX

COMB03

1.2 DEADLOAD +

0.6 LIVELOAD +

0.3 LIVELOAD

+1.2 E.Q.LOADY

COMB04

1.5 DEADLOAD +

+1.5 E.Q.LOADX

COMB05

1.5 DEADLOAD +

+1.5 E.Q.LOADY

COMB06

0.9 DEADLOAD +

-1.5 E.Q.LOADX

COMB07

0.9 DEADLOAD +

-1.5 E.Q.LOADY

COMB08

1.2 DEADLOAD +

1.2 LIVELOAD +

1.2 LIVELOAD

+1.2WINDLOADX

COMB09

1.2 DEADLOAD +

1.2 LIVELOAD +

1.2 LIVELOAD

-1.2WINDLOADX

COMB10

1.2 DEADLOAD +

1.2 LIVELOAD +

1.2 LIVELOAD

+1.2WINDLOADY

COMB11

1.2 DEADLOAD +

1.2 LIVELOAD +

1.2 LIVELOAD

-1.2WINDLOADY

COMB12

1.5 DEADLOAD +

+1.5WINDLOADX

COMB13

1.5 DEADLOAD +

-1.5 WINDLOADX

COMB14

1.5 DEADLOAD +

+1.5WINDLOADY

41

WIND/ E.QLOAD

COMB15

1.5 DEADLOAD +

-1.5 WINDLOADY

COMB16

0.9 DEADLOAD +

+1.5WINDLOADX

COMB17

0.9 DEADLOAD +

-1.5 WINDLOADX

COMB18

0.9 DEADLOAD +

+1.5WINDLOADY

COMB19

0.9 DEADLOAD +

-1.5 WINDLOADY

UNFACTORED COMBINATION

COMB 20

1 DEADLOAD +

1 LIVELOAD +

1 LIVELOAD

COMB 21

1 DEADLOAD +

0.5 LIVELOAD +

0.25LIVELOAD

+1 E.Q.LOADX

COMB 22

1 DEADLOAD +

0.5 LIVELOAD +

0.25LIVELOAD

+1 E.Q.LOADY

COMB 23

1 DEADLOAD +

-1 E.Q.LOADX

COMB 24

1 DEADLOAD +

-1 E.Q.LOADY

COMB 25

1 DEADLOAD +

1 LIVELOAD +

1 LIVELOAD

+1 WINDLOADX

COMB 26

1 DEADLOAD +

1 LIVELOAD +

1 LIVELOAD

-1 WINDLOADX

COMB 27

1 DEADLOAD +

1 LIVELOAD +

1 LIVELOAD

+1 WINDLOADY

COMB 28

1 DEADLOAD +

1 LIVELOAD +

1 LIVELOAD

-1 WINDLOADY

COMB 29

1 DEADLOAD +

+1 WINDLOADX

COMB 30

1 DEADLOAD +

-1 WINDLOADX

COMB 31

1 DEADLOAD +

+1 WINDLOADY

COMB 32

1 DEADLOAD +

-1 WINDLOADY

42

A) OUTPUT: 3D-MODEL OF A RC FRAME

43

44

45

D) DIAPHRAGM

46

47

48

6.1GENERAL

In a typical structure built on a ground, that part of structure which is located above the

ground is generally referred to as the superstructure and the part which lies below ground is

referred to as substructure or foundation. The purpose of the foundation is to effectively

support the superstructure by

Transmitting the applied load effects to the soil below without exceeding the safe

bearing capacity of soil.

Ensuring that the settlement of the structure is within the tolerable limits, and as

uniform as possible.

Further the foundation should provide adequate safety against possible instability due to

overturning or sliding and possible pullout.

Footings belong to the category of shallow foundation, types of footings are Isolated footing,

Combined footing and Wall footing.

In some cases it may be inconvenient to provide separate isolated footings for columns (or

walls) on account of inadequate areas available in plan. This may occur when two or more

columns are located close to each other or if they are relatively heavily loaded and rest on soil

with low safe bearing capacity resulting in an overlap of areas if isolated footings are

attempted. In such cases it is advantageous to provide a single footing for the column.

Isolated footing

Figure 24-Types of footing

6.2 DESIGN OF ISOLATED FOOTING

For ordinary structures located on reasonably firm soil, it usually suffices to provide a

separate footing is also called an isolated column. It is generally square or rectangular in plan

other shapes are resorted to under special circumstances. The footing basically comprises a

thick slab which may be flat, stepped or sloped.

49

6.3.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS:

Grade of concrete using

(fck)

= 30N/mm2

(fy)

= 500 N/mm2

= 1.5D.L+1.5E.L

Axial load

= 1584.89 kN

= 18.26 kNm

= 16.13 kNm

= 100 kN/ m2

= 25kN/m3

= Square footing

= Flat

= 1.151584.89 kN

Total weight

= 1822.62 kN(unfactored)

q (SBC of soil)

= 100 kN/ m2

=1 (L=B)

= 4.4m4.4 m

P1

= 96.01 kN/ m2

P2

= 93.73 kN/ m2

P3

= 94.55 kN/ m2

P4

= 92.27 kN/ m2

= 700 mm

= 17.5 kN/ m2

50

6.3.2 BENDING MOMENT IN X DIRECTION

Cantilever projection along X

= 1.825 m

Mx [94.220.51.8252]+[.51.8251.945.671.825]-[17.50.51.8252] =129.91kNm

Steel required along X direction

Mu lim

= 0.138f ck bd2

Depth required

= 178mm

= 637mm

= 0.48

Percentage of steel

= 0.117

= 0.75

=111.50

51

Cantilever projection along Y

= 1.825 m

My[94.220.51.8252]+[.51.8251.945.671.825]-[17.50.51.8252]=129.91kNm

Steel required along Y direction

Mu lim

= 0.138f ck bd2

Depth required

= 178mm

= 637mm

= 0.48

Percentage of steel

= 0.117

= 0.75

Provide 25mm diameter bars at spacing of 100mm c/c.

Critical section located a distance of d from the face of the column.

Average pressure (95.187+94.215)/2

= 94.70 kN/ m2

= 94.60

= 0.22N/ mm2

= 0.59N/ mm2

v

< c

Average pressure (94.345+94.14)/2

= 94.24 kN/ m2

Vu = 94.24 [(4.44.4)-(0.75+0.637)(0.75+0.637)]

=1563.06kN

= 0.66 N/ mm2

c = 0.25(fck)

= 1.37 N/ mm2

52

As some bars are in tension, no transfer of forces is possible through bearing at the column

footing interface. So, these bars may be extended into the footing.

Development length required for 32mm diameter bars (In tension)

Ld = (fy0.87)/ (41.61.8)

= 38

Ld = 38 32

= 1216mm

= 915mm

= 350mm

Y 25 AT 100 mm C/C = 25mm dia bars at 100mm c/c

53

7.1 GENERAL

The column is a compression member which is subjected (predominantly) to axial forces. The

IS 456:2000 code (clause 25.1.1) defines the column as a compression member the effective

length of which exceeds three times the least lateral dimension. The term pedestal is used to

describe a vertical compression member whose effective length is less than three times to

least lateral dimension.

Classification of columns

Based on type of Reinforcement:

1)

Tied columns

2)

Spiral columns

3)

Composite columns

Based on type of loading

1)

2)

3)

1)

Short columns

2)

54

7.2.1 DEIGN PARAMETERS:

Terrace level: C-1

Grade of concrete using

(fck)

= 30N/mm2

(fy)

= 500 N/mm2

= 1.5D.L+1.5E.L

Axial load

= 316.44kN

= 235.84kNm

= 128.0 kNm

= 750750mm

d'

= 60mm

Ratio of d/D

= 60/750= 0.08

Pt / fck

Pu / fck bd =(316103)/(30750750)

= 0.018

= 0.08

Mux1

=0.08307507502

=1012.50kNm

Ratio of d/D

Pt / fck

=60/750= 0.08

= 1.0/ 30

=0.03

Pu / fck bd =(1586103)/(30750750)

= 0.018

= 0.08

Muy1

=0.08307507502

=1012.50kNm

Percentage of reinforcement

= 1.0

= 17

= 17750750

= 9562 kN/m2

[Mux / Mux1] n + [Muy / Muy1] n 1

[Pu /Puz]

= (316.44/ 9562)

= 0.03

[Pu /Puz]0.2 so

=1

= 0.36

55

0.36

Pt

= 1.0

Ast

Ast

=5625mm2

Transverse reinforcement

Tie diameter

= long/4

25/4

= 6.25mm

St < or = 16

Tie spacing

=1625= 517mm

Spacing of ties should not greater than 300mm.

As per IS13920:1993

Spacing of hoops should not greater than = (1/4 of least lateral dimension)

(1/4)750=187.5mm

Provide 8 mm bars at spacing 190mm c/c as a transverse reinforcement

7.2.4 DESIGN PARAMETERS:

Fifth floor level

Grade of concrete using

(fck)

=30N/mm2

(fy)

= 500 N/mm2

= 1.5D.L+1.5E.L

Axial load

= 659.88kN/mm2

Mux

= 122.65kNm

Muy

= 59.10kNm

= 750750mm

d'

= 60mm

Ratio of d/D

= 60/750= 0.08

Pt / fck

Pu / fck bd

Mu/ fck bd2

(659.88103)/(30750750) = 0.04

[From the code IS 456- 1978 chart 48]

56

= 0.08

=0.08307507502

Mux1

=1012.50kNm

Ratio of d/D

=60/75= 0.08

Pt / fck

= 1.0/ 30=0.03

(659.88103)/(30750750) = 0.04

Pu / fck bd

Mu/ fck bd2

= 0.08

=0.08307507502

Muy1

=1012.50kNm

Percentage of reinforcement

= 1.0

= 17

= 17750750

= 9562 kN/m2

[Mux / Mux1] n + [Muy / Muy1] n 1

[Pu /Puz] = (659.88 / 9562.5)

= 0.07

[Pu /Puz]0.2 so

=1

= 0.18

0.18

[Muy / Muy1] n[From the code IS 456- 1978 chart 64]

1

=0.80> 0.05(calculated).

Pt

= 1.0

Ast

Ast

=5625mm2

57

58

8.1 GENERAL:

and shear stresses induced in it by loads acting on the member.

1. Singly reinforced beams

2. Doubly reinforced beams

3. Singly or doubly reinforced flanged beams

Singly Reinforced Beams.

In Singly reinforced simply supported beams or slabs reinforcing steel bars are placed

near the bottom of beam or slabs where they are most effective in resisting the tensile

stresses.

In the case of cantilever beams or slabs reinforcing steel bars are placed near the top

of the beam or slabs for the same reason.

A doubly reinforced concrete section is reinforced in both compression and tension regions.

The section of the beam or slab may be rectangle, T and L section. The necessity of using

steel in compression region arises due to two main reasons:

When depth of the section is restricted, the strength available from singly reinforced

section is in adequate.

At a support of a continuous beam or slab where bending moment changes sign. Such

a situation may also arise in the design of a beam circular in plan.

59

Flanged beams:

When a reinforced concrete slab is cast monolithically with the beam as in the case of

beam supported floor slab system, the beams can be considered as flanged beams with

slab acting as an effective flange on compression side.

less than that given by the following:

Ast min=0.85bd/ fy

The maximum area of compression reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04 bD.

Compression reinforcement shall be enclosed by stirrups for effective restraint. The

anchorage length of straight bars in compression shall be equal to the development

length of bars in compression.

Where the depth of the web in a beam exceeds 750 mm side face reinforcement shall

be provided along the two faces. The total area of such reinforcement shall be not less

than 0.1 percent of the web area and shall be distributed equally on two faces at a

spacing not exceeding 300 mm or web thickness whichever is less.

8.2.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS

Grade of concrete using

(fck)

= 30N/mm2

(fy)

= 500 N/mm2

= 8.20m

= 300750mm

8.2.2 BENDING MOMENT CALCULATION:

Maximum positive moment [Mmax]

= 124.61kNm

= 0.87

[From table 4 of SP:16] Pt

= 0.215

Ast = (Ptbd)/100

= 438.84mm2

60

= 360.16 mm2

Provide 3 numbers of 16mm dia bars

Maximum negative moment [Mmax]

= 300.20kNm

= 2.10

= 1097.10mm2

Ast = (Ptbd)/100

= 1097.10mm2

8.2.3 SHEAR REINFORCEMENT AT SUPPORT:

v = Vu/ b.d

Pt

=134103/300690

= 0.64

(1001097.10/690300)

= 0.50

= 0.50

c

< v

Vs

= Vu- (c bd)

(134-(0.530069010-3)

= 30.5kN

Sv = (0.875002113690)/ (30.5103)

As per ductile detailing should be greater than (d/4) = (690/4)

= 222mm

=172.50mm

Adopt stirrup spacing 200mm c/c for a distance 2d = 2690 =1.5m from the face of the

support.

8.2.4 SHEAR REINFORCEMENT AT MID SPAN:

v = Vu/ b.d

= 70.5103/300690

Pt

= 0.34

(1001097.10/750300)

= 0.5

= 0.5

> v

Asv/ b.Sv

= 0.4/ 0.87 fy

0.78582/ 300Sv

= 0.4/ 300500

Sv

= 182mm

< 0.75d

= 517.5mm

= 300 mm

61

< 300mm

So provide 8mm dia 2 legged stirrups at 100 mm c/c for a distance of L-4d = 8.20- 2.76 =

5.44m

8.2.5 DESIGN OF HANGER BARS:

Maximum shear due to secondary beam Vu

= 61.19kN

For single bar or single group of parallel bars all bent up to the same cross section.

Vus

= 0.87fyAsv Sin 2

0.87500.785122Sin60 2

= 170.34kN

8.2.6 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

Ld = (fy0.87)/ (41.61.8)

= 1.2

Development length = Ld + 10d- allowance for 90 bent.

1.2+(10.032)-(8.032)

= 1.7m

Deflection actual

= 26 mm

=0.58(438.82/452.16)500

= 281 N/mm2

Pt =(100452.16)/ bd

= 0.22

k1

= 0.95

Find k2

Pt =(1001205.86)/ bd

= 0.58

K2

= 0.9

Deflection allowable

= k1k226

Deflection allowable

= 0.950.926

= 22.23mm

11.26 < 22.23 Safe in deflection

62

2b -Y12 = 2 numbers of 12mm dia bars (top layer-2)

3c- Y16 = 3 numbers of 16mm dia bars (bottom layer-1)

Shear reinforcement =2d = 1500mm stirrup spacing 200mm c/c for a distance 2d = 2750

=1.5m from the face of the support.

63

9.1 ONE WAY AND TWO WAY SLAB

The most common type of structural element used to cover floors and roofs of buildings are

reinforced concrete slabs of different types. One way slabs are those supported on the two

opposite sides so that the loads are carried along one direction only. A common example of

one way slab is the verandah slab spanning in the shorter direction with main reinforcements

and distribution reinforcements in the transverse direction.

ONE -WAY SLAB

Reinforced concrete slabs supported on two opposite sides with their longer dimension

exceeding two times the shorter dimension are referred to as one- way slabs.[ Ly /Lx >2 ]

TWO WAY SLAB

Reinforced concrete slabs supported on all the four sides with their effective span in the

longer direction not exceeding two times the effective span in the shorter direction are

designed as two way slabs. Two- way slabs bending moments are maximum at the centre of

the slab and the larger moment invariably develops along the short span. [Ly /Lx 2]

64

Shorter of the two spans should be used for calculating the span to effective

depth ratios.

For two way slab of shorter span- up to 3.5m with fy=250, the span to overall

depth ratios given below & vertical deflection limits up to 3 kN per square

meter.

1. fy = 500, values given below should be multiplied to 0.8.

2. Simply Supported slabs = 35

Span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m

i. Cantilever =7

ii. Simply supported =20

iii. Continuous = 26

Spans above 10m- value may be multiplied by 10/span in m.

Effective span

Simply Supported slab & Continuous slab(width of the support is less than

1/12 of clear span)

the least of,

1. Clear span + effective Depth

2. Centre to Centre of supports

3. Continuous slab-(width of the support are wider than 1/12 of clear

One end fixed and other continuous- clear span bet support.

One end free and other continuous- the least one,

1. clear span+1/2x eff. Depth of slab

Roller or rocket bearing- distance bet the Centre of bearing.

i. Cantilever-Face of the support +1/2 eff. Depth.

ii. Frame : (continuous frame )c/c distance

1. The most commonly used limit state of collapse method is based on

yield-line theory.

65

9.2.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS:

Length of slab in X-direction (L)

= 3.60m

=4.55m

(fck)

=30N/mm2

(fy)

= 500 N/mm2

Ly/L

= 4.55/3.60

= 1.2 < 2 (two way slab)

= 3600/28

Effective depth

= 130mm

Overall depth

= 150mm

Effective span

=clearspan+eff.depth

= 3.6+0.130

= 3.73m

= 1 25 0.150

= 3.75kN/m2

Live load

= 4kN/m2

Floor Finish

= 2410.06 = 1.5kN/m2

Total Load

=9.25kN/m2

Ultimate load

= 9.251.5

=13.875kN/m2

Two adjacent edges discontinuous (from code IS456:2000 table 26)

Ly/L

= 1.2

Mxe

= e W L2

66

Moment coefficients

M= eW L2(kNm)

kN

e=0.065 (Edge)

13.875

3.73

12.54

m=0.049 (Span)

13.875

3.73

9.45

ye =0.047 (Edge)

13.875

3.73

9.07

ym=0.035 (Span)

13.875

3.73

6.75

Moment

Ast calculation

Ast

(kN-m)

12.54

Spacing

diameter.

87500 Ast 130(1 230 mm2

300mm

300mm

300mm

300mm

500Ast/301000 130)

9.45

500Ast /301000 130)

9.07

500Ast /301000 130)

6.75

500Ast /301000 130)

Max. B.M in the slab

= 12.68 kN/m2

M.R

= 0.138 f ck b d2

12.68 kNm

= 0.138 301000 d2

Depth

V ux

= 0.513.8753.73

= 25.88kN

=(25.88103)/(1000150)

= 0.17 N/mm2

100Ast/ bd

= 0.15

Critical shear c

= 0.29 N/mm2

67

> v

Deflection actual

Stress in steel fs

= 220 N/mm2

= 1.8

Deflection allowable

= 1.82011 = 36mm

[28mm < 36mm] The slab having the sufficient stiffness and the deflection will be within the

permissible value.

9.3 REINFORCEMENT DETAILS

1. 0.25L-continuous edge

2. 0.15L-discontinuous edge

Continuous edges of middle strip, the tension reinforcement. Shall extend in the upper part of

the slab a distance 0.15L from the support and at least 50 % shall extend a distance of 0.3L.

2. Torsion reinforcement shall be provided at any corner

meters in the slab.

68

Spacing

1. main steel- > 3d or 300mm whichever is smaller

2. Distribution steel- > 5d or 450mm whichever is smaller

area for fy=250 and 0.12% when fy=415 bars are used

Cover: should not be less then15mm nor < dia. of bar whichever is higher

69

10.1 GENERAL:

Functionally the staircase is an important component of building, and often the only means of

access between the various floors in the building. It consists of a flight of steps, usually with

one or more intermediate landings provided between floor levels. Following are the structural

components of staircase.

A) Thread: The horizontal portion of a step where the foot rests is referred to as tread.

The typical dimension of a tread is 250mm to 300mm.

B) Riser: Riser is the vertical distance between the adjacent treads or the vertical

projection of one step with value of the step 150 to 190mm depending upon the type of

building. The width of stairs is generally 1 to 1.5m and in case not less than 850mm. Public

buildings should be provided with larger widths to facilitate free passage to users and prevent

overcrowding.

C) Going: Going is the horizontal projection (plan) of an inclined flight of steps

between the first and last riser. A typical flight comprises two landings and one going. To

break the monotony of climbing, the number of steps in a flight should not exceed 10 to12.

The tread riser combination can be provided in conjunction with

1) Waist slab type

2) Tread riser type

3) Isolated cantilever type

4) Double cantilever precast tread slab with a central inclined beam.

70

Types of staircases

The various types of staircases adopted in different types of buildings can be grouped under

geometrical and structural classifications depending upon their shape and plan pattern and

their structural behavior under loads. Types of staircases based on geometrical classification.

1) Straight stairs (with or without landing)

2) Quarter-turn stairs

3) Dog-legged stairs

71

5) Spiral stairs

6) Helical stairs

10.2 DESIGN PARAMTERS

Type of staircase

= 12

Tread (T)

=300mm

Riser (R)

=150mm

=600mm

(fck)

=30N/mm2

(fy)

= 500 N/mm2

= 4200mm

= [4200/20]

= 210mm

Dead load of slab (on slope) (Ws) = (0.21125)

= 5.25kN/m

= 5.59kN/m

= 0.56kN/m

=1.86kN/m

Floor finishes

= 1.5kN/m

Total dead

= 8.95kN/m

= 5kN/m

=13.95kN/m

= (1.513.95)

=20.93kN/m

Maximum bending moment (0.12520.934.22)

= 46.15kNm

= 106mm

= 184mm

(184 >106)

72

Using table 2 from SP: 16

[Mu/ bd2] = [46.15106 /10001842]

= 1.35

Pt = [Ast100/bd]

=0.329

Ast

=606mm2

Distribution reinforcement (0.00121000210)=252mm2

Provide 8mm diameter bars at 200mm spacing (Ast=252mm2) as distribution reinforcement.

Longitudinal reinforcement: Y 12 AT 200 c/c

Distribution reinforcement: Y 8 at 200 c/c

73

11.1 GENERAL

Lateral force resisting system in the building is a dual system consisting of SMRF and shear

walls. In general, the shear walls will resist all the lateral force being a relatively stiff

element.

The design of shear wall is based on the assumption that it will be the part of the lateral force

resisting system of the structure.

The shear wall is provided in between the middle two columns of the exterior frames. These

columns will act as a flange element or boundary elements for the shear wall. Therefore,

there is no need for further thickening of shear wall at the end or boundary regions.

Calculated reinforcement in horizontal and vertical direction is greater than the minimum

prescribed reinforcement provided reinforcement is uniformly distributed in both the

directions.

11.2 WALL DIMENSIONS:

Length of the wall

= 7.2m

Thickness of wall

= 230mm

= 4.0m

= 0.9DL + 1.5 EQL

= 3349 kN

Shear force

= 7532.98 kN

Bending moment

= 33781.95

P2 Axial load

= 2197 kN

Shear force

= 7529.02 kN

74

Bending moment

= 33756 kNm

(fck)

=30N/mm2

(fy)

= 500 N/mm2

Moment of inertia I= (t L3)/ 12

= (230 7.23)/ 12

= 7.15 1012 mm4

Area= tL

= 2307200

=1656103 mm2

fc= (P/A)( Mt L/ I)

=2.02 17.03

= 19.05 and -15.01kN/ m2

Assume width of flange (Wf)

= 230 mm

= 0.17200

= 720mm

Lw = 7200-(2750)

= 5700

c/c = 7200-750

= 6450

1) VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT

= 0.0025Ag

0.00251000230

= 575 mm2

Area of steel in each layer (Ast)

= (0.5751000230)/100

= 1322.5mm2

Diameter of bar required should not be greater than (1/10 th) of wall thickness.

(1230)/10 = 23 adopt 16mm dia bars.

Spacing of bars = (10000.785 162 )/ 1322.5

= 150mm

= 1140mm

3t w = 3 230

= 690mm

= (0.7851621000)/100

= 2000.60mm2

75

v

=7532.98 103/230(0.87.2)

= 5.68 N/mm

= 1.70

c

= 0.7925N/mm2

cmax

= 3.5N/mm2

Vs

= Vu- (c t w dw)

Vs

=6483.73kN

HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT

A sv (Minimum reinforcement)

= 0.25% of Ag

= 575mm2

Sv = (0.875005750.87200)/ (6483.73103)

= 222.20 mm c/c

= (10000.785222)/ 230

= 491.48mm2

A sv required < Ast provided.

11.7 FLEXURAL STRENGTH:

Load on web (Pw)

=P1[Lw.tw/(Lw.tw+2.Bf.Lf)]

=2844.78kN.

= Pw/ (fcktwLw)

=0.06

= 0.39

=(0.87 fy)/(cE)

= 0.62

xu/ L= ( +)/0.36+2

=0.39

=0.616

Muv= fcktLw {[1+( / )(0.5-(0-4116(xu/ L)]-[( xu/ L)(0.168+( 2/3)]}

Muv

= 29741.70kNm

=33781-29741.70

=4039.30kNm

=[Lf.Bf/(Lw.tw+2.Bf.Lf)]

=0.04

76

=927.42kN

=324.42kN

=920mm2

=1500 mm2

11.8 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT:

Diameter of tie bars /4 =(20/4)

=5mm

Spacing of reinforcement minimum of 16

=320mm

1-16mm diameter bars at 350mm spacing

2-12mm diameter bars at 230mm spacing.

77

CONCLUSION

The New teaching hospital building was designed with the earthquake resistant design

consideration. Seismic analysis and design were done by using ETABS software and verified

manually as per IS 1893-2002 the provision of shear wall in the staircase and lift region have

the ultimate shear resistance, the total base shear produced by the earth quake for that

maximum percentage of the shear resistance produced by the shear wall and the remaining

shear resistance produced by the columns. The detailing of the structural elements were done

as per IS 13920-1993(Ductile detailing for Earthquake resistant structures). To conclude a

complete design involving several parameters so as to result the earthquake has been done.

78

REFERENCES:

INDIAN STANDARD CODE BOOKS REFERRED:

IS: 875 (part I)-1987 Code for practice for Design loads for Buildings and Structures [Dead

load calculation]

IS: 875 (part 2)-1987 Code for practice for Design loads for Buildings and Structures [Live

load calculation]

IS: 875 (part 3)-1987 Code for practice for Design loads for buildings and Structures [Wind

load calculation]

IS: 456-2000 for Plain and Reinforced Concrete code for practice (IV th Revision)

IS: 1893-2002 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of structures [Seismic load

calculation]

IS: 13920-1993 Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures subjected to seismic

forces.

SP: 16- Design Aids for Reinforcement concrete to IS: 456-1978

ETABS Integrated Building Design software manual by Computers and Structures Inc.

Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures by Mr.Pankaj Aggarwal and Mr. Manish

Shirkhande.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Mr.Unnikrihna Pillai and Mr. Devadoss Menan.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Elements by Mr. Krishna Raju and Mr.R.N.Pranesh.

Limit state Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures by P.C.Varghees.

79

- Pile Cap DesignUploaded byGanesh Konar
- Crane Pedestral DesignUploaded bygautham21brick
- Design Optimization of Hydraulic Press Plate using Finite Element AnalysisUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- 405446Uploaded bypramudiyanto
- Stiffness of Concrete SlabsUploaded byfaumijk
- Ansys - Vm ListUploaded byRUDHRA DHANASEKAR
- ETABS Building Design ManualUploaded byAntuan Kouros
- Design of Jack and Bore PipeUploaded byPreetha Haque
- prob06Uploaded byanumned
- 3TB1(400x600)fixed.xlsxUploaded byRakesh Mishra
- Purlin DesignUploaded byjitendra
- Analytical Model for J-Tube Pull-in .pdfUploaded byKing1971
- Wall Thickness X52 14 InchUploaded byGalihRamadhan
- Behavior of marine pipelines under seismic faults_11.pdfUploaded byAnnisa Dwi K.S
- Wall DesignUploaded byMarianne Aravilla Dela Cruz
- Contents.pdfUploaded byKHAKSAR
- An Improved Numerical Model for Calculating Ship_hull Frame Transversal StructureUploaded byAdemar Cardoso
- Sub structure design documentUploaded byPravin Awalkonde
- MENG_1010_CHAPTER_1_POWER_POINT.pptUploaded byTyrell
- ANSYS Presentation 3Uploaded bySimon Amboise
- Elastic Theory MethodUploaded byikmaldan
- froof-13Uploaded byAnonymous wWOWz9UnW
- Geometrically Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Sandwich PlatesUploaded byhoneyb
- INTERACTION OF SIZE EFFECT AND RELIABILITY OF DESIGN: CASE STUDY OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETEUploaded byJessica Armstrong
- NC11-1100X500-(30TH-ROOF STYUploaded byJONHCENA13
- 8121-E-DN-17 (R0).Uploaded bysachinoak
- Level 1 (PRINT)Uploaded bysaifulsabdin
- Aueduct DesignUploaded byyasirjuraba
- SOLUCIONARIO ESTATICA DEL BEER 7MA ED. CAPITULO 7 PAG: 146-158Uploaded byAlejandra Chaves
- Beam analysis.xlsxUploaded byPushkar Kokane

- A Teaching Guide for Structural Steel ConnectionsUploaded byv
- Guidelines on the Design of Floor for Vibration due to Walking LoadsUploaded byLeung Mk
- Design of Pedestrian Bridge LFRDUploaded byJoão Rocha de Lima
- Design of Stub GirdersUploaded bypaarth93
- Aise Technical Report No.13Uploaded bypaarth93
- Properties of Concrete AM NEVILLEUploaded byacad sipil
- Design of Monorail SystemsUploaded byAshfaq Anwer
- DD_CEN_TS_1992-4-2-2009Uploaded bybruno_oliveira_emilio
- One Steel Structural SectionsUploaded byfatullahdonie
- BS 5075-2-1982Uploaded byMeganathan Mega
- McCcormac (AISC)Uploaded bypaarth93
- 31504077-Eurocode-3-1-5-2007-ENUploaded bymahmoodseraji
- Project HighUploaded byChitLay
- Jrc SteelUploaded bydmardetk
- Guidance to the Engineering Properties of Concrete 061129[1]Uploaded byShahir Shaikh
- IntroUploaded bypaarth93
- Aci 318-08 Development and Splices of Reinforcement_editing ProtectedUploaded bypaarth93
- Reinforced Concrete Design - W.H. MOSLEYUploaded bywincris
- Meet the Experts- GalvanizingUploaded byAnonymous P73cUg73L
- International-Steel-Grade-Comparison-ChartUploaded byAKSHAT
- Fire SafetyUploaded bypaarth93
- PA Policy Wording V3Uploaded bypaarth93
- Seismic Analysis and Design of Hospital Building-libreUploaded bypaarth93
- Etabs Steel Design[1]Uploaded byChayanon Hansapinyo

- MA1201 Mathematics IIIUploaded bysuresh
- Feathered BeamsUploaded byJordan Peralta
- 798057Uploaded byNurokhim Oee
- RadioisotopesUploaded byhunganhngoc
- ApplicationofDVD_CDpickupopticstomicroscopyandfringeprojectionUploaded bydeBugger
- Stanford09 TopologyUploaded byAsya Olshansky
- Flow Over BodyUploaded byManu K Vasudevan
- GEK 106852AUploaded bywednetox
- PHM 2018 BrochureUploaded byberbri oussama
- HP5_2010Uploaded byEzat Syah
- Automated Marine Propeller Design Combining Hydrodynamics Models and Neural Networks (Calcagni).pdfUploaded byCláudio Tavares
- September 2007 Geo-Heat Center Quarterly BulletinUploaded byGeo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin
- (Bonelli F.) Preliminary Design of a Hypersonic Air-breathing VehicleUploaded byAna Maria Lara
- crosby volatility modelUploaded bysuedesuede
- Chilled Water Pipe Insulation Method Statement.docxUploaded byGündoğdu Akın
- Useful Tables Fatigue Mechanics ImpactUploaded byroladin
- Flyer n323rhtUploaded byNohe Ga Santi
- Expansion Joints in BuildingsUploaded byNadeem Hassoon
- Thesis OptimizationUploaded byDulal Manna
- Electronic Devices and CircuitsUploaded byAnonymous V3C7DYwKlv
- Unist RevolutionUploaded byMann Sales & Marketing
- McLintic W23 Measurement and MonitoringUploaded bydemilune
- ApparatusUploaded byVenus De Gracia
- IodineUploaded byJustUandMe
- TD300_0109Uploaded byedsame@yahoo.com
- Tarea 2 de Op III (1)Uploaded bybrenda
- VLAEROUploaded byRidwan Fadlika
- Production of x TonnesUploaded byTosin Johnson
- T1pg90-104 AERODYNAMICS OF TURBINES.pdfUploaded byGustavo Cuatzo
- Dragon_Heaters_vs_Rocket_Heaters.pdfUploaded bykkd108