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Name

Dentdhie T. Sagansay

Date

Year and sec

TO2

Rating :

December 4,2013

Group 1
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Fuel Gases
Introduction:
Fuel gas is any one of a number of fuels that under ordinary conditions are gaseous. Many fuel gases are
composed of hydrocarbons (such as methane or propane), hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or mixtures thereof. Such
gases are sources of potential heat energy or light energy that can be readily transmitted and distributed through
pipes from the point of origin directly to the place of consumption.
Fuel gas is contrasted with liquid fuels and from solid fuels, though some fuel gases areliquefied for
storage or transport. While their gaseous nature has advantageous, avoiding the difficulty of transporting solid
fuel and the dangers of spillage inherent in liquid fuels, it also has limitation. It is possible for a fuel gas to be
undetected and collect in certain areas, leading to the risk of a gas explosion. For this reason, odorizers are added
to most fuel gases so that they may be detected by a distinct smell.
The most common type of fuel gas in current use is natural gas.

Categories of Fuel Gases


I.

MANUFACTURED GASES:
1.

II.

Coal gas (Coal gasification)

7. Syngas

2. Producer gas

8. Blau gas

3. Wood gas

9. Biogas

4. Water gas

10. Gasification

5. Mond gas

11. Landfill gas

6. Pintsch gas

12. Blast furnace gas

13.

14.

NATURAL GASES:

15.

1.

CNG

4. NGC

2. LNG

5. SNG

3. HCNG

6. Bio-SNG

16.
17.
III.

LPG:
1.

Propane

2.

Butane

3.

Autogas

18.
19.
1. COAL GAS
20.

MANUFACTURED GASES

Coal gas (also town gas and illumination gas) is a flammable gaseous fuel made by

the destructive distillation of coal and contains a variety of calorific gases including hydrogen, carbon
monoxide, methane and volatile hydrocarbons together with small quantities of non-calorific gases such
as carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
21.

It was used for lighting, cooking, and heating and was often supplied to households via a

municipally owned piped distribution system.


22.

Originally created as a by-product of the coking process, its use developed during the 19th

and early 20th centuries tracking theindustrial revolution and urbanization. By-products from the
production process included coal tars and ammonia, which were important chemical feedstock for the dye
and chemical industry with a wide range of artificial dye colours being made from coal gas and coal tar.
23.

The production process is distinct, both physically and chemically, from that used to create

a range of gaseous fuels known variously as manufactured gas, syngas, hygas, Dowson gas, and producer gas.
These gases are made by partial combustion of a wide variety of feed stocks in some mixture of air,
oxygen, or steam, to reduce the latter to hydrogen and carbon dioxide although some destructive
distillation may also occur.
24.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS:

25.

Manufactured gas can be made by two processes: carbonization or gasification.

Carbonization refers to the devolatilization of an organic feedstock to yield gas andchar. Gasification is the
process of subjecting a feedstock to chemical reactions that produce gas.
26.

The first process used was the carbonization and partial pyrolysis of coal. The off gases

liberated in the high-temperature carbonization (coking) of coal in coke ovens were collected, scrubbed and
used as fuel. Depending on the goal of the plant, the desired product was either a high
quality coke for metallurgical use, with the gas being a side product or the production of a high quality gas
with coke being the side product. Coke plants are typically associated with metallurgical facilities such
as smelters, andblast furnaces, while gas works typically served urban areas.
27.

A facility used to manufacture coal gas, carburetted water gas (CWG), and oil gas is today

generally referred to as a manufactured gas plant (MGP).

28.

In the early years of MGP operations, the goal of a utility gas works was to produce the

greatest amount of illuminating gas. The illuminating power of a gas was related to amount of sootforming hydrocarbons (illuminants) dissolved in it. These hydrocarbons gave the gas flame its
characteristic bright yellow color. Gas works would typically use oily bituminous coals as feedstock. These
coals would give off large amounts of volatile hydrocarbons into the coal gas, but would leave behind a
crumbly, low-quality coke not suitable for metallurgical processes. Coal or coke oven gas typically had
a calorific value between 10 and 20 MJ/m (250-550 Btu/ft3 (std)); with values around 20 MJ/m (550
Btu/ft3 (std)) being typical.
29.

The advent of electric lighting forced utilities to search for other markets for

manufactured gas. MGPs that once produced gas almost exclusively for lighting shifted their efforts
towards supplying gas primarily for heating and cooking, and even refrigeration and cooling.
30.

INDUSTRIAL USE:

31.

Fuel gas for industrial use was made using producer gas technology. Producer gas is made by

blowing air through an incandescent fuel bed (commonly coke or coal) in a gas producer. The reaction of fuel
with insufficient air for total combustion produces carbon monoxide(CO); this reaction is exothermic and
self-sustaining. It was discovered that adding steam to the input air of a gas producer would increase the
calorific value of the fuel gas by enriching it with CO and hydrogen (H2) produced by water gas reactions.
Producer gas has a very low calorific value of 3.7 to 5.6 MJ/m (100-150 Btu/ft 3 (std)); because the
calorific gases CO/H2 are diluted with lots of inertnitrogen (from air) and carbon dioxide (CO2) (from
combustion).
2. PRODUCER GAS
32.

Producer Gas is a generic term referring to:


Wood gas: produced in a gasifier to power cars with ordinary internal

combustion engines.

Town gas: manufactured gas, originally produced from coal, for sale to

consumers and municipalities.

Syngas: used as a fuel source or as an intermediate for the production of

other chemicals.
33.

Producer gas, also called suction gas, specifically means a fuel gas made

from coke, anthracite or other carbonaceousmaterial. Air is passed over the red-hot carbonaceous fuel
and carbon monoxide is produced. The reaction is exothermic and proceeds as follows:
34.
35.

2C + O2 + 3.73 N2 2CO+ 3.73 N2

The nitrogen in the air remains unchanged and dilutes the gas, giving it a very low calorific

value. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the "ideal" producer gas was considered to be 34.7% carbon
monoxide (carbonic oxide) and 65.3% nitrogen. After "scrubbing", to remove tar, the gas may be used to
power gas turbines (which are well-suited to fuels of low calorific value), spark ignited engines (where 100%
petrol fuel replacement is possible) or diesel internal combustion engines (where 40% - 15% of the original
diesel fuel is still used to ignite the gas ). During the Second World War in Britain, plants were built in the

form of trailers for towing behind commercial vehicles, especially buses, to supply gas as a replacement for
petrol (gasoline) fuel. A range of about 80 miles for every charge of anthracite was achieved.
3. WOOD GAS
36.

Wood gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in

place ofgasoline, diesel or other fuels. During the production process biomass or other carbon-containing
materials are gasified within the oxygen-limited environment of a wood gas generator to
producehydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases can then be burnt as a fuel within an oxygen rich
environment to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat. In some gasifiers this process is preceded
by pyrolysis, where the biomass or coal is first converted to char, releasing methane and tar rich
inpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
37.

PRODUCTION

38.

A wood gasifier takes wood chips, sawdust, charcoal, coal, rubber or similar materials as

fuel and burns these incompletely in a fire box, producing solid ashes and soot (which have to be removed
periodically from the gasifier) and wood gas. The wood gas can then be filtered for tars and soot/ash
particles, cooled and directed to an engine or fuel cell.[11] Most of these engines have severe purity
requirements of the wood gas, so the gas often has to pass through extensive gas cleaning in order to
remove or convert (i.e. to "crack") tars and particles. The removal of tar is often accomplished by using a
water scrubber. Running wood gas in an unmodified gasoline-burning internal combustion engine may lead to
problematic build-up of unburned compounds.
39.

The quality of the gas from different gasifiers varies a great deal. Staged gasifiers, where

pyrolysis and gasification occur separately (instead of in the same reaction zone as was the case in e.g. the
WWII gasifiers), can be engineered to produce essentially tar-free gas (less than 1 mg/m), while singlereactor fluid-bed gasifiers may exceed 50,000 mg/m tar. The fluid bed reactors have the advantage of
being much more compact (more capacity per volume and price). Depending on the intended use of the gas,
tar can be beneficial as well by increasing the heating value of the gas.
40.

The heat of combustion of producer gas (a term used in the U.S. meaning wood gas produced

for use in a combustion engine) is rather low compared to other fuels. Taylor [reports that "producer gas"
has a lower heating value of 5.7 MJ/kg versus 55.9 MJ/kg for natural gas and 44.1 MJ/kg for gasoline. The
heating value of wood is typically 15-18 MJ/kg. Presumably, these values can vary somewhat from sample to
sample.
41.

A charcoal gas producer at the Nambassa alternative festival in New Zealand in 1981

Nitrogen N2: 50.9%

Carbon monoxide CO: 27.0%

Hydrogen H2: 14.0%

Carbon dioxide CO2: 4.5%

Methane CH4: 3.0%

Oxygen O2: 0.6%.


42.

It is pointed out, that the gas composition is strongly dependent on the gasification

process, the gasification medium (air, oxygen or steam) and the fuel moisture. Steam-gasification

processes typically yield high hydrogen contents, downdraft fixed bed gasifiers yield high nitrogen
concentrations and low tar loads, while updraft fixed bed gasifiers yield high tar loads.
43.

USAGE

44.

Wood gasifier system

45.

Wood gasifiers can power either spark ignition engines, where 100% of the normal petrol

can be replaced with little change to the carburation, or in a diesel engine, feeding the gas into the air inlet
that is modified to have a throttle valve, if it didn't have it already. On diesel engines the diesel fuel is still
needed to ignite the gas mixture, so a mechanically regulated diesel engine's "stop" linkage and probably
"throttle" linkage must be modified to always give the engine a little bit of injected fuel.
46.

Efficiency of the gasifier system is relatively high. The gasification stage converts about

75% of fuel energy content into a combustible gas that can be used as a fuel for internal combustion
engines. Based on long-term practical experiments and over 100,000 km drive with a wood gas-powered car,
the energy consumption has been 1.54 times higher compared to the energy demand of the same car on
petrol (not including the energy needed to extract, transport and refine the oil from which petrol is
derived, and not including the energy to harvest, process, and transport the wood to feed the gasifier).
This means that 1000 kg of wood combustible matter has been found to substitute 365 litres of petrol
during real transportation in similar driving conditions and with the same otherwise unmodified vehicle. This
can be considered to be a good result, because no other refining of the fuel is required. This study also
considers all possible losses of the wood gas system, like preheating of the system and carrying of the
extra weight of the gas-generating system. In power generation reported demand of fuel is 1.1 kg wood
combustible matter / kWh electricity.
47.

Exhaust gas emission from an internal combustion engine is significantly lower on wood gas

than on petrol. Especially the HC emissions are low on wood gas. A normal catalytic converter works well
with wood gas, but even without it, emission levels less than 20 ppm HC and 0.2% CO can be easily achieved
by most automobile engines. Combustion of wood gas generates no particulates, and the gas renders thus
very little carbon black amongst motor oil.
48.

Stoves, cooking and furnaces

49.

Certain stove designs are in effect a gasifier working on the updraft principlethe air

passes up through the fuel, which can be a column of rice husks, and is combusted, then reduced to carbon
monoxide by the residual char on the surface. The resulting gas is then burnt by heated secondary air
coming up a concentric tube. Such a device behaves very much like a gas stove. This arrangement is also
known as a Chinese burner.
50.

An alternative stove based on the downdraft principle and typically built with nested

cylinders also provides high efficiency. Combustion from the top creates a gasification zone with the gas
escaping downwards through ports located at the base of the burner chamber. The gas mixes with
additional incoming air to provide a secondary burn. Most of the CO produced by gasification is oxidized to
CO2 in the secondary combustion cycle; therefore, gasification stoves carry lower health risks than
conventional cooking fires.
51.

Another application is the use of producer gas to displace LDO (light density fuel oil) in

industrial furnaces.
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80. Name

Sayosa, Karlo Dareb J.

Date

TO2

Rating :

December 4,2013
81. Year and sec

82. Group 1
83. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
84. Fuel Gases
4. WATER GAS
85.

Water gasis a synthesis gas, containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen. It is a useful

product but requires careful handling because of the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. The gas is made by
passing steam over a red-hot carbon fuel such as coke:
86.
87.

H2O + C H2 + CO (H = +131 kJ/mol)

The reaction is endothermic so the fuel must be continually re-heated to keep the reaction

going. In order to do this, an air stream, which alternates with the vapor stream, is introduced for the
combustion of carbon to take place.
88.

O2 + C CO2 (H = 393.5 kJ/mol)

89.

Theoretically to make 6 L of water gas, 5 L of air is required.

90.

Or alternatively to prevent contamination with nitrogen, energy can be provided by using

pure oxygen to burn carbon into carbon monoxide.


91.

O2 + 2 C 2 CO (H = 221 kJ/mol)

92.

In this case 1 L of oxygen will create 5.3 L of pure water gas

93.

Lowe's gas process

94.

In 1873, Thaddeus S. C. Lowe developed and patented the water gas process by which large

amounts of hydrogen gas could be generated for residential and commercial use in heating and lighting. This
gas provided a more efficient heating fuel than the commoncoal gas, or coke gas, which was used in
municipal service. The process used the water gas shift reaction:
95.
96.

CO + H2O CO2 + H2

The process was discovered by passing high-pressure steam over hot coal, the major source

of coke gas. Lowe's process improved upon the chimney systems by which the coal could remain
superheated thereby maintaining a consistently high supply of the gas. The reaction produced carbon
dioxide and hydrogen which after a process of cooling and "scrubbing" produced hydrogen gas.
97.

The process spurred on the industry of gas manufacturing, and gasification plants were

established quickly along the Eastern seaboard of the United States. Similar processes, like the Haber
Process, led to the manufacture of ammonia (NH3) by the combining of nitrogen, found in air, with
hydrogen. This spurred on the refrigeration industry which long used ammonia as its refrigerant. Prof. Lowe
also held several patents on artificial ice making machines, and was able to run successful businesses in cold
storage as well as products which operated on hydrogen gas.
98.

Water gas had a lower calorific value than coal gas so the calorific value was often boosted

by passing the gas through a heated retortinto which oil was sprayed. The resulting mixed gas was
called carburetted water gas.
99.

Semi-water gas

Semi-water gas is a mixture of water gas and producer gas made by passing a mixture of air
and steam through heated coke. The heat generated when producer gas is formed keeps the temperature
of the coke high enough to allow water gas to be formed.
100.

101.

Water gas shift reaction

102.

Pure hydrogen can be obtained from water gas by using the water gas shift reaction, after

subsequent removal of the carbon dioxide formed when carbon monoxide reacts with water.
103.
5. MOND GAS
104.

Mond gas is a cheap coal gas that was used for industrial heating purposes.[1] Coal gases are

made by decomposing coal through heating it to a high temperature. Coal gases were the primary source of
gas fuel during the 1940s and 1950's until the adoption ofnatural gas. They were used for lighting, heating,
and cooking, typically being supplied to households through pipe distribution systems. The gas was named
after its founder, Ludwig Mond
105.

GAS PRODUCTION

106.

The Mond gas process was designed to convert cheap coal into flammable gas, which was

made up of mainly hydrogen, while recovering ammonium sulfate. The gas produced was rich in hydrogen and
poor in carbon monoxide. Although it could be used for some industrial purposes and power generation, the
gas was limited for heating or lighting.
107.

In 1902, the first Mond gas plant began at the Brunner Mond & Company in Northwich,

Cheshire. Mond plants required a large amount of land in order to be profitable, using around 182 tons of
coal per week.
108.

Predominant reaction in Mond Gas Process: C + 2H2O = CO2+ 2H2

109.

The Mond gas was composed of roughly:

12% CO (Carbon Monoxide)

28% H2 (Hydrogen)

2.2% CH4 (Methane)

16% CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)

42% N2 (Nitrogen)[3]
110.

USES

111.

Mond gas could be produced and used more efficiently than other gases in the late 19th and

early 20th century. The gas was used as fuel for street lighting and basic residential uses that required gas
such as ovens, kilns, furnaces, and boilers.[
6. PINTSCH GAS
112.

Pintsch gas was a compressed fuel gas derived from distilled naphtha used for illumination

purposes during the 19th and early 20th centuries.


113.

It was invented in 1851 by German inventor and manufacturer Julius Pintsch (1815-1884).

Its primary use in the latter half of the 19th century was for illumination of railroad cars. In
several railway accidents Pintsch gas lamps added fuel to any fire which started, for example, in the Thirsk
rail crash (1892), Quintinshill rail disaster (1915), and the Dugald rail accident (1947). Lamps using Pintsch
gas burned brighter and longer than the existing oil lamps they replaced. These lamps could also withstand
vibration and rough usage without extinguishing the light. These features made Pintsch gas a popular
solution for illumination of buoys, beacons and unmannedlighthouses, which allowed these devices to have
the capability to remain lit for several months without servicing.
114.

Electricity and other artificial means of lighting eventually replaced Pintsch illumination.

However, it was still used in lighthouses and beacons long after it was replaced elsewhere.
7. SYNGAS
115.

Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon

monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide. The name comes from its use as intermediates in
creating synthetic natural gas (SNG)[1] and for producing ammonia ormethanol. Syngas is also used as an

intermediate in producing synthetic petroleum for use as a fuel or lubricant via the FischerTropsch
process and previously the Mobil methanol to gasoline process. Syngas is combustible and often used as a
fuel of internal combustion engines.[2][3][4] It has less than half the energy density of natural gas.
116.

Production methods include steam reforming of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons to

produce hydrogen, the gasification of coal,[5]biomass, and in some types of waste-to-energy gasification
facilities.
117.
118.

PRODUCTION
he main reaction that produces syngas, steam reforming, is endothermic with 206 kJ/mol

methane needed for conversion.


119.

The first reaction, between incandescent coke and steam, is strongly endothermic,

producing carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen H


2(water gas in older terminology). When the coke bed has cooled to a temperature at which the
endothermic reaction can no longer proceed, the steam is then replaced by a blast of air.
120.

The second and third reactions then take place, producing an exothermic reaction - forming

initially carbon dioxide - raising the temperature of the coke bed - followed by the second endothermic
reaction, in which the latter is converted to carbon monoxide, CO. The overall reaction is exothermic,
forming "producer gas" (older terminology). Steam can then be re-injected, then air etc., to give an endless
series of cycles until the coke is finally consumed. Producer gas has a much lower energy value, relative to
water gas, due primarily to dilution with atmospheric nitrogen. Pure oxygen can be substituted for air to
avoid the dilution effect, producing gas of much higher calorific value.
121.

When used as an intermediate in the large-scale, industrial synthesis of hydrogen

(principally used in the production of ammonia), it is also produced from natural gas (via the steam
reforming reaction) as follows:
122.
123.

CH4 + H2O CO + 3 H2

In order to produce more hydrogen from this mixture, more steam is added and the water

gas shift reaction is carried out:


124.
125.

CO + H2O CO2 + H2

The hydrogen must be separated from the CO2 to be able to use it. This is primarily done

by pressure swing adsorption (PSA), amine scrubbing, and membrane reactors.


8. BLAU GAS
126.

Blau gas (German: Blaugas) was an artificial illuminating gas similar to propane, named after

its inventor, Dr. Hermann Blau[1][2] of Augsburg, Germany. It was manufactured by decomposing mineral
oils in retorts by heat and compressing the resulting naphtha until it liquefied. It was transported in this
condition, and like LPG, upon release it assumed the gaseous state again. Chemically, it is similar to coal gas.
127.

Blau gas is not blue, but has a rather water-like color. It was stored in steel cylinders for

shipment and had the advantage that it possessed the highest specific energy of all artificially produced
gases, but unlike coal gas, it was free from carbon monoxide.

128.

Blau gas was burned for lighting and heating; a less-pure form known as Pintsch

gas fueledrailroad car lights and stoves in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Blau gas was most
famous, however, as the buoyancy compensating fuel for the LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin.[5] It had several
advantages over liquid fuels such as gasoline. It was non-explosive, and because it weighed approximately
the same as air, burning it and replacing its volume with air did not lighten the airship, eliminating the need
to adjust buoyancy or ballast in-flight.
129.

Blaugas contains about 50% olefins (alkenes), 37% methane and other alkanes,

6%hydrogen and the rest is air. The heat of combustion is 122 MJ/m 3 with a candle power of 3000 Hefner
candles (about 2710 candelas).
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148.

Name

Rea May Busalla

Date

TO2

Rating :

December 4,2013
149.

Year and Sec

150.

Group 1
151.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
152.

Fuel Gases

153.
9. BIOGAS typically refers to a gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
It is a renewable energy source, like solar and wind energy. Furthermore, biogas can be produced from
regionally available raw materials such as recycled waste and is environmentally friendly.
154.

Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria or fermentation of

biodegradable materials such as manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops.
155.

It is primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide(CO2) and may have small amounts

of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes.


156.

The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with

oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel; it can be used for any heating purpose, such
as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat.
157.

Biogas can be compressed, the same way natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to

powermotor vehicles. In the UK, for example, biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace around
17% of vehicle fuel. It qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can be
cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards when it becomes bio methane.
158.
159.

APPLICATION

Biogas can be used for electricity production on sewage works, in a CHP gas engine, where

the waste heat from the engine is conveniently used for heating the digester; cooking; space heating; water
heating; and process heating. If compressed, it can replace compressed natural gas for use in vehicles,
where it can fuel an internal combustion engine or fuel cells and is a much more effective displacer of
carbon dioxide than the normal use in on-site CHP plants.[18]
160.

Methane in biogas can be concentrated via a biogas upgrader to the same standards as

fossil natural gas, which itself has had to go through a cleaning process, and becomes biomethane. If the
local gas network allows, the producer of the biogas may use their distribution networks. Gas must be very
clean to reach pipeline quality and must be of the correct composition for the distribution network to
accept. Carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, and particulates must be removed if present.
161.

Biogas Upgrading
162.

Raw biogas produced from digestion is roughly 60% methane and 29% CO2 with trace

elements of H2S; it is not high quality enough to be used as fuel gas for machinery. The corrosive nature
of H2S alone is enough to destroy the internals of a plant. The solution is the use of biogas upgrading or
purification processes whereby contaminants in the raw biogas stream are absorbed or scrubbed, leaving
more methane per unit volume of gas. There are four main methods of upgrading: water washing, pressure
swing absorption, selexol absorption, and amine gas treating.

163.

The most prevalent method is water washing where high pressure gas flows into a column

where the carbon dioxide and other trace elements are scrubbed by cascading water running counter-flow
to the gas. This arrangement could deliver 98% methane with manufacturers guaranteeing maximum 2%
methane loss in the system. It takes roughly between 3% and 6% of the total energy output in gas to run a
biogas upgrading system.
164.

Biogas Gas-grid Injection


165.

Gas-grid injection is the injection of biogas into the methane grid (natural gas grid).

Injections includes biogas until the breakthrough of micro combined heat and power two-thirds of all the
energy produced by biogas power plants was lost (the heat), using the grid to transport the gas to
customers, the electricity and the heat can be used for on-site generation resulting in a reduction of losses
in the transportation of energy. Typical energy losses in natural gas transmission systems range from 1% to
2%. The current energy losses on a large electrical system range from 5% to 8%.

166.

Gasification is

process

that

converts organic or fossil based carbonaceous materials

intocarbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This is achieved by reacting the material at high
temperatures (>700 C), without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. The
resulting gas mixture is called syngas (from synthesis gas or synthetic gas) or producer gasand is itself a
fuel. The power derived from gasification and combustion of the resultant gas is considered to be a source
of renewable energy if the gasified compounds were obtained from biomass.
10. Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill.
167.

Landfill

gas

production

results

from chemical

the waste as the putrescible materials begins to break down

[1]

reactions and microbes acting

upon

in the landfill. The rate of production is

affected by waste composition and landfill geometry, which in turn influence themicrobial populations within
it, chemical make-up of waste, thermal range of physical conditions, and the biological ecosystems coexisting simultaneously within most sites. This heterogeneity, together with the frequently unclear nature
of the contents, makes landfill gas production more difficult to predict and control than standard
industrial bioreactors for sewage treatment.
168.

The gases produced within a landfill can be collected or flared off. Once collected, the gas

has several different pathways it can take. The landfill gas can be utilized directly on site by a boiler or
any type or combustion system. This provides raw heat for processes. Electricity can also be generated on
site through the use of micro turbines, steam turbines, or fuel cells.

[12]

The landfill gas can also be sold off

site and sent into natural gas pipelines. This requires the gas to be processed into pipeline quality by
removing the water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogren, oxygen and any other trace contaminants. Once in
the general supply of natural gas, it can be used at power plants producing electricity or in home boilers.
169.

[13]

Landfill gas can also be used to evaporate leachate, another byproduct of the landfill

process. This displaces another fuel that was previously used for the same thing. [14]
11. Blast

furnace

gas (BFG)

is

by-product

of blast

furnaces that

is

generated

when

the iron

ore is reduced with coke to metallic iron. It has a very low heating value, about 93 BTU/cubic foot, because
it consists of about 60 percent nitrogen, 18-20% carbon dioxide and someoxygen, which are not flammable.
The rest is mostly carbon monoxide, which has a fairly low heating value already. It is commonly used as a
fuel within the steel works, but it can be used in boilers and power plants equipped to burn it. It may be
combined with natural gas or coke oven gas before combustion or a flame support with richer gas or oil is

provided to sustain combustion. Particulate matter is removed so that it can be burned more cleanly. Blast
furnace gas is sometimes flared without generating heat or electricity.
170.

Blast Furnace Gas is generated at higher pressure and at about 100 C (212 F)-150

C(302 F) in a modern Blast Furnace. This pressure is utilized to operate a generator (Top-gas-pressure
Recovery Turbine - i.e. TRT in short), which can generate electrical energy up to 35 kwh/t of pig iron without
burning any fuel. Dry type TRTs can generate more power than wet type TRT.
171.Auto ignition point of blast furnace gas is approximate 630 C (1,166 F)-650 C (1,202 F) and it
has LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) of 27% & UEL (Upper Explosive Limit) of 75% in an air-gas mixture at normal
temperature and pressure.
172.