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Myers

Chem 115

The Suzuki Reaction

Reviews:

Analysis of Elementary Steps in the Reaction Mechanism

Suzuki, A. J. Organometallic Chem. 1999, 576, 147168.

Oxidative Addition

Br

Suzuki, A. In Metal-catalyzed Cross-coupling Reactions, Diederich, F., and Stang, P. J., Eds.; WileyVCH: New York, 1998, pp. 49-97.

Br

Pd0Ln

isomerization

Pd L

PdII Br

Miyaura, N.; Suzuki, A. Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 2457-2483.

L
trans

cis

B-Alkyl Suzuki reaction:


Chemler, S. R.; Trauner, D.; Danishefsky, S. J. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 2001, 40, 45444568.
Solid phase:
Franzn, R. Can. J. Chem. 2000, 78, 957962.

Relative reactivity of leaving groups: I > OTf > Br >> Cl .


Oxidative addition is known to proceed with retention of stereochemistry with vinyl halides and with
inversion with allylic or benzylic halides.

Stille, J. K.; Lau, K. S. Y. Acc. Chem. Res. 1977, 10, 434442.

The Suzuki reaction is the coupling of an aryl or vinyl boronic acid with an aryl or vinyl halide
or triflate using a palladium catalyst. It is a powerful cross-coupling method that allows for the
synthesis of conjugated olefins, styrenes, and biphenyls:

Oxidative addition intially gives a cis complex that rapidly isomerizes to its trans isomer.
Casado, A. L.; Espinet, P. Organometallics 1998, 17, 954959.
Transmetallation

n-Bu

B O
O

n-Bu

benzene/NaOEt
Br
80 C, 4 h

B(OR)2

98%
n-Bu
Miyaura, N.; Suzuki, A. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1979, 866867.

L2Pd

Mechanism:

X
Ph
Path B

n-Bu

X
Ar

L2Pd

n-Bu

H
OR
Ph

PhL2Pd

B(OR)2
+
n-Bu

OR
OR

Ph Br
Pd0L

Oxidative Addition

Reductive Elimination
Ph
n-Bu
EtO

L2Pd

n-Bu

RO

B(OR)3
+

Path A

B
O

n-Bu

PdIILn

Ph
PdIILn
Br
NaOEt
Ph
PdIILn
EtO

B O
O

NaBr

Transmetallation

O
+

n-Bu

L
PdII

EtO B
O

Organoboron compounds are highly covalent in character, and do not undergo transmetallation
readily in the absence of base.
The base is postulated to serve one of two possible roles: reaction with the organoboron reagent to
form a trialkoxyboronate which then attacks the palladium halide complex (Path A), or by
conversion of the palladium halide to a palladium oxo complex that reacts with the neutral
organoboron reagent (Path B).

Matos, K.; Soderquist, J. A. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 461470.


Carrow, B.P.; Hartwig, J. F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 21162119.
Suzuki, A. Pure & Appl. Chem. 1985, 57, 17491758.

Andrew Haidle, Chris Coletta, Eric Hansen

Reductive Elimination

The conditions shown on the left are the original conditions developed for the cross-coupling by
Suzuki and Miyaura.

n-Bu
L PdII

The reaction is stereo- and regiospecific, providing a convenient method for the synthesis of
conjugated alkadienes, arylated alkenes, and biaryls.

n-Bu

n-Bu

PdII

+ Pd0Ln

L
cis

trans

Note that under the conditions shown above, aryl chlorides are not acceptable substrates for the
reaction, likely due to their reluctance to participate in oxidative addition.
a

Isomerization to the cis complex is required before reductive elimination can occur.

Relative rates of reductive elimination from palladium(II) complexes:


arylaryl > alkylaryl > n-propyln-propyl > ethylethyl

>

methylmethyl

Miyaura, N.; Suzuki, A. Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 2457-2483.

Catalyst and ligands

Conditions
R BY2

n-Bu

P(PPh3)4

X R'

R R'

benzene, 80 C

Ph

Br
B O
O

base

time (h)

yield (%)

NaOEt

80a

NaOEt

80a

NaOEt

81a

NaOEt

100b

Ph
Br
CH3

Br

CH3
I Ph
Br Ph
Cl Ph

Miyaura, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, A. Tetrahedron Lett. 1979, 20, 34373440.
Miyaura, N.; Suzuki, A. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1979, 866867.
c Miyaura, N.; Yanagi, T.; Suzuki, A. Synth. Commun. 1981, 11, 513519.
d Miyaura, N.; Yano, T.; Suzuki, A. Tetrahedron Lett. 1980, 21, 28652868.
b

The most commonly used system is Pd(PPh3)4, but other palladium sources have been used
including PdII pre-catalysts that are reduced to the active Pd0 in situ:

Pd2(dba)3 + PPh3
Pd(OAc)2 + PPh3
PdCl2(dppf) (for sp3-sp2 couplings-see section on B-alkyl Suzuki reaction)
"Ligand-free" conditions, using Pd(OAc)2, have also been developed. Side reactions often
associated with the use of phosphine ligands (phosphonium salt formation and aryl-aryl exchange
between substrate and phosphine) are thus avoided.

Goodson, F. E.; Wallow, T. I.; Novak, B. M. Org. Synth. 1997, 75, 6168.

63b
98b

NaOEt
NaOEt

2
4

NaOEt

3b

NaOEt

93b

H3C

CH3

H3C

CH3 H3C
1

H3C

CH3
N
CH3

Cl
CH3 H3C
2

H3C

CH3

H3CO
Br

(HO)2B
+

I Ph

2M NaOH

62c

Br Ph

2M Na2CO3

88c

Cl Ph

NaOEt

0c

2M NaOH

87d

2M NaOH

99d

B(OH)2

n-Bu

H3C

Br

Cl

Pd2(dba)3 (1.5 mol%),


2 (3 mol%), Cs2CO3

H3C

dioxane, 80 C, 1.5 h
96%

The nucleophilic N-heterocyclic carbene 1 is the active ligand, and is formed in situ from 2.
The use of ligand 1 allows for utilization of aryl chlorides in the Suzuki reaction (see the section on
bulky, electron-rich phosphines as ligands for use of aryl chlorides as coupling partners as well).

B
Br

Zhang, C.; Huang, J.; Trudell, M. L.; Nolan, S. P. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 64, 3804-3805.

Andrew Haidle, Chris Coletta, Fan Liu

Organoboranes: A variety of organoboranes may be used to effect the transfer of the organic coupling
partner to the reactive palladium center via transmetallation. Choice of the appropriate organoborane
will depend upon the compatibility with the coupling partners and availability (see section on synthesis
of organoboranes).

N-methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA) Boronates

This trivalent boron protecting group attenuates transmetallation, and is unreactive under
anhydrous coupling conditions (see example below).

Some of the more common organoboranes used in the Suzuki reaction are shown below:

R B(OH)2

H3C N

R B(OiPr)2

B O
O

R B
O
R
B

R B

O
O

O
O

CH3
CH3

EtO B

B O
O

K3PO4, THF, 65 oC

PCy2

Br
CH3
CH3

H3C N

p-Tol-B(OH)2
Pd(OAc)2

O
O

H3C

MIDA boronates are stable to chromatography but are readily cleaved under basic aqueous
conditions:

Use of Aryltrifluoroborates as Organoboranes for the Suzuki Reaction

H3C N
BF3K

Br

OCH3

Pd(OAc)2, K2CO3

OCH3

CH3OH, reflux
2h, 95%

The aryltrifluoroborates are prepared by treatment of the corresponding arylboronic acid with
excess KHF2.
According to the authors, aryltrifluoroborates are more robust, more easily purified, and less prone
to protodeboronation compared to aryl boronic acids.

B O
O

O
O

1M NaOH, THF
10 min

OH
B
OH

aq. NaHCO3
MeOH, 3.5 h

Gillis, E. P.; Burke, M. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 6716-6717.


Gillis, E. P.; Burke, M. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 14084-14085.

Many unstable boronic acids, such as 2-heteroaryl, vinyl and cyclopropyl, form bench-stable MIDA
complexes.
"Slow release" of boronic acid allows effective coupling of these substrates.

Molander, G. A.; Biolatto, B. J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 43024314.

OtBu
Solvent: The Suzuki reaction is unique among metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in that it can
be run in biphasic (organic/aqueous) or aqueous environments in addition to organic solvents.

Casalnuovo, A. L.; Calabrese, J. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1990, 112, 43244330.

H3C N
S

B O
O

O
O

Ot-Bu

Cl
Pd(OAc)2, SPhos
K3PO4, dioxane, water
60 oC, 6 h

94%

(Yield from the corresponding boronic acid: 37%)

Knapp, D. M.; Gillis, E. P.; Burke, M. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 6961-6963.
Andrew Haidle, Chris Coletta, Eric Hansen

Bulky, Electron-Rich Phosphines as Ligands for the Suzuki Reaction

TlOH and TlOEt as Rate-Enhancing Additives for the Suzuki Reaction

TBSO

OTBS
OTBS

TBSO

I
OTBS
OTBS
OTBS

TBSO

(HO)2B

OTBS
OTBS

(H3C)2N

P(t-Bu)3

R = PCy2 (1)
R = P(t-Bu)2 (2)

OTBS
OTBS
OTBS

OCH3

Cy2P R
R'

TBSO

OTBS

P(Cy)3

R = PCy2 (3)
R = P(t-Bu)2 (4)

R
R = OCH3, R' = H

"SPhos"

R = Oi-Pr, R' = H

"RuPhos"

R = R' = i-Pr

"XPhos"

OTBS
R

OCH3

Cl

+ (HO)2B

base

temp (C)

time

yield

relative rate

KOH

23

2h

86

ligand

Pd source

base

solvent

temp (C)

time (h)

yield (%)

TlOH

23

<<30 s

92

1000

CH3

PPh3

Pd2(dba)3

Cs2CO3

dioxane

80

0a

CH3

Pt-Bu3
4

Pd2(dba)3
Pd(OAc)2

Cs2CO3

dioxane
THF

80
23

KF

86a
95b

CH3O

Pt-Bu3
4

Pd2(dba)3
Pd(OAc)2

Cs2CO3
KF

dioxane
THF

80
45

5
6

89a
93b

NH2

Pt-Bu3

Pd2(dba)3

Cs2CO3

dioxane

80

92a

Pt-Bu3

Pd2(dba)3

Cs2CO3

dioxane

80

91a

TlOH greatly accelerates the rate of coupling, which the authors attribute to acceleration of the
hydroxylhalogen exchange at palladium.
Uenishi, J.; Beau, J.; Armstrong, R. W.; Kishi, Y. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987, 109, 47564658.

TlOH vs. TlOEt


H3C
t-BuO2C CO2t-Bu

(HO)2B

OH

t-BuO2C CO2t-Bu
a

(5 equiv)

Pd(PPh3)4 (10 mol %)


I

TlOEt (1.8 equiv)


CO2Me

3:1 THF:H2O

CO2Me

97%

THF (anhydrous) 93%

Littke, A. F.; Dai, C.; Fu, G. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 40204028.
Wolfe, J. P.; Singer, R. A.; Yang, B. H.; Buchwald, S. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 95509561.

Bulky phosphine ligands lead to a monoligated palladium species which is highly reactive to
oxidative addition.

HO
These ligands are commercially available.

Roush has found that TlOEt is a generally superior source of Tl for Suzuki couplings. Pure TlOH
is available from only a single source, aqueous solutions of TlOH have a poor shelf life, and the
aqueous solutions are both air and light sensitive.
The largest problem with using TlOEt is that some boronic acidTlOEt adducts are not very
soluble. Using water as a cosolvent helps to alleviate this problem in many cases.

The increased activity of the ligands shown above allows unactivated aryl chlorides and bromides to
be employed in Suzuki couplings under mild conditions.

Christmann, U.; Vilar, R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 366374.
Fu, G. Acc. Chem. Res. 2008, 41, 15551564.

Frank, S. A.; Chen, H.; Kunz, R. K.; Schnaderbeck, M. J.; Roush, W. R. Org. Lett. 2000, 2, 26912694.

Chris Coletta, Eric Hansen, Fan Liu

Alkyl Di-tert-butylphosphane-Ligated Palladium(I) Dimers as Catalysts for the Suzuki Reaction

[t-Bu2(1-Ad)P]PdI
Br

+ (HO)2B

Br
Br

Selected Applications in Industry

The Suzuki reaction is routinely used in the fine chemical, agrochemical and pharmaceutical
industries.

PdI[P(1-Ad)t-Bu2]

SO2Me

KOH, THF, 15 min, RT


95%

SO2Me

1. Pd(PPh3)4 (4 mol%)
aq. NaOH

Et2B
+

HCl

Br

As a solid, the catalytic complex is stable indefinitely in the air. It is believed that the catalyst
fragments to form the monomeric subunits under the reaction conditions.

(14.5 kg)

Reactions of phenylboronic acids with (deactivated) aryl chlorides occurred rapidly at room
temperature, but conversion did not exceed 70%.

(9.13 kg)

H3CO
Pd2(dba)3 (1 mol%)
5 (2 mol%)

K3PO4, toluene
100 C, 96%

i-Pr

P
t-Bu
OCH3
5

HN

Cl

F
N
H

Pd(OAc)2 (2 mol%)
dppf (2 mol%)

(21.6 kg)

H3C
H3C

Other ligands such as SPhos, RuPhos, XPhos, PPh3, PCy3, and Pt-Bu3 generally proceeded with
<20% conversion.

(50.0 kg)

CH3
CH3

H3CO

CH3

CH3

H2N
(40.9 kg)

N
N
H

Linifanib (ABT-869)

Application to the synthesis of Xalkori!, an anti-cancer drug for treatment of non-small cell lung
carcinoma:

(HO)2B
H3CO

OCH3

Pd2(dba)3 (1 mol%)
5 (2 mol%)
K3PO4, toluene
100 C, 96%

Cl

H3C H3CO

CH3
O

OCH3
H3C H3CO

Cl
F
(49.6 kg)

N N

NH2
O
H3C
H3C

O
CH3
CH3

(59.1 kg)
Tang, W.; Capacci, A. G.; Wei, X.; Li, W.; White, A.; Patel, N.; Savoie, J.; Gao, J. J.; Rodriguez, S.;
Qu, B.; Haddad, N.; Lu, B. Z.; Krishnamurthy, D.; Yee, N. K.; Senanayake, C. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
2010, 49, 58795883.

NH

Boc
Br

Br

K3PO4, EtOH, H2O


55 oC, 84%

N
H

Kruger, A. W.; Rozema, M. J.; Chu-Kung, A.; Gandarilla, J.; Haight, A. R.; Kotecki, B. J.; Richter, S.
M.; Schwartz, A. M.; Wang, Z. Org. Proc. Res. Dev. 2009, 13, 14191425.

i-Pr

CH3

HN

CH3

+
N
H

i-Pr

i-Pr

(HO)2B

O
H2N

Ph i-Pr
i-Pr

(11.44 kg)

Application to the synthesis of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor:

Ligand 5, accessible in kilogram quantities and stable indefinitely in the air, was found to be highly
effective for Suzuki coupling of sterically congested substrates.

Br

2. HCl; filtration

Lipton, M. F.; Mauragis, M. A.; Maloney, M. T.; Veley, M. F.; VanderBor, D. W.; Newby, J. J.; Appell,
R. B.; Daugs, E. D. Org. Proc. Res. Dev. 2003, 7, 385392.

Stambuli, J. P.; Kuwano, R.; Hartwig, J. F. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2002, 41, 4746-4748.

Ph

n-Bu4NBr, THF
66 oC, 89.6%

1. Pd(dppf)Cl2-CH2Cl2
(0.9 mol%)
TBAB, Cs2CO3

N N

Cl

Toluene, H2O
70 oC, 76%
2. HCl, EtOH, 80%

CH3
O
Cl

N
NH2
(20.7 kg)

Crizotinib (Xalkori!)

de Koning, P. D. et. al. Org. Proc. Res. Dev. 2011, 15, 10181026.
Chris Coletta, Eric Hansen, Fan Liu

B-Alkyl Suzuki Reaction

R'

sp3-sp3 Suzuki Coupling

Br

PdCl2(dppf) (3 mol%)

B R

R' R

By employing a bulky, electron-rich ligand (similar to the ligands used in aryl chloride Suzuki
couplings) Fu and coworkers are able to effect the Suzuki coupling of primary alkyl bromides or
chlorides and 9-alkyl-9BBN:

THF, NaOH, reflux


9-alkyl-9-BBN

vinyl bromide

9-BBN

Br

Ph

yield (%)

product

CH3

CH3

Ph

85

Br

9-BBN

CH3
Br

THPO

OCH3

9-BBN

Br

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

Netherton, M. R.; Dai, C.; Klaus, N.; Fu, G. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 1009910100.

98
+ Cl

9-BBN
Br

OTBS
4

CN
8

CH3
9

80
OCH3

H3C
H3C

K2PO4H2O
85%

OCH3

OCH3
CH3

CH3
9

CH3
THPO

4% Pd(OAc)2
8% PCy3

CsOHH2O
dioxane, 90 C
72%

81
H3C
H3C

5% Pd2(dba)3
20% PCy3
OTBS
4

(CH2)8CN
Kirchhoff, J. H.; Dai, C.; Fu, G. C. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 2002, 41, 19451947.

With the advent of the PdCl2(dppf) catalyst, primary alkyl groups can be transferred by Suzuki
coupling, typically using 9-BBN reagents.

Suzuki Cross-Coupling of Unactivated Secondary Alkyl Halides

Other suitable coupling partners include aryl or vinyl triflates and aryl iodides.
Secondary alkyl boron compounds are not suitable coupling partners for this reaction.

Fu and coworkers have developed a Ni0-catalyzed Suzuki coupling of unactivated secondary


alkyl bromides and iodides:
Ph

Ph

Alkyl boronic esters are also be viable substrates in the B-alkyl Suzuki reaction when
thallium salts such as TlOH or Tl2CO3 are used as the base.

Miyaura, N.; Ishiyama, T.; Sasaki, H.; Ishikawa, M.; Satoh, M.; Suzuki, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
1989, 111, 314321.

Sato, M.; Miyaura, Suzuki, A. Chem. Lett. 1989, 14051408.

Br +

4% Ni(cod)2
8% 1

(HO)2B

KOt-Bu, s-butanol
60 C, 5h

The large bite angle of the dppf ligand has been noted and is believed to provide a catalyst with a
more favorable ratio of rate constants for reductive elimination versus !-hydride elimination.

91%
PPh2
dppf =

Cl

88

Cl

Pd

Fe
PPh2

Ph2P

99

I
PPh2

(HO)2B

O
O

4% Ni(cod)2
8% 1
KOt-Bu, s-butanol
60 C, 5h
62%

Hayashi, T.; Konishi, M.; Kobori, Y.; Kumada, M.; Higuchi, T.; Hirotsu, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
1984, 106, 158163.
Brown, J. M.; Guiry, P. J. Inorg. Chim. Acta. 1994, 220, 249259.

Zhou, J.; Fu, G. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 13401341.

Chris Coletta

sp3-sp3 Suzuki Cross-Coupling of Unactivated Secondary Alkyl Halides


Diamine 2 was found to be an effective ligand for metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of unactivated alkyl
electrophiles.

Nickel catalysts have been effective with electrophiles that are inert to palladium catalysts, including
carbonates, carbamates, sulfamates, esters, phosphate esters and ethers.

Han, F.-S. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2013, 42, 52705298.

H3C NH HN CH3
2
R

Br

NiCl2-glyme (6 mol%)
2 (8 mol%)

Ph

9-BBN

Ph

KOtBu, i-BuOH
dioxane, 23 C

75%

NiCl2(PCy3)2
K3PO4

(HO)2B

OMe

Toluene, 110 oC

X = OC(O)NEt2

R=H

52%

X = OSO2NMe2

R=H

83%

X = OPiv

R = Me

79%

OMe

NiCl2-glyme (6 mol%)
2 (8 mol%)
Ph

9-BBN

Br

KOtBu, i-BuOH
dioxane, 23 C

Ph

65%
"endo-2-bromonorbornane is converted into the exo product, most likely due to a radical pathway for
oxidative addition." Gonzalez-Bobes, F.; Fu, G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 53605361.

Saito, B.; Fu, G. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 96029603.

Quasdorf, K. W.; Reiner, M.; Petrova, K. V.; Garg, N. K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 17748
17749.
Quasdorf, K. W.; Tian, X.; Garg, N. K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 1442214423.

Nickel Catalyzed Suzuki Couplings

Cl
N

(HO)2B
MeO

NiCl2(PPh3)2
K3PO4
N

2-Me-THF
100 oC, 91%

N
MeO

Ramgren, S.D.; Hien, L.; Ye, Y.; Garg, N. K. Org. Lett. 2013, 15, 39503953

Eric Hansen

(+)-Discodermolide (B-Alkyl Suzuki Reaction)

Rutamycin B
I

CH3 CH3

CH3
(2 equiv)

CH3
O

tBuO

Ph3P

O TBSO MOMO

CHO

CH3

PMP

OMOM

CH3

THF, 2.5 h

OTBS

O TBSO MOMO
PMP

B =

CH3

OTBS

CH3
O

77%

TBSO
B(OH)2

CH3

CH3

THF, 23 C, 45 min

CH3

CH3

CH3
O

OTBS

CH3

3. Pd(PPh3)4 (20 mol %)

OTES
H

CH3 CH3
15:85

2. B (0.36 equiv)

40 %

E:Z

1. TlOH (2.6 equiv)

CH3

78 C ! 23 C,

OMOM

CH3
CH3
CH3

A
1. tBuLi (2 eq)
CH3 CH3 CH3

tBuO

Et2O, 78 C

CH3O

I
PMBO

CH3 CH3 CH3

2.
OTES

BOCH3

Li
PMBO

OTES

CH3
CH3

OTBS

THF

2. A, DMF

OTES CH

CH3

1. K3PO4 (2.3 equiv), 23 C

OTBS

CH3

OTBS

CH3
O

CH3

CH3

TBSO

CH3

3. PdCl2(dppf) (10 mol %), 16 h

CH3

74%
CH3

CH3 CH3

CH3 CH3

CH3
O

O TBSO MOMO

CH3

CH3

OPMB OTES

OMOM

PMP

CH3

CH3
CH3
CH3 CH3 CH3

CH3
HO

CH3
O

OH
CH3

O
H

OH O
CH3
OH
(+)-Discodermolide

Marshall, J. A.; Johns, B. A. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 78857892.

O
NH2

OH

OH

CH3
O

CH3
Rutamycin B

CH3

CH3

O
OH

CH3
O
HO

CH3
CH3
CH3

Evans, D. A.; Ng, H. P.; Rieger, D. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 1144611459.

Andrew Haidle
8

Palytoxin Amide:

O
O

TEOCN
H

OTBS

CH3
TBSO
CH TBSO
3

O
H
TBSO

OTBS

OTBS
OTBS

OTBS
OTBS

OTBS
1. (COCl)2, DMSO, Et3N, 78 ! 0 C
OTBS
O
O
TBSO
TMEDA, THF, 0 C;
2.
B
B
O
O
OH
Li
EtOAc; NaCl, HCl

CH3

TBSO
(HO)2B

3. TlOH (10% aq); B, Pd(PPh3)4, 23 C

4. LiCH2P(O)(OCH3)2 (30 eq.)/THF, 78 C

7580%
OAc
OTBS
OTBS

O
O

OTBS
OTBS

TEOCN
H

OTBS

TBSO
H
OTBS

CH3O

OTBS

OTBS
OTBS

TBSO
CH3
CH3TBSO

O
H
TBSO

TBSO
O

OTBS

TBSO

CH3
OTBS
OTBS

OAc
OTBS
OTBS

OTBS
O

O
O

OH

OH

H2N

OH

HO
HO

OH

O
H
HO

OTBS
OTBS

OH
TBSO

HO

OH

TBSO

OH

OH
OH

CH3 OH

CH3

H2N

OH
O

OH

CH3

CH3
O

OH

H
HO

CH3

OH

OH
O

OH

HO
HO

P
O

H
OTBS

OTBS

OH
OH

OH
HO
O

OH
O

(CH3O)2
OH

OH
HO
OH

OTBS

CH
OH 3

HO

CH3

OH
OH

H
OH

OH
OH

OH

OH
Kishi, Y., et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 75257530.
Kishi, Y., et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 75307533.

Palytoxin amide

Andrew Haidle
9

Epothilone A:

Synthesis of organoboron compounds:

S
CH3

CH3
(CH3)3Si

1. B(Oi-Pr)3 (1 equiv)
CH3
CH3
CH3

2. (c-Hex)2BH

1. N-iodosuccinimide
AgNO3, acetone

OCH3

Et2O, 78 C ! 23 C, 4 h

Li

OCH3

84%

OTBS
CH3
4. Ac2O, Py, 4-DMAP
CH2Cl2, 23 C

3. PhSH, BF3OEt2
CH2Cl2, 23 C

Brown, H. C.; Cole, T. E. Organometallics 1983, 2, 13161319.

9-BBN
THF, 23 C

CH3
CH3
CH3
CH3

35%
CH3
B

S
N

CH3

CH3
CH3

PdCl2(dppf)2 (10 mol %)


OAc

B(Oi-Pr)2

2. HCl/Et2O, 0 C, 30 min

OTIPS

Et2O, AcOH, 23 C

0 ! 23 C, 1.5 h

CH3

BX2

OMOM

OCH3
OCH3
O2N

OTIPS

CH3
CH3
CH3
CH3

O
B

PdCl2(dppf) (3 mol %)

OTf

KOAc, DMSO, 80 C

OTBS

Ph3As (10 mol %)

O
O2N

B
O

CH3
CH3
CH3
CH3

86%

CH3

CsCO3, H2O, DMF


4 h, 23 C;

Aryl bromides and chlorides can also be used.

2 h, 23 C, 75%

I
Ishiyama, T.; Itoh, Y.; Kitano, T.; Miyaura, N. Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 34473450.
Ishiyama, T.; Murata, M.; Miyaura, N. J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60, 75087510.
S

S
CH3

CH3
N
CH3
O

O
OH
CH3
CH3

CH3

N
CH3

OAc
CH3
CH3
CH3

O
OH

Epothilone A
CH3

BX2

OCH3

OCH3
OTIPS
OTBS

CH3

n-Bu

Br

1. HBBr2S(CH3)2
2. i-PrOH

Br

n-Bu

KHB(Oi-Pr)3 n-Bu
B(Oi-Pr)2
Et2O

87%

B(Oi-Pr)2

89%

Meng, D.; Bertinato, P.; Balog, A.; Su, D.; Kamenecka, T.; Sorensen, E. J.; Danishefsky, S., J.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 1007310092.

Brown, H. C.; Imai, T. Organometallics 1984, 3, 13921395.

Andrew Haidle
10

1. n-BuLi,
n-Hex

n-Hex

2. B(Oi-Pr)3
3. HCl/Et2O

R'

B(Oi-Pr)2

H2

Et2O, 78 C

n-Hex

B(Oi-Pr)2

BX2

Lindlar cat.
82%

95:5 E:Z

95%
n-Bu

Brown, H. C.; Bhat, N. G.; Srebnik, M. Tetrahedron Lett. 1988, 29, 26312634.

1. (Ipc)2BH

I
n-Bu

pinacol

n-Bu

B(OEt)2

2. CH3CHO

B O
O

CH3
CH3
CH
3
H3C

Srebnik, M.; Bhat, N. G.; Brown, H. C. Tetrahedron Lett. 1988, 29, 26352638.
[Rh(cod)Cl]2 (1.5 mol %)
CH3

P(i-Pr)3 (6 mol %)
HO

TBSO

(1.0 equiv)

HB

TBSO

O
O

(1.2 equiv)

OH

n-Bu

EtZnI
PdCl2(dppf) (1 mol%)

B O
O

CH3
CH3
CH
3
H3C

CH3
CH3 = pinacol
CH3 CH3
O

Et2O, 25 C, 2 h
67%

Et3N (1.0 equiv)


cyclohexane, 20 C, 2 h
Moriya, T.; Miyaura, N.; Suzuki, A. Chem. Lett. 1993, 14291432.
72 %, 98 % Z
Ohmura, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Miyaura, N. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 49904991.

BX2
R

BX2
O

Br
n-Hex
O
HB

B
O

n-BuLi

O
CH3

n-Hex

Et2O, 78 C
83%

O
n-Pr

R'

n-Pr

H
THF, 70 C

B O
O

Grignard reagents can also be used.

80%

Brown, H. C.; Imai, T.; Bhat, N. G. J. Org. Chem. 1986, 51, 52775282.

Brown, H. C.; Gupta, S. K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94, 43704371.


n-Bu
n-Bu

1. Et3SiH, 78 C
2. BCl3

n-Bu

HO

OH

BCl2
83%

n-Bu

B
O

Br

n-HexBHBrS(CH3)2
Et2O, 0 C

Br
n-Bu

B
Br

n-Hex

NaOCH3

B(OCH3)2
n-Bu

CH3OH

n-Hex
> 75%

Exact yield not specified because the vinyl borane shown was oxidized to a ketone.
Soundararajan, R.; Matteson, D. S. J. Org. Chem. 1990, 55, 22742275.

Brown, H. C.; Basavaiah, D.; Kulkarni, S. U. J. Org. Chem. 1982, 47, 38083810.

Andrew Haidle
11

Comparison of the Stille and Suzuki cross-coupling methods:


B(OH)2
The yields are often comparable:

Sn(CH3)3

OCH3

OCH3
OCH3

CH3

NO2
O

MenO
TfO

(CH3)3Sn

OCH3

OtBu
O

CH3

MenO
CH3O

K3PO4

NO2

DME, 85 C
OCH3

LiCl (4.4 equiv)


BHT (1.8 mol %)

H
N

CH3O

Pd(PPh3)4 (5 mol %)
CuI (4 mol %)

Pd2dba3 (5 mol %)

Pd(PPh3)4 (10 mol %)

OTf

NO2

P(o-tol)3 (40 mol %)


LiCl, dioxane, 85 C

82%

80%

NH
Holzapfel, C. W.; Dwyer, C. Heterocycles 1998, 48, 15131518.

OtBu

pdioxane, reflux, 1 h
81%

Some highly sensitive compounds do not tolerate the basic conditions of the Suzuki reaction.
Farina, V.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Scott, W. J. Org. React. 1998, 50, 1652.

When alkylboron and alkylstannane groups are present in the same molecule, the organoboron

CH3
O

MenO
TfO

OCH3

Pd(PPh3)4 (4 mol %)
Na2CO3

MenO
CH3O

O
OCH3

pdioxane, reflux, 45 min


(HO)2B

H
N

OtBu

groups react preferentially under basic conditions.

CH3

Br

OtBu

CH3

PdCl2(dppf) (3 mo l%)

NH

90%

CH3

Sn(CH3)3

Sn(CH3)3

K3PO4, DMF
5060 C, 88%

CH3O

Ishiyama, T.; Miyaura, N.; Suzuki, A. Synlett 1991, 687688.


The cross-coupling reaction of primary organoboranes is possible, while primary organo

CH3

OH O

CH3

H
HN

CH3

stannanes are not typically used.


COOH

CH3O2C

O
OCH3

= Men

CH3
OH O HO

CH3
H

1. 9-BBN, THF, 0 C
2.

OAc CH3

CH3
Br

(+)-Dynemicin A

CH3

CO2CH3

PdCl2(dppf) (15 mol %)


K2CO3, DMF, 50 C

CH3
H

OAc CH3

The higher cost and toxicity of organostannanes makes the Suzuki coupling the preferred method.
77%
Myers, A. G.; Tom., N. J.; Fraley, M. E.; Cohen, S. B.; Madar, D. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119,
60726094.

Uemura, M.; Nishimura, H.; Minami, T.; Hayashi, Y. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991, 113, 54025410.

Andrew Haidle
12

Stille couplings with primary organostannanes typically involve special structural features, such as
an !-heteroatom, and typically cannot undergo "-hydride elimination.

In the following examples, the Suzuki coupling was successful but the corresponding Stille reaction
failed. This was attributed to a proposed slower rate of transmetalltion in the Stille reaction.
CH3O

Bu3Sn
Br

OCH3 (1.3 equiv)

CH3O

PdCl2(PPh3)2 (1 mol %)

CH3O

H3C CH
3
O
CH3
B
O CH3

OCH3

I
CH3O

OCH3

HMPA, 80 C, 20 h

OCH3

73%

PdCl2(dppf) (3 mol %)
K3PO4, DMF, 5060 C
88%

Kosugi, M.; Sumiya, T.; Ogata, T.; Sano, H.; Migita, T. Chemistry Lett. 1984, 12251226.

OCH3
The Stille coupling has been used for the introduction of glycosylmethyl groups.

CH3O

O
CH3O

CH3O

H3C
O
CH3
H

OTBS
CH3

Bu3Sn

OCH3
OCH3

CH3

O
O
OAc

CH3
H

(7.6 equiv)

CH3

CH3

OCH3
OTf

OTBS
CH3

versus

O
H

THF, 130 C

CH3

CH3

O
CH3O

AcO
52%

CH3O

OCH3

Pd(PPh3)4 (20 mol %)


LiCl (40 equiv)

Sn(CH3)3

CH3O

OCH3

CH3
CH3

Chen, X.-T.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Zhou, B.; Gutteridge, C. E.; Pettus, T. R. R.; Danishefsky, S. J.

CH3O

Sn(CH3)3
OCH3

various conditions
CH3O

CH3O
H

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 65636579.


CH3O

CH3O

O
OCH3

O
OCH3

Zembower, D.E.; Zhang, H. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 93009305.

Andrew Haidle
13