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Vibrations of Structures

Module III: Vibrations of Beams

Lesson 20: Beam Models - II


Contents:
1. The Timoshenko Beam
2. Higher Order Beam Theories

Keywords: Beam models, Shear deformation, Timoshenko beam, Variational formulation, Higher order beam models

Beam Models - II
1

The Timoshenko Beam


Timoshenko beam model takes into account the shear deformation of a

beam cross-section.

The Newtonian Formulation


The Timoshenko beam requires two field variables: (x, t) for flexure and

Pure bending

w,x

Simple shear

Figure 1: Deformation components of a Timoshenko beam element

(x, t) for shear, as shown in Fig. 1. One can write


w,x (x, t) = (x, t) + (x, t)
2

(1)

where w(x, t) represents the displacement field of a neutral fiber of the beam.
The relation (1) allows us to choose of w(x, t) and (x, t) as the two field
variables.
Since the longitudinal strain x in the beam is produced only from bending,
one can write
x =

(R z) d R d
= z,x .
dx

(2)

Using Hookes law, the longitudinal stress is obtained as x = Ez,x , and


the bending moment can be expressed as
M =

h/2

x z dA = EI,x .

(3)

h/2

Similarly, the net shear force acting at a section can be written as


V = GAs = GAs (w,x ),
where As = A/, A is the area of cross-section of the beam, and is known as
the shear correction factor. This factor is introduced to take care of the nonuniformity in the shear force across the section. For a rectangular section
1.20, for a circular section 1.11, and for an I-section 2-2.4.
Newtons second law for the transverse motion yields
(A dx)w,tt = V (x + dx) V (x)
or Aw,tt = [GAs (w,x )],x .

Aw,tt = V,x ,
(4)

The equation of rotational dynamics can be written as


dx
dx
+ (V + dV ) + (M + dM ) M
2
2
dM
=V +
,
dx

(I dx),tt = V
or I,tt

or I,tt = GAs (w,x ) + [EI,x ],x .

(5)

The two differential equations (4) and (5) in w(x, t) and (x, t) represent the
dynamics of a Timoshenko beam.
In the case of a uniform beam, we have the simplification
Aw,tt = GAs (w,xx ,x ),

and I,tt = GAs (w,x ) + EI,xx .

(6)

(7)

Differentiating (7) once with respect to x we have


I,xtt = GAs (w,xx ,x ) + EI,xxx .

(8)

Solving for ,x from (6) and substituting in (8) yields on simplification




I
I
EI
EI
w,tttt + w,tt
+
w,ttxx +
w,xxxx = 0.
(9)
GAs
A GAs
A
p
p
With the definitions cL = E/ (longitudinal wave speed), cS = G/
p
(shear wave speed), and rg = I/A (radius of gyration), the equation of
transverse motion of a uniform Timoshenko beam can be written as

 2 2

2
2
2

c2S 2w

2
S
cL 2 2
w + 2 2 = 0.

x
t
x2 t2
rg t

(10)

The Variational Formulation


The total kinetic energy density of a beam element consists of the translational and rotational kinetic energy densities, and is given by
1
1
T = Aw,t2 + I,t2 .
2
2

(11)

The potential energy density can be written as


1
1
1
1
2
2
+ GAs 2 = EI,x
+ GAs (w,x )2
V = EI,x
2
2
2
2

(12)

Hamiltons variational principle for the dynamics of the beam yields

t2
t1

t2
t1

dx dt = 0,
(T V)

Z l

Aw,t w,t + I,t ,t

EI,x ,x GAs (w,x )(w,x ) dx dt = 0. (13)


Integrating by parts and rearranging, we have
 l
 t2
Z t2 
Z l


EI,x GAs (w,x ) w dt
Aw,t w + I,t dx +
0

t1

t2

t1

Z l

t1

(Aw,tt + [GAs(w,x )],x ) w +

(I,tt + (EI,x ),x + GAs (w,x )) dx dt = 0.

(14)

The first integral above vanishes from the statement of the variational principle. The integrand in the double integral yields the two equations of motion
(4) and (5). A set of possible boundary conditions is obtained from the
5

integrand of the second integral in (14) as

[EI,x ](0, t) = 0

or

(0, t) = 0,

and [EI,x ](l, t) = 0

or

(l, t) = 0,

and [GAs (w,x )](0, t) = 0

or

w(0, t) = 0,

and [GAs (w,x )](l, t) = 0

or

w(l, t) = 0.

Higher Order Beam Theories


One may extend and generalize the above discussed standard beam models

for improved accuracy (though with higher complexity) as follows. Consider


the expansion of axial and transverse deformations of any material point of
the beam in terms of the transverse coordinate z measured from the middle
plane of the beam as, respectively,
U (x, z, t) = 0 (x, t) + z1 (x, t) + z 2 2(x, t) + . . .

(15)

W (x, z, t) = w0 (x, t) + zw1 (x, t) + z 2 w2(x, t) + . . .

(16)

where n (x, t) and wn (x, t) are the field variables. It may be noted that
0 (x, t) introduces stretch of the middle plane of the beam. One may then
compute the strain field using the definitions
xx = U,x ,

1
xz = (U,z + W,x ),
2

zz = W,z ,

and the corresponding stress field can be obtained using Hookes law.
6

From this point, it is convenient to follow the variational formulation to


derive the equations of motion of the beam. The kinetic energy of the beam
can be calculated as
1
T =
2

Z lZ
0

(U,t2 + W,t2 ) dA dx.

The strain energy function may be expressed as


1
V=
2

Z lZ
0

(xx xx + 2xz xz + zz zz ) dA dx.


A

In the above energy expressions, one can carry-out the area integration as
done before. Finally, following the variational procedure, one obtains the
equations of motion for the field variables.
Consider the following two special cases.
(A) 1 (x, t) = w,x (x, t) and w0(x, t) = w(x, t):
We have
U (x, z, t) = zw,x (x, t),

and

W (x, z, t) = w(x, t).

Thus, xx = zw,xx and xz = zz = 0, and using Hookes law, xx =
zEw,xx . The kinetic energy and potential energy expressions are obtained as
1
T =
2

l
2
(Iw,xt

Aw,t2 )dx,

1
V=
2

This then leads to the Rayleigh beam theory.

l
2
EIw,xx
dx.
0

(a) Euler-Bernoulli theory

(b) Timoshenko theory

(c) Higher order theories

Figure 2: Visualization of the deformation kinematics in different beam theories (dashed line
represents deformation under Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis)

(B) 1 (x, t) = (x, t) and w0(x, t) = w(x, t):


Here,
U (x, z, t) = z(x, t),

and

W (x, z, t) = w(x, t).

Hence, xx = z,x and xz = 1/2( + w,x ) and zz = 0. The stress
field is obtained as xx = zE,x and xz = 1/2G(w,x ). The kinetic
energy and potential energy expressions are given by
1
T =
2

(I,t2

1
V=
2

Aw,t2 )dx,

l
2
[EI,x
+ GA(w,x )2]dx.
0

This yields the Timoshenko beam theory.


The deformation kinematics of Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko and higher order
beam theories are visualized in Fig. 2.