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# Vibrations of Structures

## Lesson 20: Beam Models - II

Contents:
1. The Timoshenko Beam
2. Higher Order Beam Theories

Keywords: Beam models, Shear deformation, Timoshenko beam, Variational formulation, Higher order beam models

Beam Models - II
1

## The Timoshenko Beam

Timoshenko beam model takes into account the shear deformation of a

beam cross-section.

## The Newtonian Formulation

The Timoshenko beam requires two field variables: (x, t) for flexure and

Pure bending

w,x

Simple shear

## (x, t) for shear, as shown in Fig. 1. One can write

w,x (x, t) = (x, t) + (x, t)
2

(1)

where w(x, t) represents the displacement field of a neutral fiber of the beam.
The relation (1) allows us to choose of w(x, t) and (x, t) as the two field
variables.
Since the longitudinal strain x in the beam is produced only from bending,
one can write
x =

(R z) d R d
= z,x .
dx

(2)

## Using Hookes law, the longitudinal stress is obtained as x = Ez,x , and

the bending moment can be expressed as
M =

h/2

x z dA = EI,x .

(3)

h/2

## Similarly, the net shear force acting at a section can be written as

V = GAs = GAs (w,x ),
where As = A/, A is the area of cross-section of the beam, and is known as
the shear correction factor. This factor is introduced to take care of the nonuniformity in the shear force across the section. For a rectangular section
1.20, for a circular section 1.11, and for an I-section 2-2.4.
Newtons second law for the transverse motion yields
(A dx)w,tt = V (x + dx) V (x)
or Aw,tt = [GAs (w,x )],x .

Aw,tt = V,x ,
(4)

## The equation of rotational dynamics can be written as

dx
dx
+ (V + dV ) + (M + dM ) M
2
2
dM
=V +
,
dx

(I dx),tt = V
or I,tt

## or I,tt = GAs (w,x ) + [EI,x ],x .

(5)

The two differential equations (4) and (5) in w(x, t) and (x, t) represent the
dynamics of a Timoshenko beam.
In the case of a uniform beam, we have the simplification
Aw,tt = GAs (w,xx ,x ),

(6)

(7)

## Differentiating (7) once with respect to x we have

I,xtt = GAs (w,xx ,x ) + EI,xxx .

(8)

## Solving for ,x from (6) and substituting in (8) yields on simplification



I
I
EI
EI
w,tttt + w,tt
+
w,ttxx +
w,xxxx = 0.
(9)
GAs
A GAs
A
p
p
With the definitions cL = E/ (longitudinal wave speed), cS = G/
p
(shear wave speed), and rg = I/A (radius of gyration), the equation of
transverse motion of a uniform Timoshenko beam can be written as

 2 2

2
2
2

c2S 2w

2
S
cL 2 2
w + 2 2 = 0.

x
t
x2 t2
rg t

(10)

## The Variational Formulation

The total kinetic energy density of a beam element consists of the translational and rotational kinetic energy densities, and is given by
1
1
T = Aw,t2 + I,t2 .
2
2

(11)

1
1
1
1
2
2
+ GAs 2 = EI,x
+ GAs (w,x )2
V = EI,x
2
2
2
2

(12)

t2
t1

t2
t1

dx dt = 0,
(T V)

Z l

## EI,x ,x GAs (w,x )(w,x ) dx dt = 0. (13)

Integrating by parts and rearranging, we have
 l
 t2
Z t2 
Z l

EI,x GAs (w,x ) w dt
Aw,t w + I,t dx +
0

t1

t2

t1

Z l

t1

## (I,tt + (EI,x ),x + GAs (w,x )) dx dt = 0.

(14)

The first integral above vanishes from the statement of the variational principle. The integrand in the double integral yields the two equations of motion
(4) and (5). A set of possible boundary conditions is obtained from the
5

## integrand of the second integral in (14) as

[EI,x ](0, t) = 0

or

(0, t) = 0,

or

(l, t) = 0,

or

w(0, t) = 0,

or

w(l, t) = 0.

## Higher Order Beam Theories

One may extend and generalize the above discussed standard beam models

## for improved accuracy (though with higher complexity) as follows. Consider

the expansion of axial and transverse deformations of any material point of
the beam in terms of the transverse coordinate z measured from the middle
plane of the beam as, respectively,
U (x, z, t) = 0 (x, t) + z1 (x, t) + z 2 2(x, t) + . . .

(15)

## W (x, z, t) = w0 (x, t) + zw1 (x, t) + z 2 w2(x, t) + . . .

(16)

where n (x, t) and wn (x, t) are the field variables. It may be noted that
0 (x, t) introduces stretch of the middle plane of the beam. One may then
compute the strain field using the definitions
xx = U,x ,

1
xz = (U,z + W,x ),
2

zz = W,z ,

and the corresponding stress field can be obtained using Hookes law.
6

## From this point, it is convenient to follow the variational formulation to

derive the equations of motion of the beam. The kinetic energy of the beam
can be calculated as
1
T =
2

Z lZ
0

1
V=
2

Z lZ
0

## (xx xx + 2xz xz + zz zz ) dA dx.

A

In the above energy expressions, one can carry-out the area integration as
done before. Finally, following the variational procedure, one obtains the
equations of motion for the field variables.
Consider the following two special cases.
(A) 1 (x, t) = w,x (x, t) and w0(x, t) = w(x, t):
We have
U (x, z, t) = zw,x (x, t),

and

## W (x, z, t) = w(x, t).

Thus, xx = zw,xx and xz = zz = 0, and using Hookes law, xx =
zEw,xx . The kinetic energy and potential energy expressions are obtained as
1
T =
2

l
2
(Iw,xt

Aw,t2 )dx,

1
V=
2

l
2
EIw,xx
dx.
0

## (c) Higher order theories

Figure 2: Visualization of the deformation kinematics in different beam theories (dashed line
represents deformation under Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis)

## (B) 1 (x, t) = (x, t) and w0(x, t) = w(x, t):

Here,
U (x, z, t) = z(x, t),

and

## W (x, z, t) = w(x, t).

Hence, xx = z,x and xz = 1/2( + w,x ) and zz = 0. The stress
field is obtained as xx = zE,x and xz = 1/2G(w,x ). The kinetic
energy and potential energy expressions are given by
1
T =
2

(I,t2

1
V=
2

Aw,t2 )dx,

l
2
[EI,x
+ GA(w,x )2]dx.
0

## This yields the Timoshenko beam theory.

The deformation kinematics of Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko and higher order
beam theories are visualized in Fig. 2.