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Assignment 4

Sousa 208220127

Theories of Failure

failure may also occur due to excessive deformation (elastic or inelastic) or a variety of other

reasons.

During the latter part of the 19th century and continuing up to the present, a number of basic

failure theories were proposed and tested on a few materials. Most of the theories were based on

the assumption that failure occurs when some physical variable such as stress, strain, or energy

reaches a limiting value! That result with some difference and similarities between them.

By:

Rankine:

The theory of failure due to the maximum normal stress (by Rankine) states that a brittle material

will fail when the maximum principal stress exceeds some value, independent of whether other

components of the stress tensor are present. Experiments in uniaxial tension and torsion have

corroborated this assumption.

This theory states that the failure can be assumed to occur when the maximum shear stress in the

complex stress system is equal to the value of maximum shear stress in simple tension.

Von-Mises

The theory is based on a limiting energy of distortion, i.e. energy associated with shear strains.

Strain energy can be separated into energy associated with volume change and energy associated

with distortion of the body. The maximum distortion energy failure theory assumes failure by

yielding in a more complicated loading situation occur when the distortion energy in material

reaches the same value as in a tension test at yield. This theory provides best agreement between

experiment and theory and, along the Tresca theory, is widely used today.

Comparison

Out of those theories, only the maximum normal stress theory predicts failure for brittle

materials. The rest of the two theories are applicable for ductile materials. Out of these,

the distortion energy theory provides most accurate results in majority of the stress

conditions.

The strain energy theory needs the value of Poisson’s ratio of the part material, which is

often not readily available. The maximum shear stress theory is conservative.

For simple unidirectional normal stresses all theories are equivalent, which means all

theories will give the same result.

What is the factor of safety according to the principal shear stress theory?

(ii) What is the factor of safety according to the von Mises-Hencky theory?

In some applications the shaft are simultaneously subjected to bending moment M and Torque T.

The Bending moment comes on the shaft due to gravity or Inertia loads. So the stresses are set up

due to bending moment and Torque. For design purposes it is necessary to find the principal

stresses, maximum shear stress, which ever is used as a criterion of failure.

So equivalent bending moment is a bending moment which, acting alone, and produce in a

circular shaft a normal stress of the same magnitude as the maximum normal stress produced by

a given bending moment and a given twisting moment acting simultaneously. Let Me be the

equivalent bending moment, then due to bending

Equivalent Torque:

At we here already proved that σ 1 and σ 2 for the combined bending and twisting case are

expressed by the relations:

where is defined as the equivalent torque, which acting alone would produce the same

maximum shear stress as produced by the pure torsion

Thus,

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