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Kommunikation

ist moglich
Theologische, dkumenische und
interreligiose Lernprozesse
Herausgegeben von Christine Btichner, Christine Jung,
Bernhard Nitsche u n d Lucia Scherzberg

festschrift f i i r Bernd Jochen H i l b e r a t h

M a t t h i a s G r i i n e w a l d Verlag

I'ii r d i e Untcrstutzu ng bci der D r u c k l e g u n g d ieser P u b l i k a t i o n danken die Herausg c b e r i n n e n u n d der Hcrausgebersehr herzlich
Dr. Gebhard Fiirst, BischofdcrDiflzeseRottenburg-Stuttgart
D r . D r . Karl Kardinal L e h m a n n . B i s c h o f d e r D i b z e s e M a i n z
Cusanuswerk, Bonn
Initiative Unita dei Cristiani e. V.
Laubach-Stiftung, M a i n z

Inhalt

Einfiihrung

Vereinigung der Freunde der U n i v e r s i t i t T u b i n g e n (Universitatsbund) e. V.,


Ttlbingen

I . KommunikativeErschliefiungvon
PETER

Theologie

H U N E R M A N N

Communicatio reduplicative sumpta


Brief anjochen

BRADFORD

Hilberath

H I N Z E

Individuation and Communion


Communicative Challenges for the Church

yjiytJ
pg^,
~.o

MIX
Papier aua verantwortungavollen Quellen
F S C C006701

F u r die Schwabenverlag AG ist N a c h h a l t i g k e i t ein w i c h t i g e r Mafistab ihres H a n delns. W i r achten daher auf den Einsatz umweltschonender Ressourcen u n d Mater i a l i e n . Dieses Buch w u r d e auf FSC*-zertifiziertem Papier gedruckt. FSC (Forest
Stewardship Council) ist eine n i c h t staatliche, gemeinnutzige Organisation, die
sich f u r eine okologische u n d sozial verantwortliche N u t z u n g der W i l d e r unserer
Erde einsetzt.

GERARD

M A N N I O N

From Communicative Theology to Communicative


(Teaching with-) Authority
Pathways for Collective Witness

PETER

WALTER

Das Konzil als Geschehen gelungener oder


misslungener K o m m u n i k a t i o n

B i b l i o g r a f ische I n f o r m a t i o n der Deutschen N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k


Die Deutsche N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k verzeichnet diese P u b l i k a t i o n i n der Deutschen
N a t i o n a l b i b l i o g r a f ie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten s i n d i m I n t e r n e t iiber
http://dnb.d-nb.de abrufbar.

Hoffnungen undErfahrungen

Alle Rechte vorbehalten


2013 M a t t h i a s G r i i n e w a l d Verlag der Schwabenverlag AG, Ostf i l d e m
www.gruenewaldverlag.de

PETER D E M E Y

Umschlaggestaltung: F i n k e n & B u m i l l e r , S t u t t g a r t
Umschlagabbildung: Ich war f remd - i h r habt m i c h aufgenommen: Anne-Lise
H a m m a n n Jeannot/Frankreich 2013, Weltgebetstag der Frauen - Deutsches
Komiteee.V.
Foto Seite 2: M a r k Chapman
D r u c k : CPI - Ebner & Spiegel, U l m
Hergestellt i n Deutschland
ISBN 978-3-7867-2993-8

der Maimer Bischofe Wilhelm

Emmanuel

von Ketteler und Hermann Volk

As Separated but Closely Related Brethren


(fratres

seiuncti)

The Harmonious Collaboration of Council and Observers on the Decree on


Ecumenism 50years ago

MICHAEL

98

THEODOR

THEOBALD

Wer nicht gegen uns ist, der ist fur uns


( M k 9 , 4 o par. Lk 9,50)

227

DIETER

Misslungene Kommunikation u n d Kirchenspaltung:


Augsburg 1518

Jesu Stellungnahme zum fremden Exorzisten als Exempel


wohlverstandener

Toleranz

WALTER

243
JURGEN

118

WERBICK

Kornmunikation an der Grenze oder


Kommunikationsabbruch?
Strafe und Vergeltung in

theologischerPerspektive

LUCIA

258

FLEISCHMANN-BISTEN

500 Jahre Reformation - Aspekte okumenischer


Kommunikation
SCHERZBERG

Der epikletische Charakter der Kirche


Erinnerung an eine dkumenische Vision

CLAUDIA GUGGEMOS/ALBERT

133

CLEMENS

147

BIESINGER

Familienkatechese als kommunikative Theologie

IVANA A N D T I M NOBLE

273

MENDONCA

A non-synthetic dialectics between the Christian East


and West

The Last Shall be the First


A startingpointfor

Communicative Theology from an Indian Perspective

BERNHARD

II. Okumenische
DOROTHEA

164

282

SATTLER

Heiliger Geist - unheilsames Filioque?

Vertrauen

CHRISTINE

III. Interreligidse Lernprozesse


FRANCIS X. D'SA

BUCHNER

296

Tradition u n d Gabe
HermeneutischeKategorien

im dkumenischen

Cesprdch

JOHANNA

RAHNER

Ekklesiologie u n d E t h i k

SJ

Was hat der interreligiose Dialog m i t der


innerchristlichen Okumene zu tun?
Unterwegs zu einer Theologie der Religion
URS

197

NITSCHE

Kommunikationsprozesse

Konturen einer dkumenischen Hermeneutik (nicht nur) fiir heute

184

renewed communication

312

B A U M A N N

Was ist religiose Wahrheit?


Zur Hermeneutik des interreligibsen Dialogs

Okumenische Hermeneutik vor neuen Herausforderungen


OTTMAR
ANDRE

213

BIRMELE

Sind die Kirchen okumenefahig?


Eine alte Frage in neuer Gestalt

325

FUCHS

Christlicher Glaube als exklusive Erwahlung zu


heilsinklusiver Universalitat

PAUL M . ZULEHNER/PETRA

337

Einfuhrung

STEINMAIR-POSEL

Grundlegung einer universalen Kirchenpraxis


Die Wende des Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils zum Heilsoptimismus und
ihre Bedeutungfiir
Ein

die Praxis der Kirche.

Werkstattbericht
Ein geistlicher Mensch ist einer, der sich authentisch auf Andere h i n off-

KARL-JOSEF

344

KUSCHEL

net, m i t i h n e n die lebensfordernde W a h r h e i t k o m m u n i z i e r t , dabei a l l e m

Kinder Abrahams
Konsequenzenfiirjuden,

Lebendigen eine Wachstumschance g i b t , gemeinsam m i t A n d e r e n die


Christen undMuslime

heute

Grenzen unserer K o m m u n i k a t i o n erweitert u n d an S t r u k t u r e n m i t a r b e i tet, welche die K o m m u n i k a t i o n u n d die c o m m u n i o des Lebens fordern.

MATTHIAS

360

SCHARER

Bernd Jochen Hilberath

M i t Muslimen lehren u n d forschen


Einkommunikativ-theologischerBlickaufmuslimisch-christliche

I n der Begegnung m i t B e r n d Jochen H i l b e r a t h w i r d eines sehr schnell

Kooperationen in derLehre, beim Aufbau eines Studiengangs und bei der

spurbar: Er versucht, das, was er als Kennzeichen eines geistlichen M e n -

Entwicklung

schen beschreibt, selbst z u leben. Dieser Beschreibung z u g r u n d e l i e g t

eines Forschungsantrages

eine Erschlieisungs-Erfahrung, die er als Student i m M a i n z e r PriesterseH A N S

374

K U N G

m i n a r b e i m H o r e n folgender Passage aus d e m v i e r t e n eucharistischen

Weltmusik - Weltreligionen - Weltethos

Hochgebet machte: Damit wir nicht mehr uns selber leben, sondern ihm, der fur

Interkulturelle Kommunikation durch Musik

unsgestorben und auferstanden ist, hater von dir, Vater, alsersteGabefuralle,

382

Autorinnen u n d Autoren

fiihrt und alleHeiligungvollendet. Diese Satze, die auf 2 K o r 5,i4f. aufbauen,

384

Herausgeberinnen u n d Herausgeber

glauben, den Heiligen Geist gesandt, der das Werk deines Sohnes aufErden

die

weiter-

haben i h n zunachst den Z u s a m m e n h a n g zwischen Gottes-, Nachstenu n d r i c h t i g verstandener Selbstliebe erkennen lassen: Sich u m e i n geistliches Lebens z u m i i h e n ist k e i n Gegensatz z u m Einsatz f u r andere, z w i schen d e m geistlichen I c h u n d d e m geistlichen W i r herrscht k e i n
Widerspruch. Sich u m e i n geistliches Leben b e m u h e n k a n n gerade auch
heifien: a u f den Geist achten, aus d e m heraus i c h i n Beziehungen gehe,
diese gestalte." Dieser Z u s a m m e n h a n g h a t d a n n auch seine Theologie besonders die des H e i l i g e n Geistes - sowie seine V e r k i i n d i g u n g nachhal2

t i g gepragt: Der Geist, der als Kommunikator zwischen G o t t u n d Welt


d a f u r steht, dass Gott sich auf das N i c h t - G o t t l i c h e h i n uberschreiten
k a n n , ohne a u f z u h o r e n G o t t z u sein, ermogliche, dass auch Menschen
sich auf andere h i n iiberschreiten k o n n e n , ohne a u f die A n g s t f i x i e r t

11

Bernd Jochen H i l b e r a t h , Damit w i r n i c h t m e h r uns selber leben. E i n H e r z s t i i c k k a t h o l i scher Messliturgie, i n : C h r i s t o p h Gellner (Hg.), Herzstiicke. Texte, die das Leben andern (FS
Karl-Josef Kuschel), Diisseldorf 2008,106-113,108.

2I

Vgl. sein j i i n g s t erschienenes, aus P r e d i g t t e x t e n entwickeltes Buch >Auf das Vor-Zeichen


k o r n m t es an. Vom G r a n d christlicher Hoffnung<, O s t f i l d e r n 2012.

Wie d e m auch sei, eine okumenische W i e d e r b e s i n n u n g a u f den e p i k l e t i -

IVANA A N D T I M NOBLE

schen Charakter der Kirche ware n i c h t abwegig, sondern der K o m m u n i -

A non-synthetic dialectics
between the Christian East and
West

k a t i o n forderlich. Peter Neuners Vorschlag, Lima d a r a u f h i n z u u n t e r s u chen, ob es sich als differenzierter Konsens bewahren wurde +, sollte
6

wieder aufgegriffen werden. Jede Diskussion iiber die Giiltigkeit v o n


A m t e r n u n d Sakramenten, uber die Vollmacht z u r Sakramentenspen-

A starting point for renewed


communication

d u n g u n d uber das Zeichen der apostolischen Sukzession musste a u f diesem epikletischen Verstandnis der Eucharistie u n d der Kirche aufbauen.

I n his presidential address at the m e e t i n g of the Societas Oecumenica i n


Prague i n 2006, Jochen H i l b e r a t h offered a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to the t h e n
s t i l l relatively new concept of communicative theology. He noted: Gett i n g r i d o f prejudices, creating a basis for t r u s t , n o t seeking for complete
(self-)understanding, b u t m a i n t a i n i n g differences and s t i l l s t a n d i n g
alongside each other and s h o w i n g m u t u a l respect - a l l these are precisely
also the basic principles w h i c h we t r y to incorporate i n o u r praxis of communicative theology i n order t h e n to reflect theologically o n them.* I n
this c o n t r i b u t i o n to Professor Hilberath's Festschrift we w a n t to f o l l o w
u p o n some o f these ideas f r o m the perspective of o u r research i n t o the
encounter between O r t h o d o x y , especially Russian O r t h o d o x y , a n d weste r n C h r i s t i a n i t y and t h o u g h t after the Russian Revolution.
One way of p h r a s i n g the k i n d of issues w h i c h C o m m u n i c a t i v e Theology
is t r y i n g to engage is to say t h a t i t deals w i t h w h a t we do w i t h disagreement. A l t h o u g h we m i g h t w i s h t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y , or indeed r e l i g i o n i n
general, was evidenced by the m u t u a l love s h o w n by its adherents, i t is
clearly the case t h a t i t is at the very least also m a r k e d by intransigence,
m u t u a l d i s t r u s t , h a t r e d , anathema and exclusion. Given t h a t o u r f a i t h
touches o n the most f u n d a m e n t a l a n d i m p o r t a n t questions of o u r existence, t h i s is perhaps n o t entirely s u r p r i s i n g . B u t the question remains as
to h o w to move beyond m u t u a l r e c r i m i n a t i o n and accusation, w i t h o u t

641

Peter Neuner, I m p u l s e u n d ihre Folgen. Eine systematisch-theologische B i l a n z z u r W i r kungsgeschichte der L i m a - D o k u m e n t e , i n : O R 51 (2002) 4 0 3 - 4 2 4 , hier: 423.

11

This article is a p a r t of the research project Symbolic M e d i a t i o n of Wholeness in Western


Orthodoxy, GACR P401/11/1688.

21

Bernd Jochen H i l b e r a t h , Okumene des Lebens als k o m m u n i k a t i v e Theologie. Erster Vorb l i c k auf ein P r o g r a m m , i n : Bernd Jochen H i l b e r a t h - Ivana Noble - Johannes Oeldemann Peter De Mey (eds.), Okumene des Lebens als Herausforderungder wissenschaftlichen Theologie (Beiheft z u r Okumenischen Rundschau 82), F r a n k f u r t am M a i n 2008,17-32, here 29.

274

h a v i n g to renounce w h a t is or w h a t we consider to he determinative of

i n g t h e i r o w n version of n o r m a t i v i t y , they i g n o r e d the p l u r a l i t y of Patris-

w h o we are before G o d .

tic voices (people i n d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , situations a n d cultures saying differ-

I n l o o k i n g at O r t h o d o x y as i t moved i n the i n t e r w a r years f r o m Russia

ent things) and negatively m a r k e d the possibility o f development.

(and to a lesser extent f r o m other O r t h o d o x countries too, for p o l i t i c a l or

We can t u r n n o w to the use o f the Neo-patristic synthesis i n the w o r k of

economic reasons), we have f o u n d t h a t the idea of a non-synthetic dialec-

John M e y e n d o r f f (1926-1992). H e d i d n o t use the concept as often as F l o -

tics is a h e l p f u l concept for w o r k i n g w i t h t h i s question. T h u s , we b e g i n by

rovsky, b u t i t can be f o u n d i n his works as he speaks about the h i s t o r i c a l


i m p o r t a n c e of the v i c t o r y of Palamism i n 14th c e n t u r y B y z a n t i u m . The

of synthesis i n George Florovsky's neo-Patristic synthesis a n d h o w t h i s

Palamite synthesis, according to Meyendorff, freed the Byzantine theo-

was also developed a n d used by Fr. John Meyendorff. A l t h o u g h o n the

logy f r o m the c o n s e r v a t i s m of r e p e t i t i o n a n d launched i t d e f i n i t e l y o n

face of i t , t h i s may appear h e l p f u l , we track h o w i t h a s i n f a c t b e e n u s e d t o

the way of s c r i p t u r a l and sacramental realism, the way o f the Eastern tra-

close d o w n rather t h a n enable c o m m u n i c a t i o n . We go o n to argue t h a t

d i t i o n threatened by the wave of n o m i n a l i s t h u m a n i s m . The liberative

one way of t a l k i n g about a non-synthetic dialectic is to t u r n to the T r i n i -

Palamite synthesis is i n M e y e n d o r f f t h e n problematically asserted as the

t a r i a n t e r m perichoresis. I n conclusion, we examine an example of the l i v -

essence of Byzantine theology. As such i t is placed against the West,

i n g o u t o f a non-synthetic dialectic, the relationship between the Y M C A

w h i c h is for M e y e n d o r f f approached as a k i n d o f a negative synthesis, ana-

a n d the O r t h o d o x i n France i n the 1920s.

logical to w h a t he sees as the undesirable proto-secularist p o s i t i o n of Barlaam.

Such an essentialist approach to t r a d i t i o n , as the Greek t h e o l o g i a n Pan-

1. Synthesis as a methodological approach to tradition


and its problems
3

e x p l a i n i n g w h a t we mean by t h i s before m o v i n g o n to consider the n a t u r e

O
SB

f
<

telis Kalaitzidis puts i t , t u r n s t r a d i t i o n i n t o m y t h o l o g y and claims i t as


normative over h i s t o r y . W i t h i n t h i s p a r a d i g m w h i c h became d o m i n a n t
9

in 20
We come f i r s t t h e n to the way i n w h i c h the idea of synthesis was used or
recovered i n 2 0

th

c e n t u r y O r t h o d o x theology. The Greek avvQsaiq,

signi-

th

c e n t u r y O r t h o d o x theology, the return to the Fathers was ac-

companied by a n effort to de-westernize O r t h o d o x theology, t h a t


overshadowed a l l other theological questions, as w e l l as a l l the chal-

f y i n g the c o m b i n i n g of t w o or more entities to f o r m s o m e t h i n g new, some


c o m p o s i t i o n , c o m b i n a t i o n , agreement or treaty, emerges i n Fr. George
Florovsky (1893-1979). Florovsky and those w h o j o i n e d w i t h h i m i n at-

51

Florovsky greatly influenced subsequent generations of O r t h o d o x neopatristic scholars in


his evaluation of the actual development i n O r t h o d o x theology less as an authentic c o n t i n u ation and more i n terms o f pseudo-morphosis o f C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . H e borrowed t h i s
category from Oswald Spengler and used i t t o describe the h i s t o r y of Russian theology. See
A n d r e w L o u t h , Is development of D o c t r i n e a Valid Category for O r t h o d o x Theology?, i n : Patrick H e n r y - Valerie Hotchkiss, O r t h o d o x y and Western C u l t u r e . Collection o f Essays honori n g Jaroslav Pelikan o n his E i g h t i e t h Birthday, Crestwood, 2 0 0 5 , 4 5 - 6 3 , here 4 6 .

61

A p a r t f r o m Florovsky, a t h i r d f i g u r e w o u l d be Alexander Schmemann (1921-1983), whose


version of n o r m a t i v i t y is s t i l l different t o that of Florovsky and Meyendorff.

71

Meyendorff, St Gregory Palamas and O r t h o d o x S p i r i t u a l i t y , Crestwood 1998,129; see also


127. This reading of Palamas raised his importance i n the eyes of the C h r i s t i a n West, b u t was
later heavily criticised by John Romanides, Alexander G o l i t z i n , and A n d r e w L o u t h w h o reh a b i l i t a t e d the value of the Dionysian corpus, excluded f r o m M e y e n d o r f f s synthesis.

8 I

The synthesis of the West includes a linear development f r o m Scholasticism, via N o m i nalism, the Renaissance and the Reformation t o M o d e r n i t y . The essence of the Western synthesis lies, according to Meyendorff, i n its secularism. See L i v i n g T r a d i t i o n , Crestwood 1978,8.
A Study of Gregory Palamas, 5, 206,237; John Meyendorff, St Gregory Palamas and O r t h o dox S p i r i t u a l i t y , 157,171-172.

91

See Pantelis K a l a i t z i d i s , Between the Return t o the Fathers a n d the need for a M o d e r n Orthodox Theology, i n : St V l a d i m i r ' s Theological Quarterly 54:1 (2010) 5-36; esp. 7 - 8 ; Challenges of Renewal and Reformation Facing the O r t h o d o x Church, i n : Ecumenical Review
61:2 (2009) 136-164, esp. 163-164.

t e m p t i n g to construct t h i s (Neo-)Patristic synthesis w a n t e d to com4

bine (or we m i g h t say synthesise) t h e i r r e a d i n g and rediscovery o f the


Patristic t r a d i t i o n w i t h the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of w h a t they saw as l i v i n g a n d
l i b e r a t i n g t r a d i t i o n i n t h e i r o w n t i m e . I n t h i s process, however, by creat31

41

T h i s theme is treated i n more d e t a i l i n t w o previous studies: see Ivana Noble, Patristic Synthesis or Non-Synthetic Dialectics? A C r i t i c a l Evaluation of John Meyendorff's C o n t r i b u t i o n , i n : Joost van Rossum - Goran Sekulovski (eds.), The Legacy of Fr John Meyendorff,
Scholar and C h u r c h m a n (1926-1992), Paris, f o r t h c o m i n g ; Ivana Noble, H i s t o r y T i e d D o w n
by the N o r m a t i v i t y o f Tradition? Inversion of Perspective in O r t h o d o x Theology. Challenges
and Problems, i n : Lieven Boeve - Terrence M e r r i g a n (eds.), T r a d i t i o n and the N o r m a t i v i t y of
H i s t o r y (Conference Proceedings of Leuven Encounters i n Systematic Theology V I I I ) , Leuven, f o r t h c o m i n g .
George H . W i l l i a m s notes: Originally Florovsky spoke of >the patristic symhesis< of the
Nicene and Post-Nicene Period i n contrast t o the >ambiguity of the t h i r d century<. Accordingly, Florovsky's >neo-patristic synthesis< meant p r i m a r i l y a r e w o r k i n g of the Fathers
f r o m the f o u r t h t h r o u g h the e i g h t h centuries. George H . W i l l i a m s , The Neo-Patristic Synthesis of Georges Florovsky, i n : A n d r e w Blane (ed.), Georges Florovsky: Russian I n t e l l e c t u a l
and O r t h o d o x C h u r c h m a n , Crestwood 1993,287-340, here 291-292.

lenges the m o d e r n w o r l d has posed - and continues to pose - to O r t h o d o x

and w h o take i n s p i r a t i o n for t h i s creative and h e a l i n g process i n the as-

theology. This l e d , a m o n g other t h i n g s , to a neglect of b i b l i c a l studies,

cetic t r a d i t i o n . So Papanikolaou writes: I a m of the o p i n i o n t h a t the as-

an a-historical approach to patristic studies w h i c h resulted i n the exalta-

cetical t r a d i t i o n , b o t h East and West, understood t h a t f u l f i l l i n g the love

t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l i s m , a n d also an a-historical p o l a r i s a t i o n o f East a n d

c o m m a n d m e n t requires ascetical discernment a n d practices. There

West, w h i c h supported an anti-western and gradually also anti-ecumen-

the ascetical struggle to l e a r n h o w to love always j o i n s the d i v i n e - h u -

ical s p i r i t . C o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h the religious others, w h i c h was person-

m a n c o m m u n i o n w i t h relations to others, and t h a t inescapably includes

ally so i m p o r t a n t for Florovsky as w e l l as Meyendorff, gradually became

strangers. Yet i f we give i n to the t e m p t a t i o n o f r e l a t i n g to others f r o m a

d o m i n a t e d by prejudices, loss of t r u s t , and care for m a i n t a i n i n g the syn-

superior i d e n t i t y construct t h a t give us a privileged >possession< of abso-

10

11

thetic construct o f the i d e n t i t y of one's religious t r a d i t i o n .

l u t e truth, w h i c h abuses G o d and is u l t i m a t e l y idolatrous, instead of

As Kalaitzidis points o u t , the meeting of the F a i t h a n d Order C o m m i s -

s h a r i n g w i t h others the d i v i n e - h u m a n c o m m u n i o n , we are engaged i n

sion i n 1971 i n L o u v a i n , B e l g i u m - where t e r m i n o l o g y f r o m c o n t e x t u a l

j u s t i f y i n g the r i g h t to b u l l y others. Papanikolaou speaks here of the pol-

theology was used for the f i r s t t i m e i n official texts of the ecumenical dia-

itics of bullying w h i c h he sees as p a r t o f an ascetics of the demonic.

logue - can be viewed as >a watershed, after w h i c h the O r t h o d o x adopted,

Genuine asceticism o n the other h a n d help us to deal w i t h anger, fear, or

as a r u l e , a cautious or even c r i t i c a l stance t o w a r d the various programmes

h a t r e d . ' T h i s is a l l t i e d u p w i t h the p r o b l e m we w a n t to speak about here:

of the W o r l d C o u n c i l of Churches.

h o w the l i v i n g t r a d i t i o n was made normative as a p e r m a n e n t reference

12

O f course, the process of a g r o w i n g

alienation has been a complex one, a n d i t w o u l d be r e d u c t i o n i s t to say

point.

t h a t the p r o b l e m was o n l y o n the O r t h o d o x side's rejection of c o n t e x t u a l

I n order to overcome t h i s methodological weakness we w i l l a t t e m p t to

t h i n k i n g . T h i s w o u l d go against o u r o w n experiences at ecumenical

replace the concept of synthesis by a k i n d of non-synthetic dialectics,

meetings where s t i l l , at the end o f the 2 0

and to stay w i t h i n the O r t h o d o x t e r m i n o l o g y , we w i l l conceive the n o n -

th

and the b e g i n n i n g o f the 21

st

centuries we have encountered O r t h o d o x participants, w i t h o u t previous

synthetic dialectics i n terms of perichoresis.

16

15

nepixupnou; (coming f r o m

discussion, b e i n g forced to accept western l i b e r a l i s t ideology or be char-

nepqcopEw - to encompass, to permeate) means i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n .

acterised as anti-ecumenical. I n t h i s article, however, we f o l l o w the m e t h -

concept was, of course, f i r s t employed for speaking about the c o m m u n -

17

The

odological l i n e of the a r g u m e n t , and hence concentrate o n the role o f the

i o n of the H o l y T r i n i t y , i n w h i c h the f u l l d i s t i n c t i o n of persons, t h e i r

(Neo-) Patristic synthesis i n i d e n t i t y b u i l d i n g , serving, as A r i s t o t l e Pa-

m a k i n g space for each other a n d t h e i r radical u n i t y needed to be h e l d t o -

p a n i k o l a o u points o u t , the O r t h o d o x self-identification i n contrast, i f n o t

gether. The movement of g i v i n g and receiving does n o t presuppose arriv-

i n the o p p o s i t i o n , to the West.

i n g at a new e n t i t y or p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a h i g h e r s i n g u l a r abstract essence.

13

18

K a l a i t z i d i s a n d Papanikolaou are representative o f those c u r r e n t O r t h o d o x theologians w h o desire to move beyond negative i d e n t i t y b u i l d i n g ,

141

See Aristotle Papanikolaou, The Mystical as Political: Democracy and Non-Radical O r t h o doxy, N o t r e Dame 2012,197-198.

151

See T i m Noble, The Poor i n Liberation Theology. Pathway t o God or Ideological Construct?,
Sheffield 2013,153.

101

See Pantelis Kalaitzidis, O r t h o d o x y and Political Theology, Geneva 2012,75-76.

161

111

A t the f o u n d i n g Assembly of the W o r l d C o u n c i l of Churches i n A m s t e r d a m i n 1948 Florovsky


was elected to its Central C o m m i t t e e and t o the Executive C o m m i t t e e . H e was also reapp o i n t e d for the C o n t i n u a t i o n C o m m i t t e e o f the F a i t h and Order, and at the Second General
Assembly i n Evanston he i n i t i a t e d a commission o n T r a d i t i o n and T r a d i t i o n s . John Meyend o r f f was Moderator of Faith and Order f r o m 1971-75. H e was a w a r m personality and easily
befriended Christians f r o m other trad itions. See the e n t r y o n John Meyendorff i n : Nicholas
Lossky et a l . , D i c t i o n a r y of the Ecumenical Movement, Geneva 2 0 0 2 , 7 6 0 - 7 6 1 .

The choice for t r a d i t i o n a l l y O r t h o d o x vocabulary is not motivated by a conviction t h a t the


Western vocabulary is defective or unusable j u s t by v i r t u e of b e i n g Western. However, we
w a n t to avoid alienation, and t o use a language w h i c h we hope can foster rather t h a n h i n d e r
communication.

171

On ntpixwpr\ou;, see Anne H u n t , T r i n i t y . Nexus of the Mysteries of C h r i s t i a n Faith, M a r y k n o l l - New York, 2005,16,25; see also Paul Fiddes, P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n God. A pastoral D o c t r i n e
of the T r i n i t y , L o n d o n , 2000,71-81.

181

The doctrine (if not the concept) o f perkhoresis goes back t o the Scriptures, i n p a r t i c u l a r i n
Christ's declaration about the c o m m u n i o n between h i m and the Fathet (J 10.30; J 14.11). The
Church Fathers employed the concept b o t h for the i n t r a - T r i n i t a r i a n relationships and for
the distinctiveness of the t w o natures i n one person of Christ. See Oliver D. Crisp, Problems
w i t h Perichoresis, Tyndale B u l l e t i n 56.1 (2005) 119-140; R a n d a l l O t t o , The Use and Abuse of
Perichoresis i n Recent Theology, i n : Scottish Journal of Theology 54 (2001) 3 6 6 - 8 4 ; G.L.

121

See Kalaitzidis, O r t h o d o x y and Political Theology, 73; he cites here Petros Vassiliadis, Ort h o d o x y and C o n t e x t u a l Theology, i n : Lex O r a n d i . Studies i n L i t u r g i c a l Theology, Thessal o n i k i 1994,139-156, here 144-145.

13 I See Aristotle Papanikolau, T r a d i t i o n or I d e n t i t y Politics. The Role of the >West< i n Contemporary O r t h o d o x Theology, i n : Theologia 3 - 4 (2010) 18-25.

T h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l change based i n e x t r a p o l a t i n g the concept of per-

of u p t o 500 people i n Moscow, St Petersburg a n d T a r t u (then under Rus-

ichoresis t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t r a d i t i o n can f i n d an organic place i n Or-

sian rule).

t h o d o x theology. I t is consistent w i t h Meyendorff's c r i t i c i s m o f the exag-

Despite his best ecumenical efforts, the H o l y Synod made i t clear at the

gerated use of the concept of essence we f i n d i n the Palamite theological

end of his t r i p t h a t he w o u l d n o t be welcome t o r e t u r n t o Russia.

epistemology.

L o o k i n g at t r a d i t i o n as perichoretic, as a movement of

however, to r e t u r n twice more, i n 1916, a n d i n 1917 as p a r t of the Root M i s -

g i v i n g a n d receiving, of g i v i n g place to the other a n d receiving place f r o m

sion, sent by President W i l s o n after the February R e v o l u t i o n . T h i s l a t t e r

the other, w o u l d give a better possibility of h o l d i n g together its u n i t y a n d

t r i p p r o v i d e d h i m w i t h his f i r s t real o p p o r t u n i t y t o address a g a t h e r i n g of

p l u r a l i t y . I t w o u l d s t r e n g t h e n the d y n a m i c n a t u r e o f t r a d i t i o n w i t h i n Or-

Russian O r t h o d o x , w h i c h he d i d i n Moscow at a preparatory m e e t i n g for

thodoxy.

the All-Russia C o u n c i l h e l d i n late 1917 a n d early 1918 i n Moscow.

19

20

22

H e was,

23

However, already i n 1911 M o t t h a d sought to f i n d ways to increase contact

2 . Perichoretic communication in practice

w i t h the O r t h o d o x w o r l d . M o t t h i m s e l f came f r o m a M e t h o d i s t backg r o u n d , a n d the Student C h r i s t i a n M o v e m e n t was o v e r w h e l m i n g l y Evan-

t u r n i n g to a t i m e before the ecumenical activities of Florovsky a n d

gelical i n n a t u r e . However, M o t t h a d a more ecumenical vision, a n d was

Meyendorff, we w i l l consider h o w participants i n d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s

keen t h a t the Federation be t r u l y global a n d t r u l y ecumenical. T h u s he

Now,

24

managed t o c o m m u n i c a t e a n d respect each other's very d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g

pressed for a conference t o be h e l d i n Constantinople, s o m e t h i n g w h i c h

p o i n t s , perhaps so visibly d i f f e r e n t t h a t a t t e m p t i n g to reduce the other t o

occurred i n A p r i l 1911. M o t t visited at t h i s t i m e the Ecumenical Patriarch

a synthesis of his or her p o s i t i o n w o u l d n o t be an o p t i o n . W h i l e e x a m i n -

Joachim I I I and received his blessing, a n d the Conference was t o prove

i n g the relationship between the Y M C A a n d the W o r l d Student C h r i s t i a n

i m p o r t a n t as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t for ecumenical contact between various

Federation a n d Russian O r t h o d o x dmigrds i n Paris, we w i l l focus espe-

Protestants and the O r t h o d o x .

cially on J o h n M o t t , Paul Anderson a n d D o n a l d L o w r i e , a n d their interac-

M o t t ' s o w n predisposition t o establish good contacts w i t h the O r t h o d o x

t i o n w i t h people such as N i k o l a i Berdyaev a n d Sergei Bulgakov.

was f u r t h e r encouraged by an i n i t i a t i v e of the Y M C A d u r i n g the First

John M o t t

W o r l d War t o w o r k w i t h prisoners-of-war.

2 1

(1865 -1955) is a m o n g the most s i g n i f i c a n t figures i n the h i s -

25

26

A m o n g those w h o v o l u n -

t o r y of t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ecumenism. H i s passion for the d i s s e m i n a t i o n

teered for this w o r k were t w o m e n w h o w o u l d play a c r u c i a l role i n l i n k s

of the gospel led h i m f r o m early o n t o seek allies for m i s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g

w i t h the O r t h o d o x i n Paris, b e c o m i n g close friends of many of t h e m . The

a m o n g O r t h o d o x . H e f i r s t visited Russia i n 1899 a n d r e t u r n e d t e n years

f i r s t was Paul B. Anderson (1894-1982), w h o despite his y o u t h , began

later, c o n t a c t i n g members of the H o l y Synod, a n d addressing audiences

w o r k i n Russia i n 1917 a n d r e m a i n e d engaged w i t h Russian O r t h o d o x i n

221

H o p k i n s , John M o t t , 332-335. See also Potter - Wieser, Seeking and Serving the T r u t h , 2 9 -

aeval Studies 62 (2000) 69-124.

231

O n these, see H o p k i n s , John M o t t , 4 6 6 - 4 6 7 , and o n the Root M i s s i o n , 476-520.

See Meyendorff's t r a c i n g of the essence/energy d i s t i n c t i o n back f r o m Palamas to St M a x i -

24 ]

Prestige, nEPIXOPED

and TIEPIXOPELIZ

i n The Fathers, i n : J o u r n a l of Theological Studies 29

30.

(1928) 242-52 and Richard Cross, Christological Predication i n John o f Damascus, i n : M e d i 191
201

25 I

See Rouse, The World's Student C h r i s t i a n Federation, 157. She also notes t h a t a m o n g the Or-

effort to u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r contemporaries and to use words and concepts w h i c h could t r u l y

t h o d o x present were Bishop N i k o l a i V e l i m i r o v i c h of Serbia and Archbishop Germanos, w h o

reach the m i n d s of the listeners. True t r a d i t i o n is always a living t r a d i t i o n . I t changes w h i l e

w o u l d later be an i m p o r t a n t presence at the first m e e t i n g of F a i t h and Order i n Lausanne i n

r e m a i n i n g always the same. I t changes because i t faces d i f f e r e n t situations, n o t because its

211

she admits that the O r t h o d o x were treated w i t h suspicion.

Like t h e m [the Fathers] we must be dedicated t o the task of saving h u m a n beings f r o m error, and not j u s t m a i n t a i n i n g abstract propositional t r u t h s . We m u s t i m i t a t e t h e i r constant

See Rouse, The World's Student C h r i s t i a n Federation, 149-150, w h o notes t h a t thete were
also Roman Catholic members i n some universities i n the USA, a l t h o u g h at the b e g i n n i n g

mus the Confessor, and f r o m h i m t o the Cappadocians i n : A Study of Gregory Palamas.

1927.

essential content is m o d i f i e d . This content is not an abstract p r o p o s i t i o n ; i t is the L i v i n g

26 I See on t h i s Kenneth Steuer, Pursuit of an >Unparalleled O p p o r t u n i t y < . The American YMCA

Christ H i m s e l f , w h o said, >I am the Truth.< John Meyendorff, L i v i n g T r a d i t i o n : O r t h o d o x

and Prisoner of War Diplomacy a m o n g the Central Power Nations d u r i n g W o r l d War 1,1914-

Witness i n the Contemporary W o r l d , Crestwood 1978,8; see also e. g. John Meyendorff, Byz-

1923, New York 2009, also available o n l i n e at

antine Theology. H i s t o r i c a l Trends and D o c t r i n a l Themes, New York 1979,115,120.

h t m l , f r o m where chapters can be accessed w i t h page numbers i n the m a r g i n s . Steuer also re-

For a complete biography, see C. H o w a r d H o p k i n s , John M o t t (1865 - 1955): A Biography,

fers t o earlier encounters w i t h O r t h o d o x y i n B u l g a r i a , see 27-31, and see H o p k i n s , John

G r a n d Rapids 1979.

M o t t , 376.

http://www.gutenberg-e.org/steuer/index.

Russia, B e r l i n and Paris u n t i l r e t u r n i n g to the U n i t e d States i n 1941.

The

l i n . Paul Anderson recalled h o w the f i n a l negotiations between M o t t a n d

other was D o n a l d L o w r i e (1889-1974), w h o h a d volunteered to w o r k i n

Berdyaev t o o k place across a border crossing, w h i l e M o t t was i n Geneva,

Russia i n 1916, and again spent the i n t e r w a r years w o r k i n g i n various

because Berdyaev d i d n o t have a visa for S w i t z e r l a n d . T h i s is perhaps a

places w i t h Russian dmigres, before e n d i n g u p i n Paris where he collabo-

rather appropriate metaphor for the idea of a non-synthetic dialectics or a

rated closely w i t h Berdyaev.

c o m m u n i c a t i v e theology - a Russian O r t h o d o x l i v i n g i n Paris, t a l k i n g

27

30

A l l three of these m e n were A m e r i c a n evangelicals. Yet they also, i n the

w i t h an A m e r i c a n M e t h o d i s t passing t h r o u g h Geneva, about f o u n d i n g a

words o f Jochen H i l b e r a t h quoted at the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s chapter, were

j o u r n a l to be called The Way, w h i c h w o u l d b r i n g together very disparate

people w h o learned to stand alongside the other, i n t h i s case the Russian

w r i t e r s f r o m the Russian e m i g r a t i o n . To his credit, Berdyaev never i n -

O r t h o d o x other. As the w o r k of people such as Anderson and L o w r i e w i t h

sisted o n the j o u r n a l representing his view - i t was to provide a place of

prisoners-of-war came to an end i n the early 1920s, they were aware of an-

expression for creative t h o u g h t o n the basis of orthodoxy. '


3

other massive g r o u p of displaced people, those w h o h a d f l e d or been


forced to flee Russia after the Bolshevik r e v o l u t i o n , and they gave t h e m selves to w o r k w i t h these people.

3. Conclusion

M o t t r e t u r n e d to visit as m a n y O r t h o d o x countries as possible i n 1924,

C o m m u n i c a t i o n of course includes disagreement, and there were times

m e e t i n g Patriarchs, M e t r o p o l i t a n s and other c h u r c h leaders. O n the last

w h e n the Y M C A and O r t h o d o x (or at least some of b o t h bodies) d i d n o t

n i g h t of his v i s i t a d i n n e r was h e l d i n B e r l i n where he m e t w i t h m a n y of

show respect. Indeed, l i n k s w i t h the Y M C A were one of the stated causes

the Russian professors w h o h a d made t h e i r way there. T h i s was probably

of the various schisms between groups of Russian O r t h o d o x i n Europe i n

his f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h Berdyaev. A l t h o u g h he h a d failed to meet w i t h Pa-

the 1920s and 1930s. Yet by s t a n d i n g alongside the O r t h o d o x Emigres -

t r i a r c h Meletios o n his t r i p to I s t a n b u l w h i c h f o r m e d p a r t o f this j o u r n e y ,

s o m e t h i n g w h i c h the Y M C A Press i n Paris has c o n t i n u e d to do u n t i l t o -

he (perhaps w i t h o u t k n o w i n g ) echoed the Patriarch's desire by suggest-

day - friendships were f o r m e d and barriers were crossed w h i c h otherwise

32

i n g a p a n - O r t h o d o x c o u n c i l . M o t t was praised by Berdyaev for his under-

w o u l d have remained f i r m l y set i n place. The i n i t i a l i m p e t u s f o t O r t h o -

s t a n d i n g of the s i t u a t i o n of O r t h o d o x y , and there was discussion about

dox p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ecumenical bodies grew f r o m contacts made by

s t a r t i n g a seminary i n Paris. The costs of t h i s were i n p a r t m e t by money

meetings i n i t i a t e d by M o t t and other leaders of the W o r l d Student Chris-

w h i c h M o t t was able to raise t h r o u g h the Student C h r i s t i a n Federation.

29

t i a n Federation. A n d many western Christians h a d t h e i r f i r s t contacts

The Y M C A were also i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s u p p o r t i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Put',

w i t h O r t h o d o x believers t h r o u g h the same channels. A t t h e i r best these

s o m e t h i n g w h i c h h a d also cropped u p i n the d i n n e r conversation i n Ber-

encounters d i d n o t t r y to reach points of agreement or synthesis. They

28

learned to welcome the gifts the other h a d to b r i n g , and h o w best to con271

O n Anderson, see the entry i n http://www.gutenberg-e.org/steuer/archive/AppendixB/


steuer.YMCA Secretaries_a.html. A b r i e f o b i t u a r y can be f o u n d at http://articies.chicagotribune.com/1985-07-04/news/8502130303_1_ymca-work-russian-orthodox-church-mranderson. Sir Frank W i l l i s , a former Secretary of the B r i t i s h YMCA, recalls being at the 1937
O x f o r d Conference o n Church, C o m m u n i t y and State, where one of the l e a d i n g O r t h o dox representatives, p o i n t i n g t o Anderson and a s k i n g whether [I] k n e w h i m , added: Whenever a n y t h i n g nice happens to the O r t h o d o x on occasions such as t h i s , t h a t l i t t l e m a n is not
far t o seek. Z.F. W i l l i s , T h a t They A l l May Be One, i n : Clarence Prouty Shedd et al., H i s t o r y
of the World's Alliance of Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Associations, L o n d o n 1955,687-720, here
701.

281

O n a l l this see H o p k i n s , John M o t t , 646.

291

The price of the property o n Rue de Crimee was 320 000 French francs. See o n M o t t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n , H o p k i ns, John M o t t , 646, and also Arjakovsky, La G y r a t i o n de Penseurs Religieux,
121-123. M o t t helped raise approximately a t h i r d of the s u m t h r o u g h the Student C h r i s t i a n
Movement ($5000, roughly equivalent to 100 0 0 0 French francs at t h i s time), and there were
also c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m the YMCA. A n o t h e r l e a d i n g c o n t r i b u t o r was the Russian Jewish
p h i l a n t h r o p i s t , M . A. G u i n z b u r g .

t r i b u t e t h e i r o w n gifts to the other. They learned the value of f r i e n d s h i p


and of staying alongside, however t r y i n g t h a t m i g h t at times be. A n d , i n
d o i n g so, theology itself has been enriched, t h r o u g h the ascetical s t r u g gle t o learn h o w to love.

301

33

See H o p k i n s , John M o t t , 762, note 110. See also Arjakovsky, La Gdne'ration de Penseurs Religieux, 120-121, w i t h more details about the outcome of the m e e t i n g .

311

See D o n a l d L o w r i e , Rebellious Prophet. A Life o f Nicolai Berdyaev, New York 1960,199.

321

See Arjakovsky, La G y r a t i o n de Penseurs Religieux, 115-141.

331

Papanikolaou, The Mystical as Political, 197-198.