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Ushuluddin for Class One___________________________________


1. Verily, only by Allah's favors and His guidance can a person be a
believer, but we were commanded to study, to teach and to find ways
to increase and strengthen our faith.
And thus, this book was written based on this conviction.
2. This book has been in used in this boarding school since 1937 (1357
H) for the first year students of the secondary level of education.
Since then, this book has been revised and improved in accordance to
the perceptions and the abilities of the students.
These experiences showed us that the lessons taught in this book can
instill and strengthen the faith of its students.
3. We also acknowledge the fact that this is not the only method to
instill faith and belief. There are other ways and methods to do it.
We chose this method based on our experiences. That is, one of the
methods according to the Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamaa'ah school of
thought that does not rely entirely on reasoning nor does it prohibits
it entirely.
Most Muslims in the world follows the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa'ah
school of thought as well as all the majority of the Muslim
populations of Indonesia.
4. The main source for this lesson is the Holy Qur'an. In another word,
we want to prove that all the fundamentals of faith brought by the
Qur'an are true and are acceptable by the mind.
All the attestations and arguments given are to convince the mind of
its truthfulness by showing the mind how to think correctly.
But we must not rely on our mind entirely because sometimes things
that were thought to be true are actually sophism or the twist of the
tongue, caused by some bad elements that clouded the perception of

Ushuluddin for Class One___________________________________

the mind or maybe caused by excuses that were made up

intentionally to deny the truth.
Therefore, there should not be any arguments in this book that are not
clear or will only serve to add to confusions and doubts about faith.
5. The explanations given in this book are in accordance with the
capability of the mind, giving it the opportunity to think it over,
according to the person's capabilities.
Thus it has been written according to the abilities of its readers. It is
a common fact that the method used to explain something to a child
is different from the method used to explain it to an adult or the way
to explain something to a smart person is not the same as explaining
it to a normal one.
6. The teacher's responsibility is to instill and stimulate the growth of
faith and belief in his students. This includes the condition
surrounding him and his influences towards them. That is why a
teacher needs to have a strong influence on his students and he should
never try to instill faith in his students if his faith itself is not strong.
On top of that, a teacher should not hold fanatically to what has been
written in the book. It is the essence of it that is the most important.
In fact, the teacher's personality or the methods of his teachings are
more important, especially in stimulating and instilling faith in his
7. And furthermore, to attain the objective of instilling faith until it
became strong enough as to manifest from it the love for the religion
and the loyalty to it, it is not enough if just by reasoning and thinking.
Extra effort has to be made to maintain the love and the loyalty
through all of its proper channels.
This can be achieved through educations and maintaining the souls
through spiritual means.
By educating them, until the foundation for faith and the principles of
life are implanted firmly in them will provide the necessary
motivations for them to perform and accomplish big and beneficial

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things. That is why the social environments and the influences of

everyday life are equally important.
Apart from that, there are other ways in educating and maintaining
the souls of our children, such as encouraging them to do good deeds
and by disciplining them through the rituals of worship.
As for the issues in the religion that are in disputes, it is better not to
touch it as to avoid confusions and dissensions between them.
8. It is obvious that the materials presented in this book are not suitable
for students in the elementary level. That is why we consider it to be
suitable for students in the intermediate or the secondary level of
education. May this book be the basis for those who want to further
their knowledge in this particular subject in the tertiary level of
9. We are planning to compile a book named 'A Course in Islamic
Religion' that will be published in volumes. The first volume is being
published now.
The contents of this particular book are actually part of the contents
of the books planned above.
Thus, we can consider this book as the second volume to the book 'A
Course in Islamic Religion'.
10. Source of References
The sources used as references and comparisons in compiling this
book, apart from the original sources, i.e. the Qur'an and its
interpretations and the prophetic traditions, are the books of
Usuluddin written in Arabic, from the most basic to the one with the
highest and broadest commentaries. Some are written in the 20th
century. Among the sources are:
a. Qathrul Ghaist by Sheikh Nawawi
b. As-Sanusiyyah by Abi Abdillah

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c. Jauharatut Tauhiid

d. 'Aqiidatul 'Awaam

e. Kifaayatul 'Awaam

Muhammad bin Yuusuf

f. Al-Jawaahirul Kalaamiyyah
by Sheikh Thohir Al-Jaziry

g. Haasyiyah As-Sanusiyah by Sheikh

Muhammad Ad-Daasuuqy
h. Al-Hushuunul Hamiidah

i. Risaalatut Tauhiid by Sheikh

Muhammad 'Abduh
j. Mauqiful Basyar tahta sulthatil
Qadhaai wal Qadar by Sheikh
Musthafa Shabri
k. and other references

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All the examples and the arrangements of this book are made in
such a way so that it will be understandable and suitable with the
condition and the reality of this time.
And lastly, we ask for forgiveness for the weaknesses and the
shortcomings or the mistakes found in this book, and we sincerely
hope for the responds and feedbacks from the respected scholars
who are also responsible for the preservation of faith of all of us.
May all of this be a charitable and a pious deed for all of us. May
Allah bless us with His divine direction and guidance.


Gontor, Ramadhan 1372 / June 1953


Ushuluddin for Class One___________________________________



The Basic Tenets of Faith

Based on attestation
The definitions for Usuluddin
Types of attestation
Methods in utilizing the Attestations
The basis of faith and the reasoning of the mind
The mind and the method of its reasoning
The laws of Habitude
The universe, its nature and rulings


Believing in Allah and His Attributes
The existence of Allah
first attestation
second attestation
third attestation
Allah is the All-Powerful and All-Knower
first attestation
second attestation
third attestation
Allah has Wills and Desires
Allah's Might and His Desires
Allah has no equal
Allah is Self Sustaining, Self Existent
Allah is the Preexistence and the Eternal
Allah has no peers
Allah is the Everlasting, the All-Hearer, the All-Seer, the One that
The limit of the human's mind and the reality of the Essence of

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The Wisdom of Allah and His Knowledge

Extraordinary occurrences
A short story
The wisdom behind every creation
a. The Obligatory Attributes or Qualifications of Allah
b. The Impossible Attributes of Allah
c. The Permissible Attributes of Allah
d. The 99 Characteristics of Allah






The Guidance from Allah

The nature of the human's soul in relation with the guidance of
The human's condition in relation to the guidance of Allah
The Prophets and the Apostles
Miracles (Mu'jizat)
Mankind's response to miracles
When and why miracles happened
The comparison between miracles and sorceries
Types of miracles
Inspiration and Revelation
How Revelations were sent down
The existence of souls is not impossible
The Characteristics of the Apostles
Obligatory and Impossible attributes
Permissible Characteristics for the Prophets and Apostles
Numbers of Prophets and Apostles
The Ulul Azmi
The Holy Qur'an is a Miracle


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The Angels
Books of Allah
The Scriptures
The Day of Judgment
The Divine Preordainment and the Divine Decree


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1. The Basic Tenets of Faith
It is human nature to be curious and have tendencies to seek
knowledge regarding the belief and creed to believe in and the
obligations to be carried out.
That is why every Muslim should have the knowledge about the
fundamentals and principles of Islam and believe in it absolutely and
implementing all of it in his everyday life.
A belief that is based on truth and conviction will lead the person and
drive him to fulfill and carry out all that is obligated upon him and avoid
all that is prohibited for him.
This strong belief is called Faith (Eemaan) and the believer is called a
Mu'min and Mu'minuun is the collective noun for it.
The basic tenets of faith are called 'Rukun Eemaan' and the essential
obligations to be performed are called 'Rukun Islaam'.
Rukun is an Arabic word, lexically meaning pillar or basis.
2. Based on attestation or proof
It is imperative that this faith is based on attestations or evidences
acceptable to the human's mind according to their various intellectual
levels. Although it is not a requirement to know each and every
arguments in each level because some of the arguments and evidences
can only be comprehended by those with a higher level of intellect
whereas most of the arguments and evidences in the intermediary level
are sufficient and acceptable to those who wants to believe. Bear in mind
that the objective of the arguments and evidences is to seek the truth and
to strengthen the faith, not just for the sake of knowledge or for
If a person cannot comprehend the truth, it is not because of the lack
of truth but the limitation of his mind or its deviation from the right and
correct path.
All the arguments and facts and attestations are accumulated in one
science of knowledge known as the science of Usuluddin.
3. The definitions for Usuluddin

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There are numerous books written that explains accurately the
arguments and facts according to the intellectual levels of the masses.
This resulted in different definitions for Usuluddin, based on the author's
preferences or his point of view on which is the most important.
The designations for Usuluddin are:

The science of Usuluddin


The science of Tauheed


The science of Uluhiyyah

Discuss the matters regarding faith in

Allah and His Attributes.


The science of 'Aqaid


The science of Kalaam

or 'Aqaidul Eemaan, discusses about the

doctrines and tenets that are interconected
with one another resulting in a strong and
unshakeable faith.
Science of speechmaking, by mastering
the skills of speechmaking arguments and
facts can be explained and faith be
or knowledge, because through this
knowledge one will know Allah and His
or the truth, because through this
knowledgeone will know the reality of
everything, reaching the peak of truth in

The science of Ma'rifat

The science of Hakeekat

The basic of religion. It was named as

such because faith is the main principles
that everything else in the religion stands
The science about the oneness of Allah or
the belief that there is only one God.

The name Ma'rifat and Hakeekat are occasionally used for a different
definition and meaning.
4. Types of Attestations (Daleel)

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To determine the truth of a particular thing and believing in it calls
for the bringing forth of evidences and proofs as the basis for conviction
to stand on thus casting out all doubts.
In lieu of the fact that the intellectual levels of humans varies, thus
the evidences are also sorted out according to the intellectual capabilities
of the masses.
The proofs or attestations are divided into two categories:
Proofs from the transcriptions taken from the
Qur'an and Prophetic Traditions that are recurrent
( mutawaatir).


Daleel 'Aqly

Intellectual proofs based on reasoning and

understanding from an objective mind free from
the influence of self interest and hatred and are
not biased.

5. Methods in utilizing the Attestations.

The method in utilizing both attestations is as follows:
The first attestation (Naqly) act as the guidance whereas the second
attestation ('Aqly) as the eyes and thought that will contemplate and
weigh the correctness of the path shown by the former.
If one walks the path without any guidance or knowledge one is
prone to lose one's way in the confusion of searching for the right
direction. That is why it is imperative that the former attestation are put
forth as the guidance that will guide him to the correct path and the latter
attestation as the contemplator that will weigh the truthfulness of the path
shown and then decides whether to accept or refuse the evidences given.
If one contradicts the other:
When the evidences given are contradictory to the reasoning of the
mind one must consider two things:
1. Is the capability of the human's mind perfect and limitless?
2. The limit of our comprehension of the proofs shown by Daleel Naqly.
Was there a misunderstanding or a misinterpretation in understanding

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If we consider the factors above, we will come to a conclusion that
both attestations are not contradictory to one another. Even the scholars
and the researchers from the past holds the conviction that there are no
nor never will it be a contradiction between it.
Armed with the knowledge that a human's mind is not perfect and
limitless, it is upon us to hold on to the evidences that are the strongest
and the most perfect to guide us towards perfection, viz. Daleel Naqly.
6. The basis of Faith and the reasoning of the Mind
Some are fanatics or partial in accepting or refusing an argument.
There are individuals that are fanatics in accepting an argument.
Even to the extent of accepting it without weighing the facts first with his
mind, and there are those who refuses to accept an argument prior to
using his mind in weighing the correctness of the proofs given.
Both types of fanaticism are disapprove of and are denunciated when
it comes to belief and faith, because it leads to the dormancy of the mind
thus hindering mankind toward progress and perfection. For those who
are fanatics in refusing something even though the evidences are clear
and transparent, they would not accept the evidences but would examine
it, using reasons such as searching for the wisdom beneath it as an excuse
or try to find faults or weaknesses in it thus having a reason for not
believing in it.
Both are blasphemous in Islam. It was mentioned in the Qur'an:

(21-20 : )
"And on the earth are signs for those who have faith with certainty. And
also in your ownselves. Will you not see?" )Adz-Dzaariyaat : 20-21(

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(46 : )

"Have they not traveled through the land and have they hearts wherewith
to understand and ears wherewith to hear? Verily, it is not the eyes that
grow blind, but it is the hearts which are in the breasts that grow blind."
(Al-Hajj: 46)

There are other verses that command mankind to use their mind,
especially in the matter of faith. That is why it is essential for us to use
our minds to contemplate the evidences and arguments given in order to
attain the objective of a strong and correct faith.
7. The mind and the method of its reasoning
When a person received an information, his mind will accept it in
accordance to either one of this three rulings:
a. Accepting and believing in it, called Waajib 'Aqly

) (

b. Refused thus not believing in it, called Mustahiil 'Aqly



c. Accepting the possibility of it, called Jaiz 'Aqly (

1. Waajib 'Aqly
If a person says:
a. 2 x 2 = 4
b. One is one third of three
c. Things that is not moving are motionless and things that is
moving stays in motion
d. 1/4 x 1/4 = 1/16

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All the opinions above are accepted by a sound mind, i.e. accepts and
believes in it. That is why it is named Waajib 'Aqly (logical to the mind)

2. Mustahiil 'Aqly
If a person says:
a. 2 x 2 = 5
b. The existence of a thing that is moving and is motionless
c. 1/4 x 1/4 = 1/2 x 3/4
The opinions above are not acceptable to a sound mind, the mind will
refuse to believe it. That is why it is named Mustahiil 'Aqly (illogical to
the mind)
3. Jaiz 'Aqly
If a person says:
a. This woman will have a baby
b. The house will be damage this year
A sound mind would not dismiss the opinions above nor will the truth be
ascertained and proven because it is a thing that will or will not happen.
That is why it is named Jaiz 'Aqly (conceivable to the mind)
8. The laws of Habitude
Laws of habitude are not included under the rulings of the mind.
According to the law of habitude, fire has a burning characteristic.
For those who holds on to his observation of things that happened
repeatedly with the same result each and every time, for example, the
burning of paper by fire, would conclude that every paper can be burn by
fire. When someone says something that is contradictory to his belief he
would say that it is illogical and refuses to believe it.
The difference between the logical laws of habitude and the logical laws
to the mind:

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In the example given above, the impossibility of it from the habitude
point of view differs from the impossibility of things according to the
rule of the mind. To the mind the burning of paper by fire are things that
is conceivable (Jaiz), not obligatory. Thus is the different between the
laws of habitude and the laws of reasoning.
The same rules are applied when it comes to human beings
knowledge about this universe. Its laws still falls under the category of
things that is conceivable because the rulings are based on repeated
observations of cause and effect (Assabab wal Musabbab).
The mind would ask, why does fire burns? Or why does water only
flows downwards, not upwards? Or why is it that every substance has
different attributes or specific natures? And so on.
9. The universe, its nature and rulings.
The universe is a new or novel thing (hawaadis)
Everything that formerly does not exist, then existed and then reverts
back to its original condition of nonexistence or everything that was
formerly in motion and then was motionless are called new things or
hawaadis (things that originally does not exist).
With the constant change in its nature, from nonexistent to being
existed or from motionless to being in motion, the mind would conclude
that the universe falls under things that are conceivable, not obligatory
nor is it an impossibility. If the existences of the universe are obligatory,
its nature and characteristics would have been stable without any
changes. If it is
unconceivable, then the universe would not have
existed from the beginning.
Thus the universe is a novel thing that formerly did not exist and are
constantly changing. And all things that are conceivable in nature would
not have existed nor changes without a factor affecting its existence and
nature (cause and effect).

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Faith in Allah means to believe without a doubt that Allah exists, He
is the All-Powerful, none are like unto Him, the Ever Living, the Eternal,
the Self Sustaining, the only One, the All Knower and all of His
Characteristics that is the most perfect.
In short, to Allah belongs all perfection and glory is to Him from all
All of His Characteristics are mentioned in the Qur'an and the
evidences and proofs given are compatible and acceptable to our minds.
His Characteristics and Attributes are:
1. The existence of Allah
It was mentioned in the Qur'an:

62 : )

" None has the right to be worshipped but Allah" Ali Imran : 62

163 :

" And your God is One God, there is none who has the right to be
worshipped but He " Al-Baqarah : 163

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Attestations from the mind
It is not difficult for a sound mind to accept and to prove the
existence of Allah, only an ambiguous mindset that are twisted can and
will fall prey to confusion and go astray from the truth.
The first attestation or argument
Everything in the universe such as the earth, the sun, the moon, the
stars, human beings, plants etc is constantly changing, from nonexistent
to existing or from existing to nonexistent.
Its characteristics and attributes is constantly changing too, from
being small to becoming big, from short to being tall, from hot to cold,
from wood becoming a chair, from stone becoming a house etc.
We can conclude that there must be a causer that causes all these
changes. If it is said that all these changes happened naturally on its own,
automatically our mind will refuse to accept it because it is unacceptable
that a thing can just change without a factor or a causer influencing and
causing its changes. Thus the existent of the universe are a clear and
undeniable proof that there is a Causer that causes it to exist, and this
Causer are Allah the Almighty.
The second attestation or argument
When observing our houses and all of its contents such as chairs,
tables etc, we will acknowledge to the fact that there was a maker that
made the chairs, tables and so on, even if we have not met the maker or
witness its making.
If someone said that the chairs or tables made itself up on its own, we
would say that his mind is unsound.
The same rules are applied when it comes to the universe. A sound
mind would not deny the fact that there is a Creator who created the
universe even though we cannot see Him, just as we did not see the
carpenter that made the chairs or tables etc.
To the naked eyes, it would seem that humans and animals are made
by their parents and the parents from their parents and so on. If this is
true, when tracing back the ancestries we will reach the first ancestors
that are parentless. How can they have existed without a Creator that

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created them?, and if the children are from the making of their parents,
why is it that occasionally the results are not as they have intended?, for
example, those that wanted to have a daughter but a son was born instead
or vice versa and those that wanted to have a child but could not bear one
The third attestation or argument
This excerpt was taken from the book "Guidelines for the teachings
of Morals and Good Conducts (for teachers) " printed by the Ministry of
Education, Teachings and Culture, Bureau of Public Education in 1950.
The oneness of God
One of the axioms in philosophy is that the mind has the capacity to
differentiate between truthfulness and falsehood. That is why the mind
generally accepts the existence of God.
If someone says:
a. The compass points to the north
b. Water flows downwards
c. The coconut fell to the ground
The mind would affirm to the correctness of the compass, water and the
coconut, i.e. in conformity with the laws of nature.
The science of ethnology proves that all races in this world
unanimously agreed to the facts given above.
Based on the axiom that the general tendency of the mind is its
inclination towards the truth, the existence of God is not unacceptable but
are imperative, based on the following arguments:
a) If there was an effect there must be a causer that puts it in effect
In the beginning, the earth was just a planet of molten lava that was
inhospitable and unsuitable for living things whereas now the surface of
this earth are full of living creatures of all sorts. Where did all this
creatures come from? Can a thing that originally does not exist just
materialized into existence?

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The mind would make the conclusion that there must be a causer that
causes the creatures to exist. This causer is called the Creator or God.
b) If a regulation exists there must be a regulator that puts it in order
The earth revolves around then sun in an orderly manner, just as the
moon revolves around the earth and the rotation of the stars. All follows
the rules and regulations that are stable and are orderly.
Can a nonliving thing arranges itself thus avoids from colliding into
one another?
Fishes breathes the air through its gills while monkeys breathes the
air through its noses, did this happened out of their own intentions or are
they the ones that decided that fishes are born with gills and monkeys
with noses?
The mind would answer that there must be a superior being that
regulates all these rules in an orderly manner.
The existence of rules and regulations that regulates all things
especially the nonliving ones points to a regulator that regulates all of it.
This is how a sound mind would think, reaching the conclusion that
the arranger of the human's bodies, the shapes and colours of things, the
movements of the stars etc have to be a superior being, All-Knowing and
All-Powerful. The arranger of it in all its splendor is called ALLAH.
2. Allah is the All-Powerful, All-Knower
The strength is called Qudrat while the one that has the strength are
called Qaadir.
The knowledge is called Ilmun while the one that are knowledgeable
are called 'Aalimun.
It was mentioned in the Qur'an:

(20 : )

"Certainly, Allah has power over all things" Al-Baqarah : 20

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(61 : )

"He is the Supreme over His slaves" Al-An'am : 61

(29 : )

"He is the All-Knower of everything" Al-Baqarah : 29

Attestations from the mind

By observing all of Allah's creations we can reach the conclusion that
He is the All-Powerful, All-Knower.
The first attestation or argument
Observe our own selves, the foods that we ate and then it was
distributed throughout our bodies causing its growth and becoming meat,
hair, nails, bones, blood etc.
Through these observations, we can be absolutely convinced of
Allah's Might thus increasing our faith in Him.
The second attestation or argument
Observe the rotation of the earth and the moon, the circling of the
earth around the sun and the orderly circling and rotations of the planets.
Not to mention the stars that numbers in the millions which are
exceedingly bigger than the earth in mass, all of which revolves and
rotates around the orbit that was specified for it. We will acknowledges
Allah's Strength and Might and confesses that the one that arranges it all
truly are the All-Powerful, All-Knower.
The third attestation or argument
Observe the seeds of plants, according to science there are substances
in it that are chemically binding, but there are some secrets that cannot be
unlock by human's intelligence, for instance, its ability to grow until
becoming a big tree. Mankind still does not possess the knowledge or the
capacities to chemically imitate its growth process. They only have the
knowledge about its nature and its properties that was created by Allah.

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By observing the things around us we will reach the certainty that
Allah is indeed the All-Powerful and the All-Knower.
3. Allah has Wills and Desires
Allah created all things according to His Desire and from His own
intention, not by accident nor is He being forced to.
The desire is called Iraadat and the one that has desires are called
It was written in the Qur'an:

(82 : )
"Verily, His command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it
'be' and it is" Yasiin : 82
Attestation from the mind
This fact are easily acceptable by the mind, when we observe the
creation of the universe with its orderly rules and regulations, we would
be convinced that its arrangements cannot just happened by coincidence
but have to be in accordance with the will and desire of a supreme being.
The rotation and the circling of the earth, the moon and the rest of the
planets points to a regulation solely intended for that particular purpose.
Observe the plants, each and every one of it has its own procedure
and process of growth and produces fruits that are specific for it within a
time limit specified for it, e.g. Corn tree can only grow in a particular
type of soil and environment and within a specific time limit will bear
fruits according to the yield that was specified for it.
Thus everything has its own rules and regulations that are specified
for it. A person with a sound mind would never say that all this just
happened unintentionally or by coincidence.
4. Allah's Might and His Desire (Qudrat and Iraadat)

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Because Allah is the Almighty, therefore all that He desires to be will
be. None can compel Him against His Will.
If Allah was compelled to do something or was forced to receive
orders from someone else then He is not the All-Powerful, the one and
only God.
Based on this argument, everything that happened does not and could
not escape from His Strength and Desires.
5. Allah has no equal
Allah's characteristics and attributes are dissimilar from His creatures
which means that Allah are different from all new and novel things
This characteristic of Allah is called Mukhalafatu lil Hawaadis and
the one that has this characteristic are called Mukhalifu lil Hawaadis.
Allah stated in the Qur'an:

(11 : )

"There is nothing like Him" Asy-Syura : 11

(4 : )

"And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him " Al-Ikhlas : 4

Attestations from the mind

If the things created by men are taken as an example, we know that
its maker is not the same as the things that he made.
Things that were made by a blacksmith or a carpenter or a goldsmith
etc are not the same as its maker, thus it is impossible that Allah who
creates all the creatures from their state of nonexistent to be of the same
characteristics and have the same attributes as His creations.
If His characteristics are similar to His creations (makhluk) then He
was created too and is attributed with the same attributes of a new thing
Therefore, His attributes cannot be compared to a creature's
attributes, even though the names of the attributes are the same.

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As such, Allah cannot be equaled to or in similitude with His
We do not have the capacity to imagine His existence or have the
capability to know how does He exists and where.
Mankind has always believed in things that are unseen to them,
things that cannot be touched or heard of, e.g. the belief in the existence
of souls, even though its definition or its shape and characteristics are
unknown to them.
Not all things that existed have to be seen or touched or heard of. We
know that Allah exist because His creations exists, and the proofs and
arguments given above shows without a doubt that the attributes of the
Creator is dissimilar to the created.
6. Allah is Self Sustaining, Self Existent (Qiyamuhu binafsihi)
Meaning that Allah status as the one and only God is not by
appointment or chosen or by force.
It was mentioned in the Qur'an:

(255 : )

"None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One
Who sustains and protects all that exist (the Self Sustainer)" Al-Baqarah :

If God was compelled or forced to do things against His Will or is

commanded to or is in need of others for His sustenance then He is not
the All-Powerful and the All-Perfect, but the fact is that He is the AllPowerful, none are liken unto Him in strength, the Almighty and AllPerfect.
Thus Allah does not need others to sustain Him but on the contrary
all creatures in the universe depended on Him for their sustenance and
This self sustaining characteristic is called Qiyamuhu binafsihi.
7. Allah is the Preexistence and the Eternal (Qidaam and Baqa')

Ushuluddin for Class One___________________________________ 24

Meaning that Allah's existence precedes the rest and there is no
beginning to His existence and is everlasting with no end.
Allah stated in the Qur'an:

(3 : )

"He is the First (nothing is before Him) and the Last (nothing is after
Him)" Al-Hadid : 3

(88 : )

"Everything will perish save His Face" Al-Qasas : 88

Attestation from the mind

It is clear that Allah is the Creator of all things. Thus it is only logical
that the existence of the Creator should precede that of His creations.
Allah Who created this universe has existed before His creations. In
fact, He is the Preexistence with no beginning to His existence.
If there was a beginning to His existence, there must be someone who
created Him, whereas it is Allah that creates all things, not a creation
Himself. Things that are created are called creatures, not Creator or God.
His existence are eternal, there is no demise for His existence or an
end to it.
If there is and end to His existence then there are an another who
destroys Him, and if His existence have an end to it then He is not the
true God, not the All-Powerful because of His inability to prevent His
own destruction.
On top of that, we already knew that the Creator's attributes are
dissimilar to that of the creations, i.e. a creature's existence has an end
and are not eternal.
Thus there is no doubt in the Preexistence of Allah, none is before
Him and He is the Eternal, none is after Him.
8. Allah has no peers (Ahad)

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This oneness of Allah is called Wahdaniyah and the one that has this
characteristic are called Ahad or Waahid.
Allah stated in the Qur'an:

(1 : )

"Say (O Muhammad) He is Allah, (the) One" Al-Ikhlas : 1

(163 : )

"And your God is One (God)" Al-Baqarah : 163

Attestations from the mind

There are numerous ways to attest to the oneness of Allah, either by
observing the universe and its course or by our own reasoning.
Some of the simpler arguments are as follows:
If there is more than one God, can one destroy the other?
If the answer is yes, the destroyed one is not a God, whereas Allah is
the Eternal and can never be destroyed.
If one cannot destroy the other then both are not powerful thus are
not entitled to be called God, whereas Allah is the Almighty, AllPowerful.
If the Gods administered and created this universe based on mutual
consensus, it means that one still needs the other. And if that is the case,
then both have no real power and strength because of their dependence
on one another, whereas Allah is the All-Powerful, none are more
powerful than Him.
Therefore, there can be only one and true God, none are liken unto
Him and none are co-equal to Him.
9. Allah is the Ever Lasting, the All-Hearer, the All-Seer and the One
that Speaks

The one that has this attribute are called Hayyun (

1. The Living attribute of Allah are called Hayaat (

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The one that has this attribute are called Samii'un (

The Seeing attribute of Allah are called Basar (

The one that has this attribute are called Basiirun (

The Speaking attribute of Allah are called Kalaam (

The one that has this attribute are called Mutakallimun (


2. The Hearing attribute of Allah are called Sam'un (


It was mentioned in the Qur'an:

(255 : )

"None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One
Who sustains and protects all that exists" Al-Baqarah : 255

(65 : / )

"He is the Ever Living, none has the right to be worshipped but He"
(Al-Ghafir/Al-Mukmin: 65)

(76 : )

"And Allah is the All-Hearer, All-Knower" Al-Maidah : 76

(19 : )

"Verily, He is the All-Seer of everything" Al-Mulk : 19

(20 : )

"And your Lord is Ever All-Seer (of everything)" Al-Furqon : 20

(164 : )

And to Moses Allah spoke directly" An-Nisaa' : 164

Attestations according to the mind

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Allah created this universe and shaped it according to His desire with
His strength, therefore there is no doubt that He lives, hears, sees and
It is illogical if Allah does not have these characteristics. If indeed
Allah is a nonliving entity or are blind or deaf or mute then how can He
create this universe or how can He create all the sounds and colors? How
can He breathe life into His creatures and bestow them the ability to see,
hear and speak if He Himself is dead?
If we attributed Him with all this imperfections then He is not the
All-Powerful, All-Perfect.
Of course Allah characteristics are dissimilar from His creations.
How Allah lives, hears, sees and speaks is different from His creatures.
Humans lives by breathing, eating, drinking and sees through their eyes
and hears by their ears and speaks with their mouths (tongues) and
voices. Whereas Allah does not resemble any of the creatures, Allah sees
not through the eyes and hears not with the ears and speaks not with a
mouth (tongue) and without voices etc.
None are like unto Him in His essence, characteristics, attributes and
Thus it is obligatory for us to believe that Allah lives, hears, sees and
speaks but it is not obligatory for us to know how.
The limit of the human's mind and the reality of the Essence of Allah.
Mankind were not commanded to really understand or to seek
knowledge about the reality of Allah but were commanded to think about
the wisdom behind His creations and understand it.
Allah created the sun, the moon, the stars, the sea and rivers so that
mankind will understand its benefits.


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"Think about the creation and do not think about the Creator for verily
He is beyond your comprehension" (The Hadiis in Al-Jaami'u Shaghiir)
The meaning of the Hadiis is that the human's mind does not have the
ability to comprehend and understand the reality of Allah's essence
because the capability of the human's mind and his senses are limited.
For example:
a. The sense of taste
The tongue can detect sweetness or bitterness, but if the sugar was
placed far from it, the tongue can no longer taste its sweetness, thus
the sweetness of sugar cannot be tasted unless it was placed in the
mouth, even then, the level of sweetness cannot be measured
b. The sense of vision or sight
The eyes are only capable to see things that are in front of it in plain
sight, but if the thing is far or is obstructed then the eyes cannot see it
anymore. Even if one wears a spectacles or uses a binocular his
vision is still limited, thus not all things can be detected by the eyes.
c. The sense of smell
The nose can detect smells and odors etc provided that the smell is in
close proximity to it. If the smell was far away then it cannot be
detected by the nose.
d. The sense of hearing
The ears can detect voices and sounds but its capability is limited, if
the sound is located far from it then the sound would becomes weaker
and are hardly audible even cannot be heard at all.
e. The sense of touch
By touching we can differentiate between softness and coarseness,
hot and cold etc, but our sense of touch is also limited. The strength
and weaknesses of it are restricted and can be influence by time,
place and specific condition, e.g. something warm would feels hot if
we just touched a cold thing.

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It is clear then that the capabilities of our senses are not limitless and
not without restrictions, thus the capability of the mind that depends on
these senses is limited too and cannot be trusted to make the correct
decision especially when it comes to understanding the reality and the
perfection of Allah.
That is why it is not strange or peculiar that our minds and senses
cannot understand the essence of Allah, the One Who created and
bestowed both upon us Himself.
Even to fully understand the reality of this world and its conditions
are beyond our capabilities and we constantly make mistakes, how can
we understand the essence of the Most High, Most Perfect then?
10. The Wisdom of Allah and His Knowledge
All of Allah's action are according to His Will and are compatible
with His Knowledge which are the most perfect. No one can force Him
against His Will and behind His every actions and deeds are benefits and
The proof:
If we observe the deeds and actions done by a knowledgeable person we
would not find an unbeneficial deed from it, but on the contrary, the
actions from an ignorant are often of no benefits. And it is not unusual
for an ignorant person to misunderstand the actions done by a
knowledgeable person and thus will criticize and reproach him because
of the limitation of his knowledge and biased views.
For example:
If an educational institution was managed by an expert in education,
then it is a surety that its rules are based on the system of bestowing gifts
or punishments and reminders depending on the situations.
For those who understands and are knowledgeable would
acknowledge the soundness of its system and are in line with the
requirements set for an educational institute and would say that the one
that manages it are knowledgeable in the art of education.

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But for those who are ignorant and whose knowledge are limited
would criticize it and say that the teachers are unfair and the materials
taught are inadequate and so on.
All this critics are resulted from the limitation of his knowledge and
his unhealthy method of thinking and reasoning.
A poet once said:

"And how many that criticizes the truth solely based on invalid (sickly)

Allah created this universe according to His rules and regulations

not without any wisdom behind it. Some are created like this while some
are like that but all has its own benefits. It is unlikely that Allah created
things that are not beneficial. Allah created the legs for walking and the
hands for holding or grasping and the eyes for seeing and so on.
Allah created the feeling of hunger in the stomach as an indication
of the body's craving for food, and then Allah created plants and animals
to be eaten. Allah created the feeling of thirst and created water to
quench that thirst.
But plants cannot be eaten unless grown or cooked, water beneath
the ground cannot be drank if were not dug. The wisdom behind it so that
humans would strive and make an effort to get what they intends.
And likewise how Allah created human beings, some are weak and
are prone to sickness, thus Allah created medicinal plants and substances
that have medicinal values for their usage.
If a person uses his mind and senses correctly he would come to
know of some of the benefits of things that are present in this world.
Extraordinary occurrences
Occasionally Allah would create things that are out of the ordinary so
that mankind would not conclude that the occurrences that happened in
the universe are natural and according to its natural behaviour, e.g. a

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child is born with no hands or ears or born with extra fingers or without
legs etc so that mankind will admit that Allah are capable to do as He
pleases thus acknowledges to the fact that Allah is the All-Powerful and
the events that occurred are not because of a freak or a flaw in the laws of
Allah stated in the Qur'an:

(107 : )

"Verily, your Lord is the Doer of whatsoever He intends" Al-Huud : 107

A short story
One day a young man takes shelter underneath a tall and shady
banyan tree. On the left side of the tree grows a watermelon plant that
bears a very big watermelon. While looking at it he started thinking to
himself that it should have been better if Allah had made the watermelon
as the fruit of the banyan tree and vice versa because the stalk of the
banyan tree are big thus are suitable with the size of the watermelon, i.e.
a big fruit for a big tree and a small fruit for a small tree.
While he was lost in his thought a banyan seed fell and hit him in the
nose which surprises him and made him to rethink again and then said to
himself, "All praise is to Allah for creating the seeds of the banyan tree
small, if it was as big as a watermelon then a terrible mishap would befall
upon me".
And from that day on, he would never question the wisdom behind
Allah's creations.
The wisdom behind every creation
It was mentioned in the Qur'an:

(38 : )

"And We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between
them for mere play" Ad-Dukhan : 38

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(39 : )
"We created them not except with truth, but most of them know not"
Ad-Dukhan : 39

I. The Obligatory Attributes or Qualifications of Allah
From what we have learned previously, we can conclude that
among Allah's attributes or qualities are:






None are like unto Him




The One


The Almighty


The One Who desires


The All-Wise


The Ever Living


The All-Hearer


The All-Seer


The One that Speaks


And because of all the attributes above, it is obligatory for Allah to be:
14. His condition being powerful

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His condition being desirable


His condition being knowledgeable


His condition being living


His condition being seeing


His condition being hearing


His condition being speaking


In truth, there are only slight differences between number 7 to 13 and

14 to 20, thus it is pointless to explore and discuss it in details. All the
evidences and attestations given are sufficient and adequate enough as
proofs for our convictions.
These 20 obligatory qualities of Allah are usually referred to in
Usuluddin as the twenty qualities of Allah that is obligatory for the mind
to believe in.
II. The Impossible Attributes of Allah
Every qualities or attributes that are the exact opposites of the
qualities given above are called the impossible qualities of Allah:






Similar to other creatures


Not Self-Sustaining


More than One




Desire less



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And His conditions being:

14. One that is weak

One that is forced


One that is in ignorance


One that is not living


One that is deaf


One that is blind


20. One that is mute

These are the opposite of the twenty attributes mentioned before.
III. The Permissible Attributes or Qualities of Allah
Allah does whatever He pleases.
Allah stated in the Qur'an:

(68 : )

"And your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses" Al-Qasas : 68

The creation of this universe is not something definite. If it is a

surety or something that is definite, then all things that have existed are
obligated to exist. If the creation of this universe falls under things that
are unconceivable, then it is impossible for all things that have already
existed to exist.

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Whereas the truth of the matter is that a thing will only exist
whenever Allah wills it to exist and if Allah does not desire it to exist, the
thing would never have existed.
IV. The 99 Characteristics of Allah

The attributes of Allah are not just restricted to the ones mentioned
above. The names of Allah that also points towards His attributes are
numerous. To be brief, all attributes that points towards the perfection of
Allah are obligatory for Him while every imperfections are impossible
for Him.
There are 99 Attributes or Characteristics of Allah mentioned in the
Qur'an known as the Asmaa'ul Husna, which means good names or
perfect attributes. On top of that, the twenty obligatory qualities
mentioned before are also included in it.
It is very important to remember that the qualities of Allah are
different from His creations, even if there are similarities in the names of
the attributes, His attributes are final in its perfections.
The 99 attributes are:
1. Ar-Rahmaan
the All-Compassionate



the All-Merciful



the Absolute Ruler



the Pure One



the Source of Peace



the Inspirer of Faith



the Guardian



the Almighty



the Compeller

10. Al-Mutakabbir

the Supreme

11. Al-Khaaliq

the Creator

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12. Al-Baariu

the Maker of Order

13. Al-Musawwir

the Shaper of Forms

14. Al-Ghaffar

the Forgiving

15. Al-Qahhaar

the Dominant

16. Al-Wahhaab

the Bestower

17. Ar-Razzaaq

the All-Provider

18. Al-Fattaah

the Opener

19. Al-'Aliim

the All-Knower

20. Al-Qaabidl

the Restrainer

21. Al-Baasith

the Spreader

22. Al-Khaafidl

the Humbler

23. Ar-Raafi'

the Exalter

24. Al-Mu'izz

the Giver of Honors

25. Al-Mudzill

the Humiliator

26. As-Samii'

the All-Hearer

27. Al-Basiir

the All-Seer

28. Al-Hakam

the Judge

29. Al-'Adl

the Just

30. Al-Lathiif

the Subtle One

31. Al-Khabiir

the All-Aware

32. Al-Haliim

the Forebearing

33. Al-'Aziim

the Magnificent

34. Al-Ghafuur

the Forgiver

35. Asy-Syakuur

the Rewarder of Thankfulness

36. Al-'Aliy

the Highest

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37. Al-Kabiir

the Greatest

38. Al-Hafiiz

the Preserver

39. Al-Muqiit

the Nourisher

40. Al-Hasiib

the Accounter

41. Al-Jaliil

the Sublime

42. Al-Kariim

the Generous

43. Ar-Raqiib

the Watchful One

44. Al-Mujiib

the Responder to Prayer

45. Al-Waasi'

the All-Comprehensive

46. Al-Hakiim

the Perfectly Wise

47. Al-Waduud

the Loving One

48. Al-Majiid

the Majestic One

49. Al-Baa'its

the Resurrector

50. Asy-Syahiid

the All-Witness

51. Al-Haqq

the Truth

52. Al-Wakiil

the Trustee

53. Al-Qawiy

the Possessor of Strength

54. Al-Matiin

the Forceful One

55. Al-Waliy

the Governor

56. Al-Hamiid

the Praised One

57. Al-Muhsiy

the Appraiser

58. Al-Mubdi'

the Originator

59. Al-Mu'iid

the Restorer

60. Al-Muhyi

the Giver of Life

61. Al-Mumiit

the Taker of Life

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62. Al-Hayyu

the Ever Living One

63. Al-Qayyuum

the Self Existing One

64. Al-Waajid

the Finder

65. Al-Maajid

the Glorious One

66. Al-Waahid

the Only One

67. Al-Ahad

the One

68. Ash-Shamad

the Satisfier of All Needs

69. Al-Qaadir

the All-Powerful

70. Al-Muqtadir

the Creator of All Power

71. Al-Muqaddim

the Foremost

72. Al-Muakhkhir

the Delayer

73. Al-Awwal

the First

74. Al-Aakhir

the Last

75. Azh-Zhaahir

the Manifest One

76. Al-Baathin

the Hidden One

77. Al-Waaliy

the Protecting One

78. Al-Muta'aaliy

the Supreme One

79. Al-Barr

the Righteous

80. At-Tawwab

the Guider to Repentance

81. Al-Muntaqim

the Avenger

82. Al-'Afuwwu

the Oft-Pardoning

83. Ar-Rauuf

the Clement

84. Maalikul Mulk

the Owner of All


Dzul Jalaali wal

the Lord of Majesty and Bounty

Ushuluddin for Class One___________________________________ 39

86. Al-Muqsit

the Equitable One

87. Al-Jaami'

the Gatherer

88. Al-Ghaniy

the Rich One

89. Al-Mughniy

the Enricher

90. Al-Maani'

the Preventer of Harm

91. Ad-Dlaar

the Creator for the Harmful

92. An-Naafi'

the Creator of Good

93. An-Nuur

the Light

94. Al-Haadi

the Guide

95. Al-Baadi'

the First Cause

96. Al-Waarits

the Inheritor of All

97. Al-Baaqii

the Everlasting One

98. Ar-Rasyiid

the Unerring

99. Ash-Shabuur
the Patient One
A lot of Muslims like to name their children with Abdu and then
adding the Names of Allah after it, e.g.
Abdul Rahman
Abdul Rahim
Abdul Malik
Abdul Qudus
Abdu means slave. Thus the meaning of the name is the slave of Allah,
in addition to the supplication contained in its meaning.


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After we have known and are convinced with the divinity of Allah
and the conditions surrounding His divineness we have now reached the
essence that is the main focus of this subject, i.e. Allah's guidance.
To clarify the point that humans are in constant need of the guidance
from Allah, we would start by clarifying two main factors:
The First Explanation:
Every person that are of a sound mind, even scholars and
intellectuals, in spite of their differences in religions or races all believed
without a doubt that: "Death is not the end of everything and this life is
just transitory and it is not the final destination that ends just like that"
They also firmly believed that: "Behind this existence is another
existence", even though the nature of the next existence are generally
unknown to them.
They also believed that: "In the next life a person would receive
either eternal happiness or punishments that would last forever as the
reward of their former deeds and actions"
All these beliefs are derived from the natural tendencies of men that
were bestowed upon them via divine inspiration, just as the feeling of
hunger or thirst that were bestowed upon us by Allah directly without
having to be taught or influenced by others.
This God given tendencies enables us to achieve perfection and to be
Because of these questions that originated from their own self
awareness, mankind is naturally curious about the future, especially
regarding the circumstances that would affect their happiness.
But can they know about such things? How can they understand the
things that are still a mystery to them when they still cannot fully
understand the worldly affairs that are clear in front of them?
Indeed, even if they pool all their resources together and made use
the knowledge of their predecessors it is still not enough for them to
comprehend it fully.

Ushuluddin for Class One___________________________________ 41

It is clear then that humans are weak and ignorance, they do not have
the abilities to know what is good for them and to know the correct path
that would lead them to perfection, let alone to understand things that are
hidden from them and things that would guide them toward eternal
Because of that, Allah out of His Mercy and Wisdom showed and
guided some humans whom are free from defects and have a clear and
sound mind and whose hearts are pure and strengthened them with clear
and indisputable arguments.
They are the ones that guides and leads the way to achieve true and
eternal happiness. They are the Messengers of Allah or His Prophets, and
the path shown is called religion.
The Second Explanation:
Mankind is equipped with some guidance that helps in the preserving
and completing their lives and existence. The guidance are various and
are of several stages.
The First Guidance
The first guidance bestowed by Allah upon all living creatures are
called instinct, i.e. natural tendencies we were born with such as the
feeling of hunger, thirst, our natural inclination towards something
delicious or tasty. These natural tendencies are with us when we are still
babies and it enables us to ask for food of milk by way of crying.
These instincts are greatly beneficial for us, especially in the absence
of other senses or guidance. These instincts existed without having to
learn it first from others. Of course these basic senses are not enough
even for animals, let alone for human beings whose status are nobler than
the rest of the creatures.
The Second Guidance

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The second level or stage is the five senses (Al-Hawasul Khamsu). It
is more extensive and complete than the basic instincts and is enough for
the preservation of lives.
The first and second guidance were bestowed on both human beings
and animals. An animal can exist and live with just these two guidance
but there are some creatures that can exist with just the first guidance
(refer to Biology).
Both of it develops rapidly in animals but slowly in humans. Our
senses of touch, smell, seeing and hearing are inferior compared to some
animals such as dogs, horses, birds, ants etc.
Are the two guides enough for humans? The answer is obvious, not
at all!
The five senses can easily be tricked and are prone to misinterpret
things. Small things can barely be seen by the eyes and cannot be seen
from far, just as big things seems small from faraway. Loud voices or
sounds sometimes cannot be heard for various reasons. A straight branch
looks curved or seems to be moving if underwater or when seen through
steam etc.
Both guidelines would make a lot of mistakes and misinterpretations
if it were not attached to other guidance.
The Third Guidance
The third guide is the mind or the ability to reason.
The mind completes the two former guidelines. It corrects the
mistakes and the misinterpretations of both. Even though the sense of
hearing would make a lot of misinterpretations or the sense of seeing is
not always accurate, the mind will compensate for all the weaknesses so
that the person would know the truth of the situation.
By using the mind, a person is capable of reaching status higher than
the rest of the creatures. With it he can arrange his affairs and organize it
or make things that will be beneficial for his lives.
The mind can be teach and enhance thus sharpened through
experiences and experiments. It is also capable to take the experiences
and the experiments of others for its own. And by way of experiences
and experiments the mind can reach such a level of excellence that will

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bring astonishment to others, even considered to be impossible to achieve
That is why it is not surprising that some humans are fanatics to the
power of the mind even to the point of putting it as the center of human's
perfection. It is not strange then why nowadays we can find some
humans worshipping the power of the mind and takes it as their religion.
But we must not forget, the mind is also susceptible to make mistake
and misjudge things that will eventually eliminate its ability to ascertain
the truth.
This can be resulted from various reasons, among it are:
1. Mankind has lustful desires that are boundless
2. Mankind do not live a solitary life
Because of these lusts and desires that are limitless some humans
would violate and transgress the rights of others even though his mind
acknowledges the wrongness of his actions and does not agrees with it
and this can cause an upheaval between them and leads them to their
Thus it is clear now that these three guidelines are still not enough
and cannot guides us towards progress and the completeness of life and
The Fourth Guidance
It is obvious that we are in need of another guidance to complete the
three guidelines mentioned earlier. This guidance must be able to
illuminate the darkness of one's lusts and desires and to supervise the
mind constantly and directs us towards the deeds and actions that will
guarantee our safety and happiness.
This guidance is called the guidance of Religion or the guidance of
Allah or Hidayatullah ( )
In spite of that, to know and to take the guidance from Religion is not
an easy task. It has always been the source of disagreement and dispute
among us even though at the same time we are aware and realized the
importance of being religious and the importance of fulfilling our
obligations to God.

Ushuluddin for Class One___________________________________ 44

That is why we need someone from our own kind to show us and to
guide us to the true religion strengthened by evidences given by Allah as
proof of his righteousness.
It was mentioned in the Qur'an:


)75 :
"Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men" Al-Hajj : 75
There is no doubt that men are not created equal. Some are just
ordinary and some are more intelligent while some are extremely
intelligent. Some are weak and some are strong while there are others
that are stronger than the rests.
Thus Allah chooses some of the humans that are extraordinary and
strengthened them so that they are strong enough to receive His
Revelations and are capable of conveying It to others while showing
exemplary conducts for others to follow.
This guidance is in the form of rules and guidelines sent down by
Allah and are called Religion (Ad-Deen).
The chosen ones are called Prophets and Apostles and the guidelines
are called Revelation (Wahyu).
Prophet (Nabi):
Nabi actually means a person that convey news or messages and
Anbiyaa' is the collective noun of it.
Whereas Nabiyullah in Islamic terminology means a person that
receives Revelations from Allah but he is not obligated to convey the
message to others.
Apostle (Rasul):

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Rasul means messenger and Rusul is the collective noun of it which
means Messengers.
Rasulullah means the Messenger of Allah, one that is obligated to
convey the teachings received from the revelations to mankind. Thus all
Apostles are Prophets but not all Prophets are Apostles.
There are several ways for them to receive the Revelations from
Allah. Some of the Revelations are sent down to them directly while
others are received through intermediaries. These are called the methods
Revelations were received.
When an Apostle received a Revelation and then conveyed it to the
masses there are two basic responses to his calling. Some of them would
believe him while others would hesitate or refuse to believe him
deliberately, making up excuses for not believing him and asking for
proof thus challenging the righteousness of the Apostle.
Because of that, by the Will of Allah the Apostle would bring forth
evidences proving the righteousness of his message and defeating the
arguments and allegations of those against him. These proofs from the
Apostles are called Miracles (Mu'jizat).
All Apostles have distinctive signs or qualities that strengthened the
righteousness of their message. These signs are superior to the natural
phenomenon and mankind could not imitate it or produce the like of it.
These distinguishing features are called Mu'jizat which originally means
the one than can defeat.
Therefore, whenever a miracle happens, it would be of things that are
extraordinary and are beyond the capabilities of human beings. Indeed
the objective and the purpose of miracles are to defeat and overcome the
capabilities of men.

Mankind's response to Miracles

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When a miracle happened, the masses are divided into two categories
according to their reactions to it:
a. For those whose hearts are pure, they would submit themselves to
the truth and follow the guidance shown to them. They are the
realized ones and are blessed with noble characters. They are the
ones blessed with glad tidings.
b. For those influenced and submitted themselves to their carnal
desires, they would refuse to see the truth and would proceed to seek
other paths because of their arrogance or the feeling of humiliation if
they submit themselves to the truth or because of their envy and
jealousy of the bearer of truth or maybe because they have gone too
far down the strayed path thus are too ashamed to return back to the
truth. They are the mislead ones and they are the ones who oppress
themselves with their own deeds and actions.
This is how mankind would usually respond to a miracle.
When and why miracles happened
When men denied the righteousness of the Apostle and ridiculed him
and rebelled against him, Allah would bestow upon him a miracle that
would repel their accusations thus shutting the mouth of those who made
accusations without producing any evidences to support their claims.
Therefore, miracles happened when there are defiance and denial,
challenging those who are defiant to produce or imitate the miracle, if
they are capable to do it so that they would realize that it is beyond their
capabilities and they cannot and never can produce the likes of it.
When they cannot produce and it has been proven that they can never
produce the likes of it, the inferiority of their arguments becomes clearer
thus defeated and the righteousness of the Apostle is established and the
difference between right and wrong becomes clearer.
Thus how Allah bore testimony to the righteousness of His Apostle
and no human being can make or imitate something similar to the
miracles or produce the likes of it.
The miracles are proofs that the Apostles are righteous even if there
are those who disavow it. The presence of those who denies the truth

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after evidences have been given to them will not reduce the righteousness
of the Apostles.
The comparison between Miracles and Sorceries
Are miracles and sorceries the same? The answer is a definite no!
Sorcery or magic is not undefeatable by men and its skills can be
acquired by learning until a person can be a magician or a sorcerer.
Whereas miracles are things that cannot be acquired by learning or be
imitated, even if all men worked together they would not be able to
produce something similar to it or to imitate it.
During the time of the Pharaoh, the miracles of Moses were at first
thought to be the work of magic but it was more astonishing than the
most famous and powerful magic of that time until the Pharaoh said: "O
you sorcerers, verily Moses is your chief who has taught you magic"
But the truth is that the Pharaoh sorcerers were not able to imitate let
alone to defeat the miracles of Moses. And this is the difference between
miracles and sorceries.
Types Of Miracles
There are various types of miracles. Some can be detected by the five
senses (materialized) while some cannot (formless).
Miracles that materialized and miracles that are formless
Miracles that materialized are like the flowing of water from the cane
of Prophet Moses when his people ask him for water while in the desert.
Whereas miracles that are formless or cannot be detected by the senses
are like the miracle of Jesus in that he can tell his people precisely the
food that they ate back home.
Miracles to create or nullify the existence of things
There were miracles to create things that previously did not exist
such as the creation of clouds to protect the people of Israel from the
scorching sun while in the Tieh desert.

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And there were also miracles that nullified the existence of things
such as the nullifying of the burning properties of fire for Abraham when
his people wanted to burn him.
Miracles that were eternal and miracles that only exists temporarily
There are miracles that endured forever while others are temporary
and lasted within a specified time limit.
Miracles that are not eternal are the miracles of the Apostles prior to
Prophet Mohammed pbuh whereas miracles that are eternal are the
miracles of Prophet Mohammed pbuh.
The reason is that the laws of the earlier Prophets are only specified
for their own people and will be cancelled or expires with the coming of
the next Prophet or the next rules and regulations.
But as for Prophet Mohammed pbuh, he is the last of the Messengers
thus the laws sent down to him are everlasting and are valid for all races
and nations till the Day of Resurrection. This miracle that is everlasting
is the Holy Qur'an.
Miracles specifically for the mind and miracles specifically for the
Apart from the categorization of the miracles above, it can also be
divided into two general categories:
1. Miracles that was specific for the mind
2. Miracles that was not specific for it
The miracle for the first category is the Holy Qur'an and the rest of
the miracles of the Apostles are under the second category.
The existence of miracles is not inconceivable
Maybe there are those who think that miracles are something that is
preposterous. Nay! It is not preposterous at all!
This is because miracles happened out of the wish and the desire of
Allah Who created this universe. Water flows downwards and steel
expands when heated because Allah wills it to be like that (Sunnatullah).

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Thus it is not inconceivable for Him to create things that were
(formerly) unknown to us and contradicts the Laws of Allah
(Sunnatullah) as we have known.
As for things that were once thought to be impossible by the mind,
there are a lot of examples that proves that what was once thought to be
impossible was actually possible once the reasons and the facts were
One thing is for sure, miracles are things that are beyond the
capabilities of men and are a clear and undeniable proof for those who
denied the truth.
Where did inspiration and revelation come from?
Originally both have the same meaning. Wahyu originally means
guidance or knowledge that were given quickly, 'quickly' as in
immediately straight to the soul without having to go through the mind
That is why even the expertise of a spider in spinning a web is
sometimes referred to as revelation (wahyu) too.
But the meaning of revelation or divine revelation, also known as
prophetic revelation in Islamic terminology is the guidance from Allah to
His Prophets and Apostles. The Apostles are obligated to convey the
guidance received by them to mankind and to lead them towards
goodness and happiness in this world and the next. Therefore, for the
Prophets and the Apostles, there is no doubt that the revelations received
by them are from Allah.
The difference between an inspiration and a revelation is that the
origin of an inspiration is unknown, it just appear in the heart. Whereas a
revelation (according to religion) is a divine guidance received by the
Prophets and the Apostles in which they are convinced that it is from
Allah and is the truth and is flawless.
Because the revelations are specifically for the Prophets and
Apostles, its nature and secrets are unknown to us because it is not a
thing that can be touched, seen, heard and so on. We can only know the

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effect of it or what resulted from it. The realities of revelations are only
known by those chosen by Allah, whose souls are strengthened and hearts
are cleansed and are not influenced by worldly affairs and are far from
doing unholy things.
When Allah wants to send down a revelation to His Prophet, Allah
would direct the Prophet's heart and concentration entirely to the divine
revelation about to be sent down. At that moment, he would divert all of
his attention from the physical world thus uniting with his soul in the
metaphysical world and receives the guidance or knowledge from Allah.
Such guidance or knowledge cannot be obtained by effort or other
How Revelations Were Sent Down
There are three methods how revelations were sent down as
mentioned in the Qur'an:

: (

"It is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him unless
(it be) by Revelation, or from behind a veil, or (that) He sends a
Messenger to reveal what He wills by His leave. Verily, He is the Most
High, Most Wise" Ash-Shura : 51
The explanations of the three methods are as follows.
a. The Revelation without any intermediaries
The Prophet received the Revelation directly with the strength of his
soul and then conveys it to the people.
The Revelation entered his soul in a flash and at that moment all of
his attentions and concentrations centered on receiving the Revelation

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thus he became unattached from the physical world and unites with the
metaphysical or the spiritual world.
b. The Revelation received from behind a veil (hijaab)
It is when the Prophet wants to know about something, he would
focus all of his attentions and his soul towards that particular thing until
becoming unattached from the material world. This material or physical
world is the veil or hijaab that screened the spiritual world. And then he
would receive the Revelation from behind the veil.
c. The Revelation sent down through intermediaries
It is the Revelation sent down by the angel that acts as the
intermediary between Allah and His Prophet. The angel's name is
Gabriel (Jibriil), also known as Ruhuul Ameen.
There are a lot of verses in the Qur'an that mentioned about him,
among the verses are:

)195-193 : (

"Which the trustworthy Ruh (Gabriel) has brought down upon your heart
(O Mohammed) that you may be (one) of the warners. In the plain
Arabic language" Ash-Shu'ara : 193-195
Thus the spirit of men can meet with the spirit of angels because of
the interconnection between them by the will of Allah.
The soul of a Prophet is the strongest and the purest among the
human beings. Because of this strength he is capable to unite with the
spiritual world, whenever Allah wills it, for the sake of mankind.
The existence of souls is not impossible
The existence of souls from a higher status and its meeting with souls
that are strong that has been chosen by Allah is not something that is

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Ancient and modern knowledge even the most recent knowledge
establishes that: There are substances that existed in this universe that is
so refined until cannot be detected by normal sight.
Therefore, if that is what Allah desires and through His AllEncompassing knowledge, the Prophets can receive the Revelation.
When a Messenger of Allah conveyed the Revelation received by him
to us and his righteousness was strengthened by miracles, it is upon us to
believe him and submit ourselves to his commands and his guidance.
Bearing in mind the responsibilities of the Apostles as the
Messengers of Allah that were given the tasks of guiding mankind and
reforming them, it is imperative that they possess the characteristics
mentioned below:
1. Truthful, thus he would never lie


2. Trustworthy, thus he would never betrays (

3. Always convey the commands of Allah or His prohibitions, thus
he would never hides or only reveals some of the revelations (

4. Intelligent, thus he is not ignorant or stupid or absent minded (

These are the four obligatory characteristics for an Apostle and the
exact opposite of it are the inconceivable characteristics for him.
If the Apostles are liars then they would be the ones that mislead
others, not the ones guiding them and all of their sayings would be only
lies. This would contradict the facts that their righteousness has been
corroborated by Allah by the miracles.
If they did not convey all of Allah's commandments then it would
mean that they deliberately hid some of the Revelations thus giving those
who denies the truth an excuse for their refusals whereas Allah has stated
in the Qur'an:

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(165 : )
"Messengers as bearers of good news as well of warnings in order that
mankind should have no plea against Allah after the (coming of)
Messengers" An-Nisaa' : 165
Permissible characteristics for the Apostles
The Apostles are human beings too and they are the best examples for
the rest to follow. And as human beings, it is natural for them to have the
usual traits and characteristics of humans (Al-A'raadlul Basyariyah) but
without the defects and flaws that will decrease their status as the
Messengers of Allah.
The permissible attributes for them are the same attributes of a
normal human being such as eating, drinking, having families, tiredness,
death, healthiness and they were also affected by diseases and sicknesses
which will not make others be loathsome and distances themselves from
Allah has stated in the Qur'an:

(20 : )

"And We never sent before you (O Mohammed) any of the Messengers

but verily they ate food and walked in the markets" Al-Furqan : 20

(38 : )

"And indeed We sent Messengers before you (O Mohammed) and made

for them wives and offspring" Ar-Ra'd : 38
It was mentioned in the Qur'an:

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( ) )

(78 :
"And indeed We have sent Messengers before you (O Mohammed) of
some of them We have related to you their story, and of some We have not
related to you their story" Ghaafir (Al-Mukmin) : 78
The number of Prophets is unknown to us, only Allah knows the
exact numbers, as He has stated in the verses above.
There are 25 Prophets mentioned and their stories were related in the
Qur'an. They are the ones that we are obligated to believe in with
The Names of the Prophets:
1. Adam


Enoch (Idriis)


Noah (Nuuh)






Abraham (Ibraahiim)


Lot (Luth)


Ishmael (Ismaa'iil)


Isaac (Ishaaq)

10. Jacob (Ya'quub)

11. Joseph (Yuusuf)
12. Job (Ayyuub)
13. Shu'aib
14. Moses (Musa)

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15. Aaron (Haaruun)
16. Isaiah (Dzulkifli)
17. David (Daawud)
18. Solomon (Sulaimaan)
19. Elias (Ilyaas)
20. Elisha (Ilyasa')
21. Jonah (Yuunus)
22. Zachariah (Zakariyya)
23. John (Yahyaa)
24. Jesus ('Iisaa)
25. Mohammed pbuh

Ulul 'Azmi ( )
From the 25 Prophets mentioned above, there are 5 of them that are
of a higher status called the Ulul 'Azmi which means the Messengers of
strong will.
The 5 Prophets are:
1. Mohammed pbuh
2. Abraham
3. Moses
4. Jesus
5. Noah
A more detailed story about them and their outstanding qualities can
be found in books detailing the history of the Prophets and Apostles.
Moses has to face peoples that are famous for their skills in sorceries,
that is why his miracles are the skills that are capable to defeat even the

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greatest sorcery of that time such as the transformation of his cane into a
big snake and swallowed all the snakes conjured by the sorcerers.
Jesus was confronted by the people known for their expertise in the
science of medicines thus Allah bestowed him with miracles to cure
incurable diseases. He even has the ability to resurrect the dead.
All of this is not impossible because it all happened according to the
will of Allah and His strength that surpasses the strength of humans thus
proving that miracles are not because of the desires nor from the strength
of the Prophets but are from Allah Himself.
The sorcerers that confronted Moses and the healers during the time
of Jesus after they saw the miracles acknowledges it and admitted that it
was beyond the human's capabilities. The sorcerers have the rights to
acknowledge the truth of it because of their skills in sorceries whereas for
the people it is suffice for them to admit to the righteousness of Moses
with the defeat of the sorcerers. And likewise for the healers during the
time of Jesus and suffice for the people to acknowledge to the
truthfulness of Jesus by their healers defeats.
As for our Prophet Mohammed, he has to face people that glorified
literatures and poetries.
Thus the Qur'an is the miracle to face them. The Arab experts in
literatures and their poets were amazed with the Qur'an, especially after
they were challenged by the Qur'an Itself with the verse:

: )


"And if you (Arab pagans, Jews and Christians) are in doubt concerning
that which We have sent down to Our slave (Mohammed) then produce a
chapter of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and
helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful" Al-Baqarah : 23

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For a non-expert in Arabic literatures it is sufficient for him with the
defeat of the experts in that particular field themselves as proof for the
righteousness of Mohammed pbuh.
Apart from that, the contents of the Qur'an are miracles too just as the
techniques of its phrasings and expressions that are impossible to have
been written by an orphan who is illiterate and have no educational
background whatsoever.
The contents of the Qur'an consisted of guidelines, good moral
conducts and the basis for laws and justice which are suitable for all
times and places and are in accordance with the natural laws of the
The Qur'an even has accurate explanations regarding:
a. Histories of events that serves as an example for us metaphorically
b. Knowledge about the divine nature of Allah
c. Facts that is consistent with the knowledge only known in recent
times regarding health, biology, cosmography as well as politics,
economics and socio cultural sciences.
For example, the pollination of some plants through the intermediary
of the wind was mentioned in the Qur'an thirteen centuries ago but it was
only discovered in this century by the scientists.

(22 : )

"And We send the winds fertilizing (the plants)" Al-Hijr : 22

The rotation of the earth was also mentioned in the Qur'an with the
statement from Allah:

(88 : )
"And you will see the mountains and think them solid but they shall pass
away as the passing of the clouds" An-Naml : 88

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There are a lot of other examples in the Qur'an, too many to be
mentioned here one by one.
One of the miracles of the Qur'an is its preservation from corruptions
and alterations, meaning that the Qur'an has not been corrupted in the
forms of additions or subtractions or alterations from the original text
since thirteen centuries ago till now.
This is consistent with the promise from Allah Who stated:

(9 : )

"Verily it is We Who have sent down the Zikr (the Qur'an) and surely, We
will guard it (from corruption)" Al-Hijr : 9

The Qur'an has spread to all corners of the world and printed
countless times but if only one mistake or a change from the original text
was made, the Muslim nations would rises and returns it to its original
condition, thus the Qur'an is preserved and guarded in the hearts of
millions of those who memorizes it and by the printing of millions of
copies of the original text.
This is a clear and undeniable proof that the Qur'an was not
composed by Mohammed pbuh but was sent down to him by Allah.
No one can compose the like of the Quran, not during the time of
Mohammed pbuh, not now, not even in the future till the Day of
In just twenty three years our Prophet Mohammed can change the
ways of his people and reformed them with the help of the Qur'an.
Someone that is poor and unarmed with no wealth can change an
uncivilized nation turning them into a nation that has good morals and
noble characters, from being idol worshippers to the worship of Allah,
from a nation that was hostile to one another into a nation that loved one
Never have such a big change been made by someone in such a short
period of time.
There can be no doubt then that the Qur'an is the biggest miracle for
Mohammed pbuh and are everlasting and that he was a Messenger of
Allah, therefore, it is upon us to believe in the Qur'an and its contents.

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As-Sam'iyyat are affairs or things that cannot be comprehend by the
mind all by itself and its realities are only known to us by the
explanations and the facts from the source of the Religion itself, i.e. from
the Books of Allah and from the explanations of the Prophets.
Among the state of affairs that are included in As-Sam'iyyat are:
a. The Angels
b. The Books of Allah
c. The Day of Judgment
d. The Divine Preordainment and the Decree of Allah
Also included in As-Sam'iyyat are the Djinns, Heaven, Hell, the
affairs of the graves and so on.
1. Angels ( )
Allah created all sorts of creatures. Some has forms and figures but
are lifeless such as stones and so on. Some has forms and shapes and are
alive such as animals and human beings while some are alive but are
formless such as the angels and so on.
Angels are different from humans in their characteristics and
responsibilities. They are neither males nor females. They never eat or
drink and under normal circumstances cannot be seen with the naked eye.
They are the servants of Allah, created for the sole purpose of
obeying His commands and to serve Him. They will never disobey Him
nor will they be bored or tired in carrying out His commands just as the
way human beings never feels tired breathing all the time because that is
how they were created to be.
We have no knowledge about their attributes other than what has
been informed to us by Allah and His Prophet.

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We are not obligated to really know the reality of their qualities,
suffice for us to just believe that they exists and have characteristics as
what was mentioned in the Qur'an.
The Prophets and Apostles can meet with the angel that brings the
Revelations. He would come to them in the shape of a human being by
Allah's leave, or sometimes in other forms or shapes.
There are numerous verses in the Qur'an explaining about the angels
and their characteristics, some of the verses are:

(194-193 : )
"Which the trustworthy Ruh (Gabriel) has brought down upon your heart
(O Mohammed) that you may be (one) of the warners"

(12-10 : )

"But verily, over you (are appointed angels in charge of mankind) to

watch you, Honourable writing down (your deeds), they know all that
you do" Al-Infithaar : 10-12

(18 : )

"Not a word does he utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record
it)" Qaaf : 18

(50 : )
"They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they were
commanded" An-Nahl : 50

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(11 : )
"Say: the angel of death, who is set over you, will take your souls. Then
you shall be brought to your Lord" As-Sajdah : 11

(27 : )

"Verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter, name the angels with
female names" An-Najm : 27

(31 : )

"And none can know the armies of your Lord but He" Al-Muddaththir :

(6 : )
"O you who believe! Ward off yourselves and your families against a Fire
(Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, over which are (appointed) angels
stern (and) severe, who disobeys not (from executing) the Commands
they receive from Allah, but do that which they are commanded" AtTahriim : 6
The numbers of angels

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Only Allah knows the exact number of the angels. Each and every
one of them has their own names and responsibilities and their names are
connected with their responsibilities. Their responsibilities mentioned in
the Qur'an and by the Prophets are a lot, among them are:


Bringing down the Revelations from Allah

to His Prophets and Apostles. He is named
Ar-Ruhul Ameen or Ar-Ruhul Qudus
or Jibriil (Gabriel)
Bringing sustenance to all creatures, named
Blowing the trumpet in the Hereafter, named
Taking the souls, named 'Izraaiil

5&6. Watching and writing down the deeds done

by mankind, named Rakiib and 'Atiid
7&8. Questioning the deceased in their graves,


named Munkar and Nakiir

Supervising Hell, named Malik
or Zabaaniyah


Supervising Heaven, named Ridwaan


The Djinns
Djinns are the creatures of Allah that are formless too thus cannot be
seen by the naked eye but their existence was mentioned in the Qur'an,
there is even a chapter (soorah) in the Qur'an named soorah Al-Djinn.
Djinns are capable to perform extraordinary feats. Some of them are
disbelievers (Kaafir) while others are believers (mu'min). Some are
righteous (Shaalih) while others are lecherous (Faasiq). They can see us
but we cannot see them.

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It was mentioned in the Qur'an:

) (15 :

""And the djinns, He created from a smokeless flame of fire

Ar-Rahmaan : 15

) (29 :

"And (remember) when We sent towards you (Mohammed) a group of the

djinns, (quietly) listening to the Qur'an. When they stood in the presence
thereof, they said: Listen in silence, and when it was finished, they
returned to their people as warners" Al-Ahqaaf : 29

) -14 :

"And of us some are Muslims, and of us some are disbelievers (who
deviated from the right path). And whosoever has embraced Islam, then
such have sought the right path. And as for the disbelievers (who
deviated from the right path), they shall be firewood for Hell" Al-Djinn :

) :


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"O you assembly of djinns and mankind! Did not there come to you
Messengers from amongst you, reciting unto you My verses and warning
you of the meeting of this Day of yours? They will say, we bear witness
against ourselves. It was the life of this world that deceived them. And
they will bear witness against themselves that they were disbelievers"
Al-An'aam : 130

2. The Books Of Allah

( )
(The Holy Books from Allah)
Allah has sent down Revelations containing His divine guidance and
guidelines to His Messengers.
These Revelations were then compiled in holy books called the
Books of Allah (Kutubullah).
These books consists of laws concerning His commandments and
prohibitions (Shari'a), the promise of glad and bad tidings as well as
admonitions and codes of ethics and good conducts in life and worship.
We believed that these books were not man made, i.e. were not composed
by the Apostles but are from Allah.
It was mentioned in the Qur'an:

: )

"The Messenger (Mohammed) believes in what has been sent down to
him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allah,
His Angels, His Books and His Messengers" Al-Baqarah : 285
There are four Books compulsory for us to believe in:

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Taurat (Torah)- sent down to Prophet Musa (Moses) that

consisted of the Shari'a Laws and teachings about the true faith.
Zabuur (Psalms)- sent down to Prophet Daawuud (David) that
consisted of supplications, dzikr, admonitions and wisdoms, he did
not received any laws or rules because he was commanded to abide
to the laws of Prophet Musa.
Injiil (Gospel)- sent down to Prophet 'Isa that comprises of
invitation to men to submit themselves to the One God. It also
cancelled some of the laws in the Taurat that was no longer suitable
for that period.
Al-Qur'an- sent down to Prophet Mohammed pbuh that comprises
of the Shari'a laws and cancelled some of the laws from the
previous Books that was no longer deemed suitable for that period
of time and completing it with the laws that are suitable.
The laws and rules in the Qur'an are valid until the Day of Judgment
because it was the last Book to be sent down and we are obligated to
abide ourselves only to its laws. The Qur'an cannot be changed or
replaced because its contents are consistent with and suitable for all
The Qur'an was the biggest miracles for Prophet Mohammed pbuh
and the guidance in it are irreplaceable and priceless.
The Qur'an was first sent down in Mecca on the 17 th of Ramadhan
thirteen years before the Prophet's emigration to Medina (the Hijra).
The first verse to be revealed was:

(1 : )

"Read! In the name of your Lord Who has created (all that exists)"
Al-'Alaq : 1
The last verse to be revealed was:

(3 : )

"This day, I have perfected your religion for you" Al-Maaidah : 3

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Among the verses mentioning about the Books are as follows:

(213 : )
"And with them He sent down the Scripture in truth to judge between
people in matters wherein they differed" Al-Baqarah : 213

: )

"They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His command"
Al-Anbiyaa' : 27

(3 : )
"It is He Who has sent down the Book (the Qur'an) to you (Mohammed)
with truth, confirming what came before it. And He sent down the
Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)" Aali Imraan : 3

(163 : )

"And to Daawud (David) We gave the Zabuur (Psalms)" An-Nisaa' : 163

(13 : )
"They change the words from their (right) places and have abandoned a
good part of the Message that was sent to them" Al-Maaidah : 13

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(14 : )
"And from those who call themselves Christians, We took their covenant,
but they abandoned a good part of the Message that was sent to them"
Al-Maaidah : 14

(9 : )

"Verily it is We Who have sent down the Zikr (the Qur'an) and surely, We
will guard it (from corruption)" Al-Hijr : 9

The Scripture ( )
Apart from the four Books, there are also Scriptures sent down by
Allah to some of His Prophets, they are:
1. Prophet Adam
2. Prophet Syits
3. Prophet Idriis (Enoch)
4. Prophet Ibraahiim (Abraham)
5. Prophet Musa (Moses)
The contents of the Scriptures that are still valid were included in the
Qur'an. Thus suffice for us to follow the teachings of the Qur'an that
exists till now.
Among the verses in the Qur'an that mentioned the Scriptures are:




)19-14 : (

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"Indeed whosoever purifies himself shall achieve success.
remembers (glorifies) the name of his Lord and prays. Nay, you prefer
the life of this world, although the Hereafter is better and more lasting.
Verily, this is in the former Scriptures. The Scriptures of Ibraahiim
(Abraham) and Musa (Moses)" Al-A'la : 14-19
3. The Day Of Judgment ()
It is our obligation to believe in the coming of the hereafter as stated
by Allah in the Qur'an.
It was stated that a Day will come where all the creatures will be
destroyed and this day is called the Day of Judgment or doomsday
(Yaumul Qiyaamah).
Then all of mankind will be resurrected from their graves on the
signal gave by an angel (Israafiil) with his blowing of the Trumpet. And
then all of their deeds will checked and counted and weighted, for those
whose good deeds outweighs his bad deeds will be rewarded with
Heaven whereas for those whose bad deeds outweighs his good deeds
will received torment and be rewarded with Hell.
We do not have the knowledge about Judgment Day or its
characteristics or how and when will it happen other than what was
explained and mentioned in the Qur'an. Among the verses mentioning
about the Hereafter are as follows:

(7-6 : )

"That is because Allah: He is the Truth and it is He Who gives life to the
dead, and it is He Who is able to do all things. And surely, the Hour is
coming, there is no doubt about it, and certainly, Allah will resurrect
those who are in the graves" Al-Hajj : 6-7

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: )

"And the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and all
who are on the earth will swoon away, except him whom Allah wills.
Then it will be blown a second time, and behold they will be standing,
looking on (waiting)" Az-Zumar : 68



(9-6 : )
"Then as for him whose balance (of good deeds) will be heavy, he will
live a pleasant life (in paradise). But as for him whose balance (of good
deeds) will be light, he will have his home in a pit (Haawiyah), and what
will make you know what it is? (It is) a fiercely blazing Fire!" AlQaari'ah : 6-9

(24 : )

"Then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the
disbelievers" Al-Baqarah : 24

(8-7 : )
"So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom shall see it. And
whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom shall see it" AlZalzalah : 7-8

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) ~
Allah's Messenger said : "Allah the Great and Almighty said: 'I have
prepared for My righteous slaves things no eyes has set upon and no ears
has heard of and no hearts of men ever recalled of', thus if that is what
you wanted then recite the verse: No person knows what is kept hidden
for them of joy" (Narrated by Al-Bukhaari and Muslim - Miftaahul
Khithabah wal Wa'zi)

(17 : )
"No person knows what is kept hidden for them of joy as a reward for
what they used to do" As-Sajdah : 17
4. The Divine Preordainment And The Divine Decree

It is our obligation to believe that everything that has happened or
that would happen has been destined by Allah long ago. All the affairs,
whether good or bad has been predestine and written down in accordance

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to a specific boundaries but we would not know what was destined for us
before its occurrence.
The destinies that were predestined are called the Divine
Preordainment or Qadar or Taqdir.
The carrying out of what was destined is called the Divine Decree or
Some scholars called Taqdiir as Qadhaa' and Qadhaa' as Taqdiir or
Qadar (the opposite of the definitions above).
Thus, everything happened because of His will and strength, and
according to His will and strength. Therefore, there is no such thing as
Aside from that, Allah has given us His Divine Guidance on how and
what we should do to move forward and achieve what we desire for the
sake of our happiness in this world and the next.
We have to strive and make an effort if we want to get what we want,
in accordance with Allah's laws regarding cause and effect (sabab wal
musabbab) and then we are obligated to make supplications, seeking
Allah's favor in granting whatever is it that we intends.
In order to achieve happiness in this world and in the hereafter we
have to obey and carry out all of Allah's commands and stay away from
His prohibitions.
Allah has promised those who do good deeds with rewards and those
who do bad deeds with torment. Indeed Allah is true to His promises.
To be brief, it is our obligation to believe in Qadhaa' and Qadar and
to strive in all our endeavors and abide to Allah's commands. We also
have to believe that all good deeds will be rewarded and all bad deeds
will be rewarded with torment and torture, either in this world or in the
Qadhaa' and Qadar are the sole rights of Allah and it is beyond our
comprehension. Our duties are to choose and strive and to make
supplications with the conviction that Allah would never neglect us nor
will He mistreat and oppress us.
There are a lot of verses in the Qur'an explaining this matter clearly, some
of the verses are:

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(22 : )

"No calamity befalls on the earth or on yourselves but it is inscribed in

the Book of Decrees (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuuz) before We bring it into
existence" Al-Hadiid : 22

(8 : )

"Everything with Him is in (due) proportion" Ar-Ra'd : 8

: ( ) )

"Say: Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allah has ordained
for us" At-Taubah (Al-Baraa'ah) : 51

(3 : )

"And Who has measured (preordainments for everything) and then

guided" Al-A'la : 3

(105 : ( ) )

"And say (O Mohammed): Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and so
will His Messenger and the believers" At-Taubah (Al-Baraa'ah) : 105

(286 : )

"He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished
for that (evil) which he has earned" Al-Baqarah : 286

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(79 : )
"Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah. But whatever of evil
befalls you, is from yourself" An-Nisaa' : 79

(44 : )

"Truly! Allah wrongs not mankind in aught, but mankind wrong

themselves" Yuunus : 44


(195 :
"Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or
female" Ali Imraan : 195

(11 : )
"Verily! Allah will not change the condition of a people as long as they
do not change their state themselves" Ar-Ra'd : 11

(9 : )

"Verily! Allah never breaks His Promise" Ali-'Imraan : 9

Regarding our faith in Qadhaa' and Qadar, we have to be careful as
not to misunderstand and misinterpret it so that we would not implement
it wrongly.

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For example: Those who just sits back waiting for the fate that
would befall on him without doing anything. This is wrong because we
were commanded to work and strive ourselves in pursuing our objectives.
But what is peculiar about those who just wait for fate is that when they
are hungry or thirsty, they would not just sits back and wait for whatever
destiny has in stored for them but would go about searching for food or
would make every effort asking for it.
A true believer would never be lazy nor is he a coward.
On the contrary, the belief in Qadhaa' and Qadar should provide the
necessary impetus to motivate us to push ourselves and urging us to be
brave in pursuing our endeavors and conquering our fears in life. This is
because we faithfully believed that whatever calamities that were
destined for us cannot be averted even if we just sat back doing nothing.
And if we have sincerely made every effort in pursuing our objectives,
then we have fulfilled our obligations and performed our duties. And for
those who have performed his obligations wholeheartedly and sincerely,
surely his efforts are not in vain.
Even though occasionally the results from our efforts are not to our
satisfactions, we know that the struggle in not over and we believe that
all our efforts are not futile and that Allah will reward us for it in this
world and in the hereafter.
When we have exerted ourselves wholeheartedly according to the
laws of Cause and Effect (As-Sabab wal Musabbab) and with good
intentions but are still unable to achieve the desired objectives or were
prevented from accomplishing it, we should not be saddened or dejected
by it and we should never gave up because of it. Suffice for us to believe
that it was predestined and was what Allah has decreed for us, thus
proving that there is a higher authority more powerful than us, and this
higher authority is Allah, the Almighty. It is then upon us to take the
failure as an invaluable lesson and try to understand the wisdom behind

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All praise be to Allah, thus we have concluded our lessons in the
science of Usuluddin according to the Ahl-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah school
of thought, which encompasses the Six Basic Tenets of Faith (Arkaanul
Imaani As-Sittah) complete with its attestations, either Daleel Naqly or
Daleel Aqly.
The Six Basic Tenets of Faith are:
1. The believe in Allah
2. The believe in His angels
3. The believe in His revealed Books
4. The believe in His Messengers
5. The believe in the Day of Resurrection
6. The believe in Qadhaa' and Qadar
May these lessons be beneficial for us in preserving and
strengthening our faith, and for our happiness in this world and in the
hereafter. Amien !

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