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# Module 19 Assignment Questions

## Measurement and Control Systems

There are two parts to this assignment, Part A (130 marks)and Part B (20 Marks)

Total questions: 29
Total marks: 140

## Module 19 Assignment Part A

Total marks part A= 130
Topic 19.1 Fundamentals of Process Instrumentation

In order to integrate an instrumentation system, one needs to consider all of the aspects, and put them
together. The following questions will focus on this.
Question 1 (Practical scenario)
You live in a city, where the atmospheric pressure is either 101.3 kPa (or else 14.69 psi). If I take a
vessel, and pressurise it to 350 kPa (or 50.75 psi) above the atmospheric pressure, and connect
pressure gauges to the vessel, please calculate the following:
a) What is the gauge pressure?
(1 mark)
b) What is the absolute pressure?
(1 mark)
c) If I do not have a weather station close by, to give me the atmospheric pressure, but do have
a gauge pressure gauge and an absolute pressure gauge, how could I get an accurate
indication of the atmospheric pressure?
(2 marks)
Assessor Feedback
Question 2
For pressure measurement, a C-Bourdon gauge can be used. Please list the disadvantages of this
device.
(5 marks)
Assessor Feedback
Question 3
When measuring level, there are certain advantages that go hand-in-hand with a tuning fork. Please
list these.
(4 marks)
Assessor Feedback
Question 4
In temperature measurement, an RTD will have a positive temperature coefficient, whereas a
thermistor will typically have a negative temperature coefficient. Please explain what this means.
(3 marks)
Assessor Feedback

## Question 5 (Practical scenario)

A 4 20 mA signal is sent to a 12-bit Modicon PLC input card, which in turn, sends this to a SCADA.
If the signal happens to be 14.25 mA, calculate the following:
a. What percentage of 0 100% will this represent?
(1 mark)
b. What value would this have on the PLC (remember, it is a 12-bit card)? (1 mark)
c. If we are displaying a value of 0 350 kPa, what value would be displayed on the
(1 mark)
Assessor Feedback
Question 6
What are the sub-system components, which convert sensor signals to digital data before sending it to
supervisory system?
(6 marks)
Assessor Feedback
Question 7
Define the filters and their categories commonly available?
Assessor Feedback

(4 marks)

Question 8
What are the functions of filters in Signal and image processing applications?
Assessor Feedback
(4 marks)
Question 9
What is aliasing problem? How to eliminate this problem?
Assessor Feedback

(4 marks)

Question 10
What is e-mail aliasing? How does it help?
(4 marks)
An email alias is an alternate address that points to a user's existing Gmail account. Mail
sent to the user's primary address (the one you created for their Google Apps account) and
any email aliases you add, all appear in the user's same Gmail inbox.
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## Topic 19.2 Basics of Loop tuning

Question 11
A control valve out in the field needs to have its controller tuned. Please explain the major difference
between an OPEN-LOOP and CLOSED-LOOP tuning method, and where you would prefer to do
each.
(4 marks)
Assessor Feedback
Question 12
Ziegler-Nichols Open Loop Tuning
(4 marks)
Often, when working with a faster loop, many people will opt only for a PI control philosophy.
Looking at the following graph, calculate PI parameters the you would use (bearing in mind that one
often has to fine tune, slightly, afterwards, just to ensure you get the results you want).

## Hints you might find useful:

The horizontal divisions (left to right) are 10 second intervals.
The vertical divisions (top to bottom) are in 10% intervals.
At the start of the test, the controller output (blue pen) was at 50%.
At the start of the test, the process variable (purple pen) was at 60%.
Assessor Feedback

Question 13
Ziegler-Nichols Closed Loop Tuning
(4 marks)
Often, when working with a slower loop, many people will opt for a full PID control philosophy.
Looking at the following graph, calculate PID parameters the you would use (bearing in mind that one
often has to fine tune, slightly, afterwards, just to ensure you get the results you want).

## Hints you might find useful:

The horizontal divisions (left to right) are 10 second intervals.
The vertical divisions (top to bottom) are in 10% intervals.
The gain used, to get constant oscillations, was 3.5
Assessor Feedback
Question 14
Compare the different method used for tuning valves?
Assessor Feedback
Question 15
What are the different controller tuning methods available?
Assessor Feedback
Question 16
Specify 6 best practices for controller loop tuning?
Assessor Feedback

(4 marks)

(4 marks)

(6 marks)

Question 17
What are the situations and when to tune the loop again?
Assessor Feedback

(4 marks)

## Topic 19.3 Control Valve Sizing and Selection

Question 18
What's the difference between balanced and unbalanced valves?
Assessor Feedback
Question 19
What is inherent flow characteristics in control valve?
Assessor Feedback
Question 20
What is the control valve? How many types of control valves are there?
Assessor Feedback
Question 21
What is the difference between rangeability and turndown?
Assessor Feedback
Question 22
Why are control valves sometimes very noisy?
Assessor Feedback
Question 23
Can two control valves be used in series in high pressure drop applications?
Assessor Feedback

(4 marks)

(4 marks)

(6 marks)

(4 marks)

(4 marks)

(4 marks)

## Question 24 (Practical scenario)

The info below is for a liquid control valve application. Based on the information given, select the
right sized valve for the application.
(10 marks)

## The fluid to be used is oil.

It has a specific gravity of 0.87
P1 = 750 kPa(a)
P2 = 600 kPa(a)
Temperature = 25 degrees C
Maximum flow rate = 800 cubic meters per hour
Please make use of a valve that falls in the category of 60 Degrees Disk
Take the Vapour pressure of the oil to be 8.34 kPa(a)

## Make use of the following formula:

Cv 1.16 q

Gf
Pe

Assessor Feedback

## Question 25 (Practical scenario)

Often, when using software to size a control valve, the program will tell you that there is cavitation
present. Now, for example, if you are dealing with a standard globe valve, what is the software going
to give you, as an add-on option (to put inside your valve), to deal with the cavitation?
(5 marks)
Assessor Feedback
Question 26
State few control valve actuators and briefly explain their actuation methods and applications?
Assessor Feedback
(6 marks)
Question 27
What is the difference between a rotary valve actuator and a linear valve actuator? What are some
common applications/examples of each actuation method?
(4 marks)
Assessor Feedback
Question 28
What role do valve positioners play in valve actuation and control applications?
(4 marks)
Assessor Feedback
Question 29
Can we use a control valve without positioner?
Assessor Feedback

(4 marks)

## Module 19 Assignment Part B

Total marks part B= 20 marks
Part B consists of a practical exercise that students can complete using EIT Remote Labs or install the software
themselves.
Use the corresponding instructions for each exercise.

## Control Valve Selection and Sizing - 20 MARKS

CV_Size_Software_Instructions_V3

## Control Valve Selection and Sizing

Objective: The purpose of this practical exercise is for you to familiarise using a control valve
selection software tool and to determine the control valve size and type suitable for a given
application.
If you run the program, and it wants to do an update, stop this (clicking on the small red cross,
top right).
You will create a quote for your client and select the valve size for the given specifications.
Run the software and you should have the interface as shown below.

For this exercise, you can ignore the client details. Double click on Item 1 and it will prompt a window
asking you to save the changes. Click YES.
The window will show the setup for Analysis Type as shown below. Select the parameters as shown for
liquid valve and number of conditions=3.

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## Step 2: Process Details

Fill in the Process Details as per the table below

Liquid

Water

Pressure in
Pressure Out
Temperature
Flow rate

Condition 1
600 kPa(a)
400 kPa(a)
25 Degree C
180 m3 hr

Pipe In
Pipe out

150 mm
150 mm

Condition 2
630 kPa(a)
400 kPa(a)
25 Degree C
100 m3 hr

Condition 3
650 kPa(a)
400 kPa(a)
25 Degree C
25 m3 hr

## Step 3: Valve Specification

Check the Recommended Valve Type. Select the valve type to Butterfly. Leave all other field in
default values.

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## Click the Next Button

Step 4: Number of Plates.
Leave the number of plates to none.
Click Next Button.
Step 5: Valve Results
Verify all the parameters and if anything that you entered is incorrect, click on the Back button to
change the values.
Q1. Note down the Valve Size and Model number for the given criteria.
Valve Size: ______________ Model: __________
Click on Finish button.
[ 10 Marks]
For the next part, you can click on item 2 to find the valve size and model for the given criteria.
Step 1: Analysis Type
Type is Air
Number of conditions: 3
Step 2: Process Details
Fill in the details as below
Gas

Air

Pressure in
Pressure Out
Temperature
Flow rate
Pipe In
Pipe out

Condition 1
2.3 bar(g)
0.2 bar(g)
65 Degree C
5000 nm3 hr
150 mm
150 mm

Condition 2
2.3 bar(g)
0.2 bar(g)
65 Degree C
3000 nm3 hr

Condition 3
2.3 bar(g)
0.2 bar(g)
65 Degree C
1500 nm3 hr

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## Click Next Button.

Step 3: Valve Specification
Check the Recommended Valve Type. Select the valve type to Globe, Trim to Low Noise 3
stage. Leave all other field in default values.
Click the Next Button
Step 4: Number of Plates.
Leave the number of plates to none.
Click Next Button.
Step 5: Valve Results
Verify all the parameters and if anything that you entered is incorrect, click on the Back button to
change the values.
If you notice any numbers in RED colour, means you need to change some parameters to get it
right. Select a different size and check whether all data are acceptable.
Q2. Note down the Valve Size and Model number for the given criteria.
Valve Size: ____________ Model: _______
You are encouraged to try different settings to familiarize with the software.
[10 Marks]