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Date / / “UNITL “Topic. : MECHANICS OY TA/CH1: Scruars Lvectoks el ____|A_scalor_is_ described aso quantiky that has |a_magnilude — it is just a positive or negative number. i \The following quanki tes have _a_magnitede only __ andere examples of scalars : «distance ¢ corrent + speed « charge - time e resistonca Normally scalar quontibes follows the basic algebraic a mathematical eperatinn such as A webr ig a guantily that has both magnivde and_direchion - . A_wetor con be represented ba on _orreuws — the vector , ond the divection in which the arrew 15 pointing hows the vectot's direction - ol chor ntilies : + displacament + _velocihy « acceloration ° for i fi ¢ momentym « torgu2 /moment ¢ impulse e i tie tational field Ading vectors is_o bit different than odling scalars as it involves directions. Tt’ covered in the next section - Date i / ; OYTI/cH1 7 : ae Adding two_or more _yeckors is called finding | the resultant. _ aa. =? Binding the resultant of two vectors /tip-tortail methad ): | To find +he resultant of two vectors: _|* draws one of the vectors :(y1) et |* drow the other vector starting at the end of the frst ane i * draw an arrow from the start of the first vector (va) |to the end of the second vector (v2) — this vepresents the resultant (R) ae __|* use calculation or accurale measurement Goole drowing) fo find the lngth (magnitude) of the wecultont_ l¢ find the direction of the resultant (6) Date / / OY Tt/cH1 =P Pavallelegram vector ition : | If fwe vectors are. ‘vepresenled by fwo_adjacant pie oe ma Oo parallelogram , then the diagonal of oon willbe eqool to the resultant a these tw veclors - | Considering fu Aig UAeORERUEVaWand v2-s: : 2+ 2(va)(v2)cos@ with =e tp the horizonta| . | | | c t |= e é z & & s Date / ! a : Tt is_useful_to split a vector into horizontal and | Werkicol components at right angles tp each other. This is known as resolving a vector and this is the _opposile_of finding He resultant . [If 0 vecbr,v, ip at an angle,O, 4 the horizontal: _ t } then, the horizontal component , Va = Veos® and , the vertical component, Vy. vsin® i vesolving , y gives: Date / ie = = fo vector_in_o. pov of ania — teeters ccencea meas os right-anglad triongla- ___| he vector is tp te folen as the hypolenute of 4 _| ¢ The divections we wsont to vesolve becomes the other $idos ate SB 2 Using tri ork out the sides /size of components. | Example: )A veckor of magnitude 10 je inclined at 20° | above the horizontal . Resolve this veclor and find the vale of its components. i =e Anat Bs 2 Using trigonometry : ee t horizontal component, h = 40c0620 ee Y vertical component, v240sin 20° __ kt c = Se is being towed ot constant by a the horizontol byith a tension of YON fr 5 minutes. Distance, travelled by the box was & m- wi File cere nd peer foe e | Ans: Wa Feos® xd Bw = ee: . eee = = Sao Date { / Uifrsfess = Using components tp find the sesultonts fe esi, fears icing anys to lin esis = psec eet pependiln ctons horizsntal and vertical . @ resolve every vecer involved in these two directions ae up all the components in one direction (e4 hatizonkal) a gives the resultant force in that direction - « repeat falta seaeecests, iain other direction _ Fi “ Tolol verticod. eomporents in5o 1-864 Date ! t pq lemons aes) a > for | Equilibrium A_body is ia a inten E there is ne resultant force |acting on it: of _rest_ox moving with constant pec (nok at e_constant speed) is at eqvilibriom + the vector paigen of forces foro bedy in equilibrium 1S closed - : Polygon of forces foro, bedy in equilibriom Example : A box “fm mass {0 ka is _ being towed at constant Veloci — nel ground a a nec Fan to the horizontal - a fension in the ope is on. Find : @ the fictional eres exerted by the grasnd on the lox 7 © the normal _resetion farea_exerted by the ground on the box (4:98 ms"*) . e Date I _ Lwete : _Resalving horizontally: YOcos act = F OF. 40c0s30°, 35N 2 @_N « log = 4Osin30", FBN Date aE - usfrifcus | Worke, ee 1 a as Ang: R