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CHAPTER

HEAT TRANSFER
SME 4463
INSTRUCTOR: ASSOC PROF DR. MAZLAN ABDUL
WAHID
http://www.fkm.utm.my/~mazlan

TEXT: Introduction to Heat Transfer

by Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman, Lavine
5th Edition, John Wiley and Sons

DR. MAZLAN
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
SKUDAI, JOHOR, MALAYSIA

HEAT TRANSFER

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER
TEXT: Inroduction to Heat Transfer
by Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman, Lavine John Wiley
and Sons

DR. MAZLAN
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
SKUDAI, JOHOR, MALAYSIA

HEAT TRANSFER

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER

Thermodynamics
Interaction of energy with system and surroundings.
surroundings

W
Q

system
boundary

Energy can move in and out of a system in two forms

Work (W)
and
Heat (Q)
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Objectives

When you finish studying this chapter, you should be able to:
Understand how thermodynamics and heat transfer are related to
each other,
Distinguish thermal energy from other forms of energy, and heat
transfer from other forms of energy transfer,
Perform general energy balances as well as surface energy balances,
Understand the basic mechanisms of heat transfer, which are
conduction, convection, and radiation, and Fourier's law of heat
conduction, Newton's law of cooling, and the StefanBoltzmann law
Identify the mechanisms of heat transfer that occur simultaneously in
practice,
Develop an awareness of the cost associated with heat losses, and
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FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
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CHAPTER

Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer

The science of thermodynamics deals with the
amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a
process from one equilibrium state to another, and
makes no reference to how long the process will take.
The science of heat transfer deals
with the determination of the rates
of energy that can be transferred
from one system to another as a
result of temperature difference.

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Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states and

changes from one equilibrium state to another. Heat
transfer, on the other hand, deals with systems that lack
thermal equilibrium, and thus it is a nonequilibrium
phenomenon.
Therefore, the study of heat transfer cannot be based on
the principles of thermodynamics alone.
However, the laws of thermodynamics lay the
framework for the science of heat transfer.
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Heat Transfer

CHAPTER

The basic requirement for heat transfer is the presence of a

temperature difference.
The second law requires that heat
be transferred in the direction of
decreasing temperature.
The temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer.
The rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends on the
magnitude of the temperature gradient in that direction.
The larger the temperature gradient, the higher the rate of heat
transfer.
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CHAPTER

But thermodynamics ..

deals with the end states of the process

or
when the system reach equilibrium at the end states
It provides no information concerning
The nature of the interactions
The time rate at which it occurs
Heat transfer describes the nonequilibrium phenomena of the
transfer of energy due to temperature difference.

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EXAMPLE
Consider a can of drinks which you want to cool down you
would put it in a refrigerator.
20oC
Surrounding Air
T = 4oC
We know from experience that if we leave it in the fridge
ultimately it will reach equilibrium with its surroundings
AT WHAT RATE ? HOW?

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When there is temperature difference between two medium,

energy will transfer from a hotter medium to a colder
medium in a form of HEAT.
So heat transfer will occur when there is an energy
difference (temperature difference) in a medium or between
mediums

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1
Heat transfer is thermal energy in transit
due to
temperature difference
The topic of Heat Transfer is about
understanding, determining and predicting flows of heat
question:
What is the heat flow rate from A to B?
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1
What is temperature ?

Thermal energy: atomic/molecular/electronic kinetic

energy
Measure to determine how hot/cold a material is
(intensity of thermal energy)
Criterion to determine the direction of thermal-energy
transport

From a microscopic view, temperature represents atomic or

molecular kinetic energy (translation / vibration / rotation)

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Where is heat transfer falls at?

There are three principle laws upon which Engineering
studies are derived
Conservation of Momentum (Fluid Mechanics,
Mass Transfer)
Conservation of Energy (Thermodynamics, Heat
Transfer)
Conservation of Mass (Continuity, Mass Transfer)

Conservation of Energy in Heat Transfer

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Application Areas of Heat Transfer

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1
Importance of heat transfer in engineering
Power
High turbine inlet temperatures desired for efficiency.
Predict/control temperature of blades. Cooling strategies internal cool
air passages,
cool air bleed through perforated blade surface.

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DR. MAZLAN
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

FACULTY
OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia
UNIVERSITI
TEKNOLOGI
81310 Skudai,
Johor, MALAYSIA
Malaysia
SKUDAI, JOHOR, MALAYSIA

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CHAPTER

1
Biomedical
ultrasonic waves, etc used to heat tumor.
Necessary to predict tumor temperature and understand heat transfer to
surrounding
tissue (conduction, convection).
Sometimes whole body temperature needs to be raised, lowered,
maintained water
and air blanket devices (convection and conduction), IR lamps (radiation).

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1
Building

Heat is transferred through walls (conduction) to outside air

(convection), through
windows (radiation, convection, conduction), open doors/windows
(convection)
Heat loss (or gain) determines heating (air-conditioning)
requirements.

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Heat exchangers
devices designed specifically to promote heat transfer between two
fluids

car radiators, boilers, condensers, chip cooling, equipment cooling

and so on

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1
Fuel cells

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CHAPTER

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CHAPTER

Energy Transfer

Energy can be transferred to or from a given mass by two

mechanisms:
heat transfer, and
work.

The amount of heat transferred during a process is denoted by Q.

The amount of heat transferred per unit time is called heat
transfer rate, and is denoted by Q.
The total amount of heat transfer Q during a time interval t can
be determined from
t

&
Q = Qdt

(J)

The rate of heat transfer per unit area normal to the direction of
heat transfer is called heat flux, and the average heat flux is
expressed as
Q&
2

q& =

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(W/m )

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CHAPTER

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can

neither be created nor destroyed during a process; it can only
change forms.
Total energy
entering the
system

Total energy
leaving the
system

Change in the
total energy of
the system

The energy balance for any system undergoing any process can
be expressed as (in the rate form)
E& in E& out

Rate of net energy

transfer
by heat, work, and mass
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dEsystem dt

(W)

Rate of change in
internal kinetic, potential,
etc., energies

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Notation
Notation used in this course
Q - energy transfer in the form of heat (same as in thermo), J
q

- rate of energy generation per unit volume, W/m3

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CHAPTER

Objectives are to:

describe the three methods of heat transfer
give practical/environmental examples of each

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CHAPTER

Modes of Heat Transfer

Heat transfers across the systems boundary in three modes

Conduction
Convection
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Conduction

CHAPTER

Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more

energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less
energetic ones as a result of interactions between the
particles.
Conduction can take place in solids,
liquids, or gases
In gases and liquids conduction is due to
the collisions and diffusion of the
molecules during their random motion.
In solids conduction is due to the
combination of vibrations of the
molecules in a lattice and the energy
transport by free electrons.
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CHAPTER

Conduction

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Conduction

CHAPTER

Straightforward transmission of heat within a stationary medium

Solid, liquid, or gas (usually most important in solids)
-Usually in solid(s) , maybe liquids
-Rarely gases (negligible to convection)
Mechanisms are on molecular/atomic level: molecular vibrations,
motion of free electrons
Can often come up with exact mathematical solutions
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Conduction

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Conduction

CHAPTER

Conduction is simply:
Transfer of energy from more energetic to less
energetic particles of a substance due to interactions
between particles
From empirical observations (experiments)

Fouriers Law

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Conduction
qcond = kA

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER

T
L

q: heat transfer rate

A: cross-sectional area
L: length
k: thermal conductivity
T: temperature difference across conductor
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CHAPTER

Thermal Conductivity

The thermal conductivity of a material is a

measure of the ability of the material to conduct
heat.
High value for thermal conductivity
good heat conductor
Low value
poor heat conductor or
insulator.
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Thermal Conductivities of Materials

The thermal
conductivities of gases
such as air vary by a
factor of 104 from those
of pure metals such as
copper.
Pure crystals and metals
have the highest
thermal conductivities,
and gases and insulating
materials the lowest.
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CHAPTER

Thermal Conductivities and Temperature

The thermal
conductivities of
materials vary with
temperature.
The temperature
dependence of
thermal conductivity
causes considerable
complexity in
conduction analysis.
A material is
normally assumed to
be isotropic.
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Thermal diffusivity
=

Heat conducted
k
=
Heat stored
cp

( m2 s )

The thermal diffusivity represents how fast heat diffuses

through a material.
Appears in the transient heat conduction analysis.
A material that has a high thermal conductivity or a low heat
capacity will have a large thermal diffusivity.
The larger the thermal diffusivity, the faster the propagation of
heat into the medium.
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CHAPTER

Conduction

Example
A plain carbon steel rod of diameter 15 mm and length 420 mm has its
ends held at steady temperatures of 20C and 90C, respectively. What is
the heat flow rate?

(Fouriers Law).

q = -kAdT/dx = kA(T1- T2)/L

= 60.5 (0.015)2/4 (90 20) / 0.42
= 1.78 W
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Under steady state conditions where temperature distribution
is linear, the temperature gradient may be expressed as

and the heat flux is then

or

Note: heat flux is rate per unit area. The heat rate by conduction,
qx (W), through a plane wall of area A is qx = qx " A
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CHAPTER

Conduction

Example
The heat flow rate through a wood board of 2 cm
thick for a temperature difference of 25oC
between the two surfaces is 150 W/m2. Calculate
the thermal conductivity of the wood.
T
50oC
25oC

L
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Convection
CONVECTION = Conduction + Advection (fluid motion)

Convection is the mode of energy transfer between a

solid surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that is in
motion.
Convection is commonly classified into three submodes:
Forced convection,
Natural (or free) convection,
Change of phase (liquid/vapor,
solid/liquid, etc.)

20

Convection
T
Ts
The convection heat transfer mode is comprised two mechanisms:
1. Energy transfer due to random molecular motion (diffusion)
2. Energy transfer due to bulk (or macroscopic) motion of the fluid
If both transport of energy is present, the term CONVECTION is generally
used.
If transport of energy due only to bulk motion of the fluid, the term

Convection
h is the convection heat transfer coefficient in
W/m2C.
h depends on variables such as the
surface geometry, the nature of fluid
motion, the properties of the fluid,
and the bulk fluid velocity.

21

Convection
Convection is what happens when
the motion of a heat conducting
fluid increases the rate of
heat transfer.

In other words, the convective

air currents increase the rate
of heat transfer by improving
the conduction at the
surface.

Convection
Convection heat transfer normally takes place in a moving
liquid or gas

Usually interested in cooling or heating of a solid object by a fluid

stream e.g. pipes in a boiler, cooling fin on an engine

Exact mathematical analysis usually impossible usually rely on

empirical correlations

22

CHAPTER

Convection

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Convection

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Convection at Home

CHAPTER

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CHAPTER

Convection
We are interested mainly in cases where there is heat transfer
between a fluid in motion and a bounding surface.
a. Velocity boundary layer
b. Thermal boundary layer
There are two types of convection:

Forced convection -

Free convection

caused by buoyancy forces

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Convection

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER

q is the convective heat flux (W/m2), and is proportional to

the
difference between surface and fluid temps.
h (W/m2 K) is convective heat transfer coefficient depends on
conditions in boundary layer, surface geometry, nature of
fluid motion, and fluid thermo and transport properties.
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Convection

CHAPTER

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Radiation is energy emitted by matter

that
is at a finite temperature.
The emission is due to changes in
electron configurations of constituent
atoms or molecules.
Transported by electromagnetic
Does not require a material
medium,
occurs most efficiently in vacuum.
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CHAPTER

Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of

electromagnetic waves (or photons) as a result of the
changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or
molecules.
Heat transfer by radiation does not require the presence of
an intervening medium.
In heat transfer studies we are interested in thermal
temperature).
is usually considered to be a surface phenomenon for
solids that are opaque to thermal radiation.
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27

CHAPTER

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The maximum rate of radiation that can be emitted from a surface at a

thermodynamic temperature Ts (in K) is given by the StefanBoltzmann law as
or Blackbody
where,
Ts is the absolute temp (K) of the surface
is the Stefan Boltzmann constant (5.67 x 10-8 W/m2K4)

The idealized surface that emits radiation at this maximum rate is called a
blackbody.

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CHAPTER

1
Heat flux emitted by a real object (less than that of a blackbody)

: emissivity, a radiative property of surface, how

efficient radiation emission is compared to blackbody

Determination of the net rate at which radiation is

exchanged between surfaces is complicated
Most often, we only need to know the net exchange
between a small surface and the surroundings.
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Small Surface and Large Surroundings

The net rate of radiation heat exchange between a small surface and
a large surroundings per a unit area of the small surface
A su r

T su r
A
Ts

q = A TS TSUR
4

: emissivity
Maximum = 1.00, black charcoal surface,
Minimum = 0.01, shiny gold surface
: Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2K4

1
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q = A TS TSUR
4

CHAPTER

Above eqn. can also be written in the following form,

q = hrA(Ts Tsur)
Where hr is the radiation heat transfer coefficient

hr= (T
s + Tsur) (Ts2 + Tsur2)
where we have linearized the equation shown earlier.
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1
Greenhouse
Effect

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CHAPTER

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Conservation of Energy

Surroundings, S
Control Volume
(CV)
Boundary, B
(Control Surface, CS)

-Accumulation

E& st
-Generation E&
(Storage)

through inlet

E& in

Loss
through outlet

E& out

dE
Energy conservation on a rate E& in + E& g E& out = st = E& st
dt
basis: Units W=J/s
 Inflow and outflow are surface phenomena
 Generation and accumulation are volumetric phenomena
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Conservation of energy

CHAPTER

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1
Ein

= dEst/dt =
=

st

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CHAPTER

qcond

T1

or
qconv
T2

"
"
"
qcond
qconv
=0

control surface

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1
Surface energy balance

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CHAPTER

The surface energy balance

DR. MAZLAN
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
SKUDAI, JOHOR, MALAYSIA

HEAT TRANSFER

INTRODUCTION

Analysis of h.t problem Mesti buat seperti ini !!!

CHAPTER

DR. MAZLAN
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
SKUDAI, JOHOR, MALAYSIA

HEAT TRANSFER

INTRODUCTION

34

Important!

CHAPTER

DR. MAZLAN
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
SKUDAI, JOHOR, MALAYSIA

HEAT TRANSFER

INTRODUCTION

35