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Journal of Computational Information Systems 11: 15 (2015) 5347–5352 Available at http://www.Jofcis.com

Decomposition and Reconstruction Algorithms for Framelet Packets

Dayong LU ,

Meiyu XU

Institute of Applied Mathematics, College of Mathematics and Information Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China

Abstract

Wavelet packets based on orthonormal wavelet bases have been well studied in theory and applications, since they can provide adaptive choice from a library of wavelet bases for a wide range of practically oriented tasks. But the study of wavelet frame packet have been less involved. In this paper, we give the decomposition and reconstruction algorithms for framelet packets constructed from the unitary extension given by Ron and Shen.

Keywords: Framelet Packets; Extension Principles; Fast Algorithms; Wavelet Frames

1

Introduction

Wavelet frames are nowadays indispensabel as a multiscale system in the applications of redundant dyadic wavelet systems, since they provide the same decomposition and reconstruction formula as orthonormal wavelet bases. Of all the wavelet frames, tight wavelet frames are the easiest to use. Tight wavelet frames are different from orthonormal wavelet bases in one important respect; they are (in general) redundant systems but with the same fundamental structure as wavelet systems. To mention only a few references on tight wavelet frames, the reader is referred to [1-3].

However, wavelet frames provide poor frequency localization in applications. To overcome this disadvantage, the concept of wavelet frames must be generalized to include a library of wavelet frames, called framelet packets or wavelet frame packets.

The original idea of wavelet packets were introduced by Coifman, Meyer, and Wickerhauser in [4, 5]. But the theory itself is worthy of further study. Some developments in the wavelet packets theory should be mentioned, such as multiwavelet packets [6] on R d , the non-tensor-product version [7] of wavelet packets on R d , the nonorthogonal version of wavelet packets [8] on R 1 , the wavelet frame packets [9] on R 1 and the higher dimensional version of wavelet frame packets

The work is supported by the Natural Science Foundation for the Education Department of Henan Province of China (No. 13A110072), the Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province (No. 122300410381), and Henan University Natural Science Foundation (No. 2011YBZR001).

Corresponding

author.

Email address:

dayonglu@163.com (Dayong LU).

1553–9105 / Copyright © 2015 Binary Information Press DOI: 10.12733/jcis11919 August 1, 2015

5348 D. Lu et al. /Journal of Computational Information Systems 11: 15 (2015) 5347–5352

[10] on R d . Recently, using the so-called splitting trick given by Daubechies [11], Lu and Fan in [1] constructed a class of tight framelet packets with 2I d -dilation for L 2 (R d ) from the unitary extension principles given by Ron and Shen in [2]. In this paper, we consider the decomposition and reconstruction algorithms for framelet packets constructed in [1].

2

Preliminaries

We begin by introducing some notation and definitions we shall use.

H denotes a separable Hilbert space with inner product ⟨·, ·⟩ and norm x= x, x1 2 for each

x H. Let J be a numerable index set. A countable system {ϕ j } jJ in H is called a frame for H if there exist constants A and B, 0 < A B < , such that

Ax2 |⟨x, ϕ j ⟩| 2 Bx2

jJ

(2.1)

holds for all x H. The greatest possible such A is the lower frame bound and the least possible such B is the upper frame bound. If A = B, then the frame is called a tight frame.

Define the Fourier transform f of f L 1 (R) L 2 (R) by f(ξ) = R f(x)e ixξ dx.

ˆ

ˆ

: R C is

the function defined by (T y f )(t) = f (t y). Further, f L 2 (R), the unitary dyadic dilation

operator D id defined on L 2 (R) as (Df )(x) = 2f (2x), and, hence, (D j f )(x) = 2 2 j f (2 j x) for all

j Z.

In the following we shall briefly describe how to construct multiresolution analysis (MRA)- based tight wavelet frames through so-called extension principles, see [3, 4]. We refer the reader to [3] for a more detailed discussion of MRA-based wavelet frames.

, τ L } be a sequence of 2πZ-periodic essentially bounded functions. Assume

Translation by y R is denoted by T y , i.e., if f

: R C is a function, then T y f

Let τ = {τ 0 , τ 1 ,

ˆ ˆ

that τ 0 generates the refinable function ϕ(2ξ) = τ 0 (ξ) ϕ(ξ) satisfying

ˆ

lim ϕ(ξ) = 1

ξ0

and

ˆ

| ϕ(ξ + 2)| 2 B 2 for some B.

kZ

We associate the wavelets to τ as follows

ˆ

ψ l (2ξ) = τ l (ξ) ϕ(ξ),

l = 1, 2,

, L.

We often write Ψ = {ψ 1 , ψ 2 ,

, ψ L }. The spectrum σ(ϕ) associated to ϕ is defined as

ˆ

σ(ϕ) = {ξ [π, π] : ϕ(ξ + 2) ̸= 0,

for some k Z}.

(2.2)

(2.3)

(2.4)

Let Ψ be a finite subset of L 2 (R). The dyadic wavelet system generated by Ψ is the family

X(Ψ) = {D j T k ψ : ψ Ψ; j, k Z}.

(2.5)

The following theorem proved in [3] is the main tool to create tight wavelet systems, the theorem is called the Unitary Extension Principle (UEP).

D. Lu et al. /Journal of Computational Information Systems 11: 15 (2015) 5347–5352

5349

Proposition 2.1 (UEP)

Let τ be the combined mask of an MRA that satisfies the above

assumptions. If ξ σ(ϕ), and if ν ∈ {0, π} is such that ξ + ν σ(ϕ), then

τ 0 (ξ)τ 0 (ξ + ν) +

L

τ l (ξ)τ l (ξ + ν) =

l=1

1,

0,

if ν = 0,

otherwise.

Then the wavelet system X (Ψ) defined by τ is a tight wavelet frame.

Remark 2.2 In many (most) interesting cases the spectrum σ(ϕ) is equal to [π, π]. For example, if the integer translates of the scaling functions ϕ generates a Riesz sequence, this is the case.

A wavelet system X (Ψ) is said to be MRA-based if it is generated by OEP or UEP. The elements in X(Ψ) are called framelets. The collection Ψ is called the mother wavelet set, and the elements in Ψ are called mother wavelets. We call τ 0 the refinement mask and functions τ l ,

l

, τ L } the combined mask of

the MRA.

= 1, 2,

, L, wavelet masks. We call the sequence τ = {τ 0 , τ 1 ,

3 Basic Framelet Packets and Their Fast Algorithms

, ψ L } is a tight frame generated by UEP associated with the refinable

function ϕ and the combined mask τ = {τ 0 , τ 1 ,

., associated with the refinable

function ϕ are defined recursively by

(3.1)

When n = 0 and l = 0 in (3.1) we obtain the refinable function ϕ by its Fourier transform

(3.2)

When n = 0 and l ∈ {1, 2,

(3.3)

which shows that ω l = ψ l , l = 1, 2,

An important difference between wavelet frames and framelet packets is the decomposition structure. We can depict these wavelet frame decompositions when L = 2 as given in Fig. 1, but framelet packets decompositions with compactly supported tight wavelet frames when L = 2 as given in Fig. 2.

l (2ξ) = τ l (ξ)ω (ξ),

Suppose Ψ = {ψ 1 , ψ 2 ,

,

τ L }.

Let ω 0

=

ϕ.

The basic framelet packets ω n (x), n = 0, 1,

ω

n(L+1)+l (2ξ) = τ l (ξ)ω (ξ),

n

l = 0, 1,

(2ξ) = τ 0 (ξ)ω (ξ).

ω

0

0

, L} we deduce that

ω

, L.

0

, L.

Define the subspaces of L 2 (R) by

n

U

j

:= span{D j T k ω n : k Z},

j Z,

n = 0, 1, 2,

(3.4)

We have the following relationships about the subspaces U

For n = 0, 1, 2,

n , j Z and n = 0, 1, 2,

j

Theorem 3.1 [1]

we have

j+1 = U j

U

n

n(L+1)

+ U

n(L+1)+1

j

+ ··· + U

j

n(L+1)+L

,

j Z,

(3.5)

5350 D. Lu et al. /Journal of Computational Information Systems 11: 15 (2015) 5347–5352

0

✁ ✁ ✁ ✁

0

0 1

✁ ✁ ✁ ✁

1

2

2

Fig. 1: Wavelet frame de- composition

0

✁ ✁ ✁ ✁

0 ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥ ❥

1

❂ ❂

2

0

✁ ✁ ✁ ✁

0

1

1

❚ ❚

❚ ❚

❚ ❚

❚ ❚

❂ ❂

❂ ❂

2

0

✁ ✁ ✁ ✁

2

1

2

Fig. 2: Framelet packet decomposition

where U

n is defined by (3.4).

j

Associated with the sequence of subspaces {U given by

j

n } we have the projections of L 2 (R) onto U

n

j

n

P

j

f

= f, D j T k ω n D j T k ω n

f L 2 (R).

kZ

We can easily get

L

l=0

n(L+1)+l

P

j

f

n

= P j+1 f

f L 2 (R).

From Theorem 3.1, we know that f L 2 (R) can be written as

f = f, D j T k ω n D j T k ω n .

kZ

Thus, we have the coefficients

c

n,j

k

= f, D j T k ω n ,

j, k Z,

n = 0, 1, 2,

and what we want to do is to decompose the sequence

c n,j = {c n,j

k

: k Z}

 

(3.6)

(3.7)

,

(3.8)

(3.9)

which belongs to l 2 (Z).

We now continue with the decomposition algorithm. This is achieved by the combined mask

τ = {τ 0 , τ 1 ,

, τ L } and (3.1). For

convenience, we write τ l as

So we have

Hence, for l = 0, 1, 2,

τ l (ξ) = α m e imξ ,

l

mZ

l

1

2 ω n(L+1)+l ( x

2

, L,

) = α m ω n (x +

l

mZ

= 0, 1, 2,

, L

(3.10)

m),

l = 0, 1, 2,

, L.

(3.11)

D j1 T k ω n(L+1)+l (x) =

=

2 j1 ω n(L+1)+l (2 j1 x k)

2

2 j+1

2

mZ

l

α m ω n (2 j x 2k + m).

D. Lu et al. /Journal of Computational Information Systems 11: 15 (2015) 5347–5352

That is,

D j1 T k ω n(L+1)+l (x) = 2

mZ

l

α m D j T 2km ω n (x),

j, k Z,

l ∈ {0, 1, 2,

It follows that, for all l = 0, 1, 2, · · · , L,

c

n(L+1)+l,j1

k

= f, D j1 T k ω n(L+1)+l = f, 2 α

l m D j T 2km ω n

mZ

= 2 α

m f, D j T 2km ω n = 2

l

mZ

mZ

α

m c n,j

l

2km .

, L}.

5351

(3.12)

(3.13)

This shows that the coefficients c n(L+1)+l,j1 of the lowest resolution U

from the coefficients c n,j of the U

can be obtained

n and the filter coefficients. For n and j fixed, the right-hand

n(L+1)+l

j1

j

side of (3.11) is the convolution of the sequences

α˜ l = { 2α m } and ˜c n,j = {c n,j },

l

m

followed by retaining only the convolution entries that appear in the even places. The process to obtain the decomposition algorithm when L = 2 is given in Fig. 3.

c 3n,j1

c n,j

c 3n+1,j1

c 3n+2,j1

Fig. 3: Decomposition algorithm for framelet packets

In the above we get the fast framelet packet decomposition algorithm, and we now treat the

problem of reconstruction c n,j from the sequences c n(L+1)+l,j1 , l = 0, 1,

, L.

Let us denote by

C n,j (ξ) =

kZ

c n,j e ikξ

k

the fourier series of c n,j

shows that (3.13) can be written on the frequency domain as

for all j Z and n = 0, 1, 2,

With some (but not much) effort, one

2C n(L+1)+l,j1 (ξ) = τ l ( ξ

2

)C n,j ( ξ ) + τ l ( ξ + π)C n,j ( ξ + π).

2

2

2

(3.14)

Now substitute 2ξ for ξ, and then multiply each side of the Eq. (3.14) by τ l (ξ), and sum over all l. Then

2

L

τ l (ξ)C n(L+1)+l,j1 (2ξ) =

l=0

By the filter conditions we have

L

|τ l (ξ)| 2 C n,j (ξ) +

l=0

L

τ l (ξ)τ l (ξ + π)C n,j (ξ + π).

l=0

2

L

τ l (ξ)C n(L+1)+l,j1 (2ξ) = C n,j (ξ),

l=0

(3.15)

(3.16)

5352 D. Lu et al. /Journal of Computational Information Systems 11: 15 (2015) 5347–5352

which implies that

c

n,j

k

= 2

L

∑ ∑

l=0

mZ

α

k2m c n(L+1)+l,j1

l

(3.17)

hold for all j, k

reconstruction algorithms.

Eq. (3.17) allows us to add the sequences c n(L+1)+l,j1 to obtain c n,j , and the reconstruction algorithm when L = 2 given in Fig. 4.

(3.17) is the so-called fast framelet packet

Z and n = 0, 1, 2,

Then Eq.

c

3n,j1

c

3n+1,j1

c

3n+2,j1

c n,j

♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣

Fig. 4: Reconstruction algorithm for framelet packets

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank the referees for their helpful comments and suggestions.

References

[1]

D.Y. Lu, Q.B. Fan, A class of tight framelet packets, Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal 61(3)

B. Behera, Multiwavelet packets and frame packets of L 2 (R d ), Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.)

[2]

(2011) 623–639. A. Ron, Z. Shen, Affine systems in L 2 (R d ): the analysis of the analysis operator, J. Functional

[3]

Anal. Appl. 148 (1997) 408–447. O. Christensen, An Introduction to Frames and Riesz Bases, Birkh¨auser, Boston, 2003.

[4]

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[5]

Ruskai et al., eds., Wavelets and Their Applications. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, 1992, 153–178. R.R. Coifman, Y. Meyer, M.V. Wickerhauser, Size properties of wavelet packets. In: M.B. Ruskai

[6]

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1074.

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[9]

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