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Part-A

Q1. With the help of appropriate example enlist various


methods of internet connectivity.
Ans: There are many ways to connect to internet:
1. Analog
2. Satellite
3. Cable
4. Wireless Internet Connections
5. ISDN
6. DSL
Analog (up to 56k)
Also called dial-up-access, it is both economical and slow. Using a
modem connected to your PC, users connect to the Internet when
the computer dials a phone number (which is provided by your
ISP) and connects to the network. Dial-up is an analog connection
because data is sent over an analog, public telephone network. The
modem converts received analog data to digital and vise versa.
Because dial-up access uses normal telephone lines the quality of
the connection is not always good and data rates are limited.
Typical Dial-up connection speeds range from 2400 bps to 56
Kbps.

Satellite
internet over satellite (IoS) allows a user to access the Internet via
a satellite that orbits the earth. A satellite is placed at a static point
above the earth's surface, in a fixed position. Because of the
enormous distances signals must travel from the earth up to the
satellite and back again, IoS is slightly slower than high-speed
terrestrial connections over copper or fiber optic cables

Cable
Through the use of a cable modem we can have a broadband
Internet connection that is designed to operate over cable TV lines.
Cable Internet works by using TV channel space for data
transmission, with certain channels used for downstream
transmission, and other channels for upstream transmission.
Because the coaxial cable used by cable TV provides much greater
bandwidth than telephone lines, a cable modem can be used to
achieve extremely fast access. Cable speeds range from 512 Kbps
to 20 Mbps.

Wireless Internet Connections


Wireless Internet or wireless broadband is one of the newest
Internet connection types. Instead of using telephone or cable
networks for your Internet connection, you use radio frequency
bands. Wireless Internet provides an always-on connection which
can be accessed from anywhere — as long as you geographically
within a network coverage area. Wireless access is still considered
to be relatively new, and it may be difficult to find a wireless
service provider in some areas. It is typically more expensive and
mainly available in metropolitan areas.

ISDN
Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is an international
communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over
digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. Typical ISDN
speeds range from 64 Kbps to 128 Kbps.

Q2. With example illustrate the business use of internet.

Ans: Internet has a wide range of customers, buyers, service


providers, technical staff, etc. with the help of Internet business
can run on a single website .Information system and technology
provide various channels to communication like E-mail, Instant
messages, SMS servers, etc to all employees at any time all over
the world. This type of software helps to saving time and cost of
the company Software are very important for a company for instant
Information of stocks, assets valuation, sales, purchases, and
service. Decision making is very easy to the management after IT
because its provide latest information to the management for
employee, stocks, sales, purchase, and services, etc The
management can make a decision after check IT reports.
Information technology provides a platform for a company to
connect the global world with Internet. Internet has a wide range of
customers, buyers, service providers, technical staff, etc. with the
help of Internet business can run on a single website Information
system and technology provide various channels to communication
like E-mail, Instant messages, SMS servers, etc to all employees at
any time all over the world. This type of software helps to saving
time and cost. Of the company Software are very important for a
company for instant Information of stocks, assets valuation, sales,
purchases, and service. Decision making is very easy to the
management after IT because its provide latest information to the
management for employee, stocks, sales, purchase, and services,
etc The management can make a decision after check IT reports.

Q3. Using appropriate example highlight the significance of


DNS & IP addressing?
Ans: Domain Name Service is used to change internet domain and
computer names into IP addresses and vice versa. DNS works at
the application layer and uses TCP and UDP for transport. TCP is
only used if returned data is truncated. See the DNS section in the
Networking Guide for information about DNS. DNS was
originally based on HOSTS files that were maintained by a
centralized Network Information Center. Today of is based on a
hierarchy of servers with a distributed hierarchical database
throughout the network or internet.

DNS Levels DNS is a hierarchical naming structure with the


following levels:

• Root designated by a dot (.).


• First level - This indicates country or type of organization
such as "org", "com", and "net".
• Second level - Indicates the organization name and can be
purchased for a yearly fee.

Notice that the highest level of the domain is listed last. An


example of a domain name that you may be familiar with is
comptechdoc.org.

Internet Protocol (IP) address

An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a


numerical label that is assigned to devices participating in a
computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for
communication between its nodes. An IP address serves two
principal functions in networking: host identification and location
addressing. The role of the IP address has also been characterized
as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates
where it is. A route indicates how to get there." The original
designers of TCP/IP defined an IP address as a 32-bit number and
this system, now named Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still
in use today. However, due to the enormous growth of the Internet
and the resulting depletion of the address space, a new addressing
system (IPv6), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in
1995 and last standardized by RFC 2460 in 1998.Although IP
addresses are stored as binary numbers, they are usually displayed
in human-readable notations, such as 208.77.188.166 (for IPv4),
and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:1:1 (for IPv6).
The Internet Protocol also has the task of routing data
packets between networks, and IP addresses specify the locations
of the source and destination nodes in the topology of the routing
system. For this purpose, some of the bits in an IP address are used
to designate a sub network. The number of these bits is indicated in
CIDR notation, appended to the IP address, e.g.,
208.77.188.166/24.

With the development of private networks and the threat of IPv4


address exhaustion, a group of private address spaces was set aside
by RFC 1918. These private addresses may be used by anyone on
private networks. They are often used with network address
translators to connect to the global public Internet

Part-B
Q4.How a telnet session can be established?
Ans: There are 3 methods to telnet a computer:
1. Telnet IP address. E.g. 202.131.123.65
2. Telnet domain name. E.g. telnet lkcj.com
3. Telnet domain name and port no. E.g. telnet lkcj.com80

For example: Establishing a Telnet Session to the POP Server


Telnet is a terminal emulation program supplied with Microsoft
Windows. With Telnet, you can establish a host session to a server
using one of several emulation types.

To establish a Telnet session, follow these steps:

1. Use your Dial-up Networking connection to connect to


the Internet through your ISP.
2. Click the Start button, point to Programs, and then click
Command Prompt.
3. In the MS-DOS window, type the following:

Telnet <POP server name or IP address> 110

4. Press the ENTER key. The Telnet window appears and


displays a welcome message. This message will be
preceded by +OK and will vary depending on the software
installed on the POP Server

Q5. Write the steps to create an FTP session. Enumerate the


working of anonymous FTP
Ans: FTP Session

• Connect to the Internet


• Open an FTP session
• Connect to the server
• Choose the transfer mode
• Transfer the file
• Check the pages

Anonymous FTP Anonymous FTP is a privilege granted by the


organization that owns the computer to which you are connecting;
be considerate in your usage. Don't transfer files you don't need or
an excessive amount of material, and try to restrict your transfers
to off-peak hours a method for allowing the public to download
files using FTP (File Transfer Protocol) so that they don't have to
identify themselves. Usually the username "anonymous" should
be used, and either the password is provided by the FTP server or
anything may be used as the password.

Q6. What is the role of network protocols in Internet?


Ans: NETWORK PROTOCOLS a network protocol defines rules
and conventions for communication between network devices.
1) Protocols for computer networking all generally use packet
switching techniques to send and receive messages in the
form of packets.

2) Network protocols include mechanisms for devices to


identify and make connections with each other, as well as
formatting rules that specify how data is packaged into
messages sent and received.

3) Some protocols also support message acknowledgement and


data compression designed for reliable and/or high-
performance network communication.