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1973 A-Level Pure Mathematics Paper I

1. (a) Prove that , if a and b are positive numbers such that a 2 b 2 , then a < b .
k 1
k 1 2
k . Hence deduce
(b) Prove that , if k is a positive integer , then
that

1
k

k 1

k 1 .

(c) Using (b) or otherwise , prove that , for any positive integer n ,
1

1
...
3

n 1

n 1.

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2. (a) It is known that
AB

2 is irrational . Show that , if A and B are rational numbers such that


2 0

,then A=B=0.

2
n
(b) f ( x )a 0 a 1 x a 2 x ...a n x
is a polynomial with rational coefficients , c and d
are rational numbers.
(i) Show that , for each positive integer k , (c d 2 ) k A k B k 2 and
(c d 2 ) k A k B k 2 , where A k , B k are rational numbers.
(ii) Hence prove that , if c d 2 is a root of f(x) , then c d 2 is also a root of f(x).
2 is a root.
(c) Solve the equation x 4 x 3 6 x 2 5x 1 0 given that 1
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3. For any real 2 2

matrix

a b
A
cd

we define Tr(A) to be the sum a + d of the diagonal

elements of A.
(a) Show that , for any real 2 2 matrices A , B and any real number t ,
(i) Tr (A + B) = Tr (A) + Tr (B)
(ii) Tr (tA) = t Tr (A)
(iii) Tr (AB) = Tr (BA)
Hence or otherwise , prove that , for any real 2 2 matrices A and B , AB - BA I , where I is
the 2 2 identity matrix.
(b) Let M be the set of all 2 2 real matrices A satisfying Tr(A) = 0.
(i) Show that M forms a commutative group under matrix addition.
(ii) Does M form a ring under matrix addition and multiplication? Why?
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4. (a)Let A(x) be a polynomial of degree n in x , with real coefficients and n real roots
x 1 , x 2 ,..., x n .

1
A' ( x )

, where
i 1 x x
A( x )
i
n

Prove that
A(x) .

A ' ( x ) is the derivative of

Hence or otherwise, prove that

1
[A' ( x )]2 A( x )A" ( x )

2
2
i 1 ( x x )
A
(x)
i
n

2x 1
into partial fractions .
( x 1) 2
x1, x 2 , x 3 , x

(b) Resolve

(c) Let
be the roots of the polynomial B(x)= x 4 10x 2 1
4
( You can assume that all the roots of B(x) are real .) Using (a) and (b) or otherwise , evaluate the

2x i 1
.
2
i 1 ( x 1)
i
4

sum

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5. Let V be the real vector space of all real 3 x 1 matrices

x1

x x 2
x
3

under matrix addition and scalar

multiplication; and let A be any fixed real 3 x 3 matrix. A mapping :V V is given by:
( x ) A x for every x in V.
(a) Using properties of matrix multiplication and addition , show that for all x, y in V and for all real
numbers ,
( x y ) ( x )( y ), and ( x ) ( x ).

(b) Let K be the set of all those vectors of V which are mapped by to the zero vector o of V.
Show that o K and that, if x, y K and is any real number, then x + y K and
xK .
(c) If

A 1
4

2
1
1

1
2

a (x) for some x

5a

, determine the value of the real number a so that the vector

x1

x2
x 3

0

in V, and find all vectors x which are mapped to a

5a

when a assumes this value.


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6. (a) Show that the quadratic function f(x) = Ax 2 2Bx C , where A , B , C are real , is positive for all
real values of x if and only if A > 0 and B 2 AC.
(b) Find the range of m for which the quadratic function g(x) = (m 2 4m 5) x 2 2(m 1) x 3 is
positive for all real values of x.

(c) Let
a 1 ,a

... ,

be real numbers . Prove that

a i bi
i 1

2
ai

i 1

; b1 , b
n

b
i 1

2
i

, ... , b n

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7. A box contains fifteen cards of which one, two, three, four, five are marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively.
(a) Three cards are drawn successively (without replacement) from the box and then placed from left to
right in the order that they are drawn to form a 3-digit number. What is the probability that this number
is greater than or equal to 345?
(b) A game is played in the following manner: A card is drawn from these fifteen cards and, if this card is
marked n, a single die is thrown n times. The game is won when and only when 1 turns up exactly
four times among these n throws. What is the probability that the game is won?
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8. Let R 3 be the set of all ordered triples of real numbers. A relation S in R 3 \{(0, 0, 0)} is given by:
( x 0 , x 1 , x 2 ) S ( y 0 , y1 , y 2 ) if and only if there is a non-zero real number such that x k y k , k = 0, 1, 2.
(a) Show that S is an equivalence relation in R 3 \{(0, 0, 0)} .
(b) Let [ x 0 , x 1 , x 2 ] be the equivalence class of ( x 0 , x 1 , x 2 ) by S, and let P 2 be the set of all
equivalence classes. If R 3 is the set of all ordered pairs of real numbers, show that the mapping
i : R 2 P 2 , given by i( x 1 , x 2 ) [1, x 1 , x 2 ] , is injective.
3
(c) A subject L of P 2 is defined by L {[ x 0 , x 1 , x 2 ] P : x 0 0} . Show that
i [ R 2 ] L and P 2 i[ R 2 ] L .
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1973 A-Level Pure Mathematics Paper II
1. (a)Find the equations of the line L passing through the point (-1,2,5) and perpendicular to the plane
A : x + y - 3z -2 = 0 .
(b) Find the point of intersection of the line L and the plane A.
(c) Find the equation of the plane passing through the line L and the origin.
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1
) be any point on the hyperbola xy = 1 (where t 0 ). The normal at A meets the
t
curve again at B. Let TA and TB be the tangents at A and B respectively.
(a) Show that TA and TB are parallel if and only if t = 1.
(b) If t 1 , find the point of intersection of TA and TB .
(c)Does the line y = mx contain the point of intersection of some TA and TB ? (Discuss

2. Let A(t,

the various cases in relation to the value of m.)


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3. (a) Find the maximum and minimum of the function f(t) defined by f(t) = t 3 3m 2 t 2n , m > 0 . Show
3
3
that f (t) =0 has three distinct real roots if m n , one real root if m n .
(b) Using (a) or otherwise, show that , on the curve represented by y 3 3y x 3 12 x , there are
two points at each of which the tangent is parallel to the x-axis , and six points at each of which the

tangent is parallel to the y-axis.


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tn

4. (a) If I n ( x ) 0

1 t t 2

1
I 0 (x)
2

I1 ( x )

( n 1)I n 1 ( x )(n

dt , prove that

1 x x 2 1, and
1
) I n ( x ) n I n 1 ( x ) x n
2

1 x x 2

for n = 1 , 2 , 3 , ...
(b) Using the results in (a) , show that

I 3 (1)

(c) Hence evaluate the definite integral

t3

1
{21 I 0 (1)6
48

1 t t

3 2}

dt

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5. (a) A particle moving in a straight line has an acceleration equal to kt 2 h , where t is measured in
seconds , distance is measured in metres and k , h are constants. If the particle starting from rest
moves 100 metres in the first five seconds and 10000 metres in the first ten seconds , find k and h.
(b) An area A is bounded by the curve y = x 3 9 x , the x- axis , x = -2 and x = k . If each portion is
taken to be positive, find all k such that A = 28.
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6. Let n be a non-negative integer, and let

0 ( x )

1
1
, n ( x ) cos x cos 2 x ... cos n
2
2

where 0 x
(a) Show that

1
)x
2
n (x)
and
1
2 sin
x
2
(b) Evaluate , for 0 ,
sin (n

f ( )

sin nx cos

S n ( x )

n 1
)x
2
x
sin
2

g ( )

dx and

sin

sin (

x
2
lim f ( ) and lim g ( )

and find

x
2

n 1
x
2
x
sin 2
2

sin 2

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7. (a) Show that, for any complex numbers z1 ,z 2 , z1 z 2
(b) Two sequences of polynomials

z1 z 2

P0 ( t ) ,P1 ( t ),P2 ( t ),...

satisfy the following conditions :

2 z1

and

2 z2

Q 0 ( t ),Q

P0 ( t ) Q 0 ( t ) t ,
Pk 1 ( t ) Pk ( t ) t 2 Q k ( t )
k

Q k 1 ( t ) Pk ( t ) t

2k

for all k 0,1,2,...

Q k ( t )

1 sin , then Pk ( z ) Q k ( z ) 2 k 1
(i) Using (a) , show that if z cos
and hence show that Pk ( z) ( 2 ) k 1 and Q k ( z) ( 2 ) k 1 .
(ii) Find the degrees of Pk ( t ) and Q k ( t ) , and prove your results by mathematical
induction.
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8. Prove or disprove each of the following statements :


(a) If f(x) and g(x) are continuous at the point x 0 , then f(x) + g(x) is also continuous at x 0 .
(b) If f(x) and g(x) are not continuous at x 0 , then f(x) + g(x) is also not continuous at x 0 .
(c) If f(x) is continuous at x 0 and g(x) is not continuous at x 0 , then f(x) + g(x) is not continuous
at x 0 .
(d) If {a n } is a convergent sequence with limit a and there is a positive integer N such that
a n 0 for all n N , then a > 0 .
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