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WheyproteinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Wheyprotein
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Wheyproteinisamixtureofglobularproteinsisolatedfrom
whey,theliquidmaterialcreatedasabyproductofcheese
production.
Wheyproteiniscommonlymarketedandingestedasadietary
supplement,andvarioushealthclaimshavebeenattributedtoit
inthealternativemedicinecommunity.[1]Althoughwhey
proteinsareresponsibleforsomemilkallergies,themajor
allergensinmilkarethecaseins.[2][3]

Contents

Containersofwheyproteinbeingsoldata
healthfoodstore.

1Production
2Composition
3Majorforms
4Healtheffects
5References
6Externallinks

Production
Mainarticle:Whey
Wheyisleftoverwhenmilkiscoagulatedduringtheprocessofcheeseproduction,andcontainseverything
thatissolublefrommilkafterthepHisdroppedto4.6duringthecoagulationprocess.[4]Itisa5%solution
oflactoseinwater,withsomemineralsandlactalbumin.[5]Thefatisremovedandthenprocessedfor
humanfoods.[5]Processingcanbedonebysimpledrying,ortheproteincontentcanbeincreasedby
removinglipidsandothernonproteinmaterials.[6]Forexample,spraydryingaftermembranefiltration
separatestheproteinsfromwhey.[7]
Wheycanbedenaturedbyheat.Highheat(suchasthesustainedhightemperaturesabove72Cassociated
withthepasteurizationprocess)denatureswheyproteins.Whilenativewheyproteindoesnotaggregate
uponrennetingoracidificationofmilk,denaturingthewheyproteintriggershydrophobicinteractionswith
otherproteins,andtheformationofaproteingel.[6]Heatdenaturedwheycanstillcauseallergiesinsome
people.[8]

Composition
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whey_protein#Health_effects

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Wheyproteinisthecollectionofglobularproteinsisolatedfromwhey.Theproteinincow'smilkis20%
wheyproteinand80%caseinprotein,[9]whereastheproteininhumanmilkis60%wheyand40%
casein.[10]Theproteinfractioninwheyconstitutesapproximately10%ofthetotaldrysolidsinwhey.This
proteinistypicallyamixtureofbetalactoglobulin(~65%),alphalactalbumin(~25%),bovineserum
albumin(~8%)(seealsoserumalbumin),andimmunoglobulins.[11]Thesearesolubleintheirnativeforms,
independentofpH.
Beingabyproductofthecheesemakingprocess,andlikelihoodofanimalrennetuse,wheyproteinaswell
ascaseinproductsmaynotbesuitableforconsumptionbylactovegetariansorobserversofkosherdietary
laws.Thereare,however,specialtyproducersofvegetarianapprovedwheyproteinproductsproduced
usingnonanimal"rennet"(enzymes).Theseproductsareoftenalsolabeledaskosherandhalalapproved.
Theaminoacidcysteineinwheyproteinisasubstrateforthesynthesisofglutathioneinthebodywhichis
anubiquitouscellularantioxidantlaboratoryexperimentshavesuggestedthatwheyproteinandits
componentsmightreducetheriskofcancerinanimals,suggestinganavenueforfuturemedical
research.[12]

Majorforms
Wheyproteintypicallycomesinfourmajorforms:concentrate(WPC),isolate(WPI),hydrolysate(WPH)
andNativeWhey.
Concentrateshavetypicallyalow(butstillsignificant)leveloffatandcholesterolbut,ingeneral,
comparedtotheotherformsofwheyprotein,havehigherlevelsofbioactivecompounds,and
carbohydratesintheformoflactosetheyare29%89%proteinbyweight.
Isolatesareprocessedtoremovethefat,andlactose,butareusuallylowerinbioactivatedcompounds
aswelltheyare90%+proteinbyweight.Likewheyproteinconcentrates,wheyproteinisolates
aremildtoslightlymilkyintaste.
Hydrolysatesarewheyproteinsthatarepredigestedandpartiallyhydrolyzedforthepurposeofeasier
metabolizing,buttheircostisgenerallyhigher.[6]Highlyhydrolysedwheymaybelessallergenic
thanotherformsofwhey.[8]
Nativewheyprotein,thepurestformofwheyproteinwhichhasbeenextractedfromskimmilkand
notabyproductofcheeseproduction,producedasaconcentrateandisolate.

Healtheffects
Theuseofwheyproteinasasourceofaminoacidsanditseffectonreducingtherisksofdiseasessuchas
heartdisease,canceranddiabeteshasbeenthefocusofongoingresearchasof2007.[13]Wheyisan
abundantsourceofbranchedchainaminoacids(BCAAs),[14]whichareusedtostimulateprotein
synthesis.[15]Whenleucineisingestedinhighamounts,suchaswithwheyproteinsupplementation,there
isgreaterstimulationofproteinsynthesis,whichmayspeedrecoveryandadaptationtostress(exercise).[16]
Wheyhasapproximatelythreegramsofleucineperservingandthethresholdforoptimalproteinsynthesis
isthreegrams.[17]
Aswithotherformsofprotein,consumptionofwheyproteinshortlyaftervigorousexercisecanboost
musclehypertrophy.[18]
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Scientificevidencehasshownthatproteinshighinessentialaminoacids(EAA),branchedchainamino
acids(BCAA),andparticularlyleucine(Leu)areassociatedwithincreasedmuscleproteinsynthesis,
weightloss,bodyfatloss,anddecreasedplasmainsulinandtriglycerideprofile.[19]AstudydonebyHulmi
etal(2009)hadsubjectseitherconsumeawheyproteindrinkorplacebo,theresultsshowedthatthewhey
proteinsamplehadathreepercentincreaseinthecrosssectionareaofthevastuslateralismuscleandafive
percentincreaseinthemuscleforceoftheisometriclegextension.Howevertherewasnoconvincing
evidencethatcomparativeupperbodymusclemassorstrengthwasincreasednorwasthereanysignificant
increaseinquadricepsfemorisotherthanthevastuslateralis.[17]

References
1. Marshall,K(2004)."Therapeuticapplicationsofwheyprotein".AlternativeMedicineReview9(2):136156.
PMID15253675(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15253675).
2. WalJM(November2004)."Bovinemilkallergenicity".Ann.AllergyAsthmaImmunol.93(5Suppl3):S211.
doi:10.1016/S10811206(10)617267(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS10811206%2810%29617267).
PMID15562868(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15562868).
3. BurksW,HelmR,StanleyS,BannonGA(June2001)."Foodallergens".CurrOpinAllergyClinImmunol1
(3):2438.doi:10.1097/01.all.0000011021.73682.01
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1097%2F01.all.0000011021.73682.01).PMID11964696
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11964696).
4. Spurlock,D."IsolationandIdentificationofCaseinFromMilkCourseNotes"
(http://homepages.ius.edu/dspurloc/c122/casein.htm).Retrieved27June2014.
5. "Whey."TheEncyclopdiaBritannica.15thed.1994
6. Foegeding,EADavis,JPDoucet,DMcGuffey,MK(2002)."Advancesinmodifyingandunderstandingwhey
proteinfunctionality".TrendsinFoodScience&Technology13(5):1519.doi:10.1016/S09242244(02)001115
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS09242244%2802%29001115).
7. TunickMH(2008)."WheyProteinProductionandUtilization.".InOnwulataCI,HuthPJ.Wheyprocessing,
functionalityandhealthbenefits(http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?
seq_no_115=209388)(abstract).Ames,Iowa:BlackwellPublishingIFTPress.pp.113.
8. LeeYH(November1992)."Foodprocessingapproachestoalteringallergenicpotentialofmilkbasedformula.".
J.Pediatr.121(5Pt2):S4750.doi:10.1016/S00223476(05)814064(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS0022
3476%2805%29814064).PMID1447634(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1447634).
9. JayR.HoffmanandMichaelJ.Falvo(2004)."ProteinWhichisbest?".JournalofSportsScienceandMedicine
(3):118130.
10. LuhovyyBL,AkhavanT,AndersonGH(2007)."Wheyproteinsintheregulationoffoodintakeandsatiety"
(http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/26/6/704S).JournaloftheAmericanCollegeofNutrition26(6):704S
712S.doi:10.1080/07315724.2007.10719651(https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F07315724.2007.10719651).
PMID18187437(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18187437).
11. HaugA,HstmarkAT,HarstadOM,AHstmark,ATHarstad,OM(25September2007)."Bovinemilkin
humannutritionareview"(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2039733).LipidsHealthDis6:25.
doi:10.1186/1476511X625(https://dx.doi.org/10.1186%2F1476511X625).PMC2039733
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2039733).PMID17894873
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17894873).
12. P.W.Parodi(2007)."ARoleforMilkProteinsandtheirPeptidesinCancerPrevention"
(http://www.benthamdirect.org/pages/content.php?CPD/2007/00000013/00000008/0005B.SGM).Current
PharmaceuticalDesign13(8):813828.doi:10.2174/138161207780363059
(https://dx.doi.org/10.2174%2F138161207780363059).ISSN18734286(https://www.worldcat.org/issn/1873
4286).

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13. KrissansenGW(December2007)."Emerginghealthpropertiesofwheyproteinsandtheirclinicalimplications"
(http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/26/6/713S).JAmCollNutr26(6):713S23S.
doi:10.1080/07315724.2007.10719652(https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F07315724.2007.10719652).
PMID18187438(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18187438).
14. RieuI,BalageM,SornetCetal.(April2007)."Increasedavailabilityofleucinewithleucinerichwheyproteins
improvespostprandialmuscleproteinsynthesisinagingrats"(http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0899
9007(07)00007X).Nutrition23(4):32331.doi:10.1016/j.nut.2006.12.013
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.nut.2006.12.013).PMID17367997
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367997).
15. KimballScottJefferson,LS(2006)."SignalingPathwaysandMolecularMechanismsthroughwhichBranched
ChainAminoAcidsMediateTranslationalControlofProteinSynthesis"
(http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/136/1/227S).TheJournalofNutrition136(1):227S31S.
PMID16365087(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16365087).
16. HaE,ZemelMB(May2003)."Functionalpropertiesofwhey,wheycomponents,andessentialaminoacids:
mechanismsunderlyinghealthbenefitsforactivepeople(review)".J.Nutr.Biochem.14(5):2518.
doi:10.1016/S09552863(03)000305(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS09552863%2803%29000305).
PMID12832028(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832028).
17. Hulmi,J.J.Kovanen,V.Selnne,H.Kraemer,W.J.Hkkinen,K.Mero,A.A.(2009)."Acuteandlong
termeffectsofresistanceexercisewithorwithoutproteiningestiononmusclehypertrophyandgeneexpression"
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18661258).AminoAcids37(2):297308.doi:10.1007/s0072600801506
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs0072600801506).""ThechangeoftheaverageQFCSAwashigherinthe
proteingroup(9.97.4%)comparedtoplacebo(7.54.8%)butthedifferencedidnotreachstatistical
significance(P[0.05)....TheaverageincreaseintheVLmuscle(VL14)wassignificantlyhigherintheprotein
group(relativeincrease:14.86.8%)comparedtotheplacebo(11.25.6%)(P\0.05)....However,comparedto
thecontrolgroup(8.09.5%,P[0.05),isometriclegextensionincreasedsignificantlyonlyintheproteingroup
(arelativeincreaseof24.312.3%,differencebetweenthegroupsP=0.02),whereastheincreasewasnot
significantintheplacebogroup(19.315.5%,P=0.23)."
18. PhillipsSM(February2011)."Thescienceofmusclehypertrophy:makingdietaryproteincount".ProcNutrSoc
(Review)70(1):1003.doi:10.1017/S002966511000399X
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1017%2FS002966511000399X).PMID21092368
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21092368).
19. Etzel."Manufactureanduseofdairyproteinfractions".J.Nutr.134:996S1002S.

Externallinks
Wheyproteinresources
(http://www.nationaldairycouncil.org/EducationMaterials/HealthProfessionalsEducationKits/Pages/
WheyProtein.aspx),NationalDairyCouncil
WheyProteinHealthnotes(http://myhealth.ucsd.edu/library/healthguide/enus/Cam/topic.asp?
hwid=hn2933008),UniversityofCalifornia,SanDiego
Whatdoessciencesayaboutwheyproteinandmusclebuilding?
(http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1818.htm),EuropeanFoodSafetyAuthorityonwhey
proteinclaims
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Whey_protein&oldid=680496656"
Categories: Bodybuildingsupplements Dietarysupplements Proteins
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon11September2015,at06:18.
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