Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

We compare two entities.

Number of
Syllables

1 SYLLABLE
2 SYLLABLES
ending in Y
2 or more
SYLLABLES

How to form the comparative


We add +ER (than) to the
adjective *

Y > IER (than)

MORE _________________ (than)

Examples
nicer than
faster than
taller than
heavier than
dirtier than
easier than
more difficult than
more beautiful than

*Cons vowel-cons: we double the last consonant when adding the suffix.
big > bigger, thin > thinner

*Adj. ending in E : we only add R.


nice >nicer

good > better (than)


bad > worse (than)
far > farther / further (than)
clever > cleverer (than)
more clever than

narrow
quiet
simple

The sooner, the better.


The easier, the faster.
The more (people), the merrier.

(not) AS _______________ AS
NOT SO ___________ AS

LESS ______________ THAN

Before a comparative you can use:

much , a lot, far, a bit, a little, slightly

One entity standing out from a group.

Number of
Syllables

1 SYLLABLE
2 SYLLABLES
ending in Y
2 or more
SYLLABLES

How to form the superlative

the _____________EST

the _____________Y > IEST

the most ___________________

Examples
the nicest
the tallest
the fastest
the heaviest
the dirtiest
the easiest
the most difficult
the most beautiful

THE LEAST __________________.


good > the best
bad > the worst
far > the farthest / the furthest
We can use a superlative followed by IN to delimit the
group of elements involved:
ex. Shes the most beautiful girl in the class.
We can often use PRESENT PERFECT after a superlative
to talk about a experience.
Its the best holiday Ive had.
Its the most difficult exam weve done.

If

__________________________

CONDITION

CONSEQUENCE

CONDITIONALS
Type Zero
Its quite possible, we base ourselves on something proven/happened before

Present Simple

If. Unless + Present Simple

1st type:
if the condition is given, the result is sure (80% sure)

Will / Wont VB
Imperative
Modal Verb

If / Unless + Present Simple

2nd type:
Imaginary, hypothetical.

If

Past Simple

Would / Wouldnt VB
Could/ Couldnt VB
Should/Shouldnt

3rd type:
Its too late, its not possible.

If

Past Perfect

Would / Wouldnt have + Past


Part.

MODAL VERBS
Some aspects we should take into account when using them:
1. Some of them dont behave as common verbs: They dont need
an auxiliary verb to negate or for questions and they dont need
the S for the 3rd person singular, for example.
ex. She can swim / she cant swim / Can she swim?

2. Some of them dont exist in all the verbal tenses or exist just in
one.
ex. Must, could, may, might
3. Some of them can have many functions depending on the
context:

MODAL VERBS
DEDUCTION
Im almost 100% sure.
(Present tense)
Im almost 100% NOT
(Present tense)
(Past tense)
Its possible.
(Present tense)
(Past tense and Conditionals)

must *
They must be brothers, they look alike.

cant *
They cant be brothers, one is much older.

couldnt
may / might *
(puede que, es posible/ podra ser que)
could (sera posible)

ABILITY
Present tense

can, cant

Past tense

could, couldnt

All the other tenses

Be able to

Especial use in all tenses:

manage

*Perfect infinitives for the PAST: have + Past Participle after the modal verb.
ex. It must have been raining. / He may have had some kind of problem.

OBLIGATION
Personal /strong obligation in present Aff.
Written formal rules.

must
ID must be shown at the entrance.
I must give up smoking.

Its necessary, external obligation.


All tenses!

have to
I have to wear a uniform at work.

Its necessary, external obligation.


All tenses!

need to
I need to buy the tickets before the concert.

NO OBLIGATION
dont have to / dont need to (All tenses!!)
neednt *
PROHIBITION
Mustnt *
Cant
ADVICE
Should, shouldnt *
Ought to, oughtnt to *

(Had/d better)