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Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

Journal of Asian Business Strategy

journal homepage: http://aessweb.com/journal-detail.php?id=5006

The Tax
Abdelhakim Handous
Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Management of Sousse, Tunisia

Abstract
The traditional fiscal policy of the nation is multidimensional. The traditional tax rates are variable
and the basis for calculating the tax on corporate profits is biased. The purpose of this article is to
show that the optimal allocation of resources in the economy tax rate is constant and is equal to
20% and the basis for calculating the tax on corporate profits is the accounting profit before
amortization decreased by the regulatory amortization of immobilizations, the dividend income,
reversals of provisions and deferred losses and increased by endowments to provisions and that of
the tax on personal income is their gross salary. It tells the truth that it is not tax other than the tax
on corporate profits, the tax on personal income and the registration fee.
Keywords: Tax, Corporate profit, Personal income, Registration fee, Amortization of
immobilizations, Programming in Turbo C 2.0.

Introduction1

and the fact generator of each of them and


can be analyzed in terms of two categories:

The tax is the money paid by the economy to

direct tax and indirect tax.

the State so that it compensates its employees


and finance the acquisition of heritage

Direct taxes include the tax on corporate

elements for the realization of socio-

profits

collective projects.

corporations, the tax on income securities,

or

corporation

tax

paid

by

the income tax of individuals retained by the


The traditional total tax collected by the State

employers on the gross salary of employees

consists of several basic types of taxes in

or paid by the owners of sole proprietorships,

accordance with the nature of the taxpayer

the registration fees paid by businesses and


individuals and whose fact generator is the

Corresponding authors email address:

transfer of ownership of heritage properties

Abdelhakim.Handous@FDSEPS.rnu.tn

designated by the State to the concerned


taxpayers, taxes on vehicles, the rental tax,
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Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

stamp duties disbursed by companies and

covered regulation, by an expert approved by

individuals and which generator facts are the

this one by a prescribed rate.

drawing up contracts and the issuance of


invoices, the travel stamp duty paid by

Buyers and heirs of real property, to which

individuals and glued to their passports,

refers the traditional regulation, must pay to

customs duties and other taxes.

the Recipe Finance and to the Conservation


of Land a transfer duty represented by a

The tax on corporate profits is obtained by

certain rate times the purchase value or the

applying a regulatory rate variable in time

value of reassessment by experts approved

and variable by the type of company or

by the State of these goods. Similarly,

activity of a company to a tax base

companies are subject to rights of transfer of

represented by the annual accounting profit

ownership of a certain percentage of the

plus reinstatements of charges and minus

value of contributions in kind that are made

deductions of products in compliance with

to them by their owners in favor of the

tax regulations.

Conservation of Land.

The tax on income from securities is

Statutes of corporations must be traditionally

supported by the holders of these ones and

subject to the registration to the Recipe of

represented by the product of a rate by it or

Finance and the payment to this one by the

by the sum of the products of progressive

latters of a registration fee that can be a fixed

rates by slices by them.

amount.

The tax on employees income is calculated in

The property rental by some companies are

accordance with a regulatory progressive rate

subject to the registration fee of a certain

by slice of income or fixed but not

percentage of the rent for a prescribed period.

necessarily equal to 20% of their gross pay


Customs duties are paid to the State by

which I will argue that it is the optimal rate.

importers of goods from the regulatory list of


Vehicle taxes are paid to the State by their

these ones and are represented by the product

owners and are fixed amounts that are based

of variable regulatory rates depending on

on their power (cars), the maximum number

these ones by their purchase value or of

of passengers (passenger vehicles) or the

revaluation.

maximum number of tonnes transported


Companies are traditionally forced by the

(freight cars).

State to retain periodically on the gross


The rental fee is supported periodically by

salary of their employees, so that they can

the owner of a building for the benefit of the

benefit of social benefits of health insurance

municipality of his region and is the product

and retreating pensions, an amount equal to a

of the value resulting from its revaluation, on

prescribed rate times this one plus the

the basis of the value per square meter

employer's share at a rate higher than this


155

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

one and to pay it to the State Social

reflect the severity of the recession and the

Insurance Organizations and an amount

fact that some countries have responded by

equal to a prescribed rate times this one and

reducing their tax rates.

to supply with it State incentive funds of


certain activities such as vocational training,

I will show in what follows that the optimal

competition, acquisition of housing etc..

tax can be the tax on corporate profits, the


tax on personal income and the registration

The indirect tax is the value added tax (VAT)

fee and the optimal allocation of resources in

beared by the final consumer of products and

the economy tax rate is unique and is equal

for which each company pays it to its

to 20%.

suppliers and then recovers it by charging it


The Optimal Tax Rate

its customers; if deductible VAT at the end


of a month is below the VAT collected, then
the surplus shall be paid to the State in the

The

economy

next month and if it is the converse then the

economic

VAT credit is reported on the VAT payable

agriculture, services and the State and if

or to be reported of the next month.

the rate of the tax collected by the latter of a


sector

The regulatory VAT rate depends on the

is

represented

sectors:

by

trade,

five

industry,

is

s realizing an annual tax benefit Bs

it maximizes

purpose of the company that acts as a tax


collector for the benefit of the State.

Bs
s 1

The list of taxes presented above is not


exhaustive and there are other types of taxes

and each sector maximizes

such as the wealth tax, represented by the

Bs 1 , then

the economy maximizes overall

product of a prescribed rate by the value of


an individual's heritage, certain taxes paid by

s 1

s 1

max Bs Bs 1

businesses to local authorities, various types

of deductions, penalties for delay etc.

such as
(1)

If is the optimal tax rate, then


*

Traditionally, tax rates, as set by the State,


may vary over time.
Some

studies

show

that

due

to

4
4

Bs Bs 1 *

s 1
s 1

the

progressivity of the tax scale in some

countries, the economic recovery has led to

* 4

an increase in the tax revenues faster than the


GDP (Gross Domestic Product), while other

their base. Lower ratios tax revenues / GDP


156

4 1 * * 0

1 * 4 * 0

countries rose their tax rates and / or expand

4 1 * * 0
3

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

1
20%
5

The

n 1

n 1

j 1

j 1

B j B j 1 *

second-order

condition

of

that is to say

4
4 1 * 12 1 *
2 4

B
B

s s
2
* 4 1 * 3
s 1
s 1

4Bs5 1 *

41 12
2

4Bs5 1 * 12 * 8 1 *
2

n 1

n 1 *
1
0
1 *

the

optimization program (1) is such that

4 1 *

* 1/ n ,

1 n 1
*

0 or

the second-order condition for

max ' in * is such that

*
*
2 ' n 1 n 1 n 1n 2 1

B
B

j j
2
2n 1 1 * n 2
j 1
j 1

and the replacing of

4Bs5 0,6412 0,2 8 0,8

n 3

* by 1 / n therein

leads to

10,24Bs5 0
n 3

1 1

1
n

2
1

n n
2 ' n 1 n 1

B
B

j j
n2

2
j 1
j 1
2n 11 1

The Dominance of the Optimal Tax Rate


There

is

no

contemporary

another

tax

economy

policy

realizing

of
as

economic equity than fiscal policy for

n2

2
1

2
n

n 1
n 1
n

Bj Bj
n2

j 1
j 1
1 1

optimum allocation of resources in the


economy because if the analysis is detailed to
reflect the interest of the sub-sector of
economic activities

j among n of the

economy, the optimization program (1) is


replaced by that such as
n1

n 1

n 1

j 1

j 1

1
B j B j n 2 2n 11
n
j 1
j 1

max ' B j B j 1 (2)

n1

n 1

n 1

n 1

1
B j B j n1
n
j 1
j 1

Even if

*
' n 1 n 1 1
Bj Bj

1 *
j 1
j 1

n 1

n2 *

n 1

if

157

n2

n 1 and B j 0 j 1, n 1 .

n2

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

Furthermore, it is possible that all

n 1B
nn 1

Bs are

positive, then all B j are not necessarily

positive, then all

Bs are necessarily positive,

this is what justifies that if


maximum at

, then

'

, then

admits a maximum

'

n 1

n 1

n 1

1
B1
n

1 B 1 1
1
n 4 5 5

n 1

1 B 1 1
B1
n 4 5 5

do not necessarily

4n 1

n 1

admit a maximum in this one because some

B j may be negative inducing ' * 0 .


In addition, if

1
1
n

admits a

in this one necessarily and if this one admits


a maximum at

1 4 B 1

n 4 5 5

n 1

n 1

positive but if these are possible to be

n 1

n 1

1
B 1
n

n 1

1
4n 1
n

B 1 1
B 1
4 5 5

n is very high for the same

sectoral profits, then the tax collected by the


State tends to be very low allowing that it is

4
1
1
'
n 1 n
5

exposed to a relatively high risk of


bankruptcy.

10

100
100
Since

, if B 100
10
5
and

1
n

1
5

'

n 10 5 , then
n

and

B B
, Bn5
n 5

1
n

1
when n B or
5

'

n 5.

Bn B5
5
nn
5

The IMPOT.C program, whose execution


shows that more B increases and more the
number of sub-sectors of economic activities

B n 1 B 4
5
nn
5
B

n

n 1

from which

* 1/ 5

is better than

1 / n , is such that:
*

/*IMPOT.C calculates the couple benefit B*/

1 B 1

n 5 5

/*sub-sectors of economic activities n which


the economy*/
158

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

/* is indifferent between rates tax of 1 / n and

that is to say

1/5*/

B 1* B 2* , while it is right

B 1* B 2* at least so that the State of

#include <stdio.h>

that

#include <math.h>

the economy 1 is just to finance its

main ()

additional collection of taxes activities from


economic agents relatively large.

{
float n=1, B, D1, D2;

The State is less a stakeholder in the sub-

printf("\n\nEntrez B :\n\n");

sector of economic activities

scanf("%f", &B);

than in its

sector of economic activities to justify the

D1=B/5;

superiority of

D1=pow(D1,5);

* 1/ n

because it is

reasonable that this one cashes annually one

do

fifth of the national profit than the one nth

otherwise how, if

D2=B/n;

n is very high, it must

finance socio-collective investments of the

D2=pow(D2,n);

nation?

n++;
}

That is to say that it is better that

while(D2/D1 < 1);

than

printf("\nn = %.0f", n-1);

* 1/ n

with

* 1/ 5

n 5 so that the State

subsidizes the economy if its revenues are

do

greater than what is necessary for it to realize

exactly its mission or just prevents to be not

D2=B/n;

able to realize it although it is possible it is

D2=pow(D2,n);
n++;

richer in the case 1 / n with n 5


and that the tax rate of optimal allocation of

resources in the economy must be the one

while(D2/D1 > 1);

that is the same across taxpayers both at the

printf("\n\nn = %.0f", n-1);

end of a fiscal year and through successive

printf("\n\nEnd");

fiscal periods so that the State develops in

printf("\n\nEnter 1 to exit the");

proportion to the economy.

printf("\nprogram\n");
scanf("%i", &n);

It can therefore only be reached that the

fiscal policy as

1/ n
*

economic

does not preserve the character of


justice

through

one that

universal

* 1/ 5

prevails over the

decreases over time inducing the


*

accumulation of unfair tax losses by the State

economies because it can be obtained that for

that freak for the economy if

a couple of economies 1 and

or that as

2 if

* is very low

* increases over time allowing

unfair gains by it at the expense of the latter

B1 B2 B and n1 n2 , then 1* 2*
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Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

in tax justice system represented by the

0,32768
Bs 1
0,84375

respect of the principle of the permanence of


the assessment method of

that is to say in
*

the context of just preserving economic

that

is

to

say

Bs 2,574

interests equally contradictory of this one and


of the four sectors of economic activities.

0,33 4 Bs 2 Bs 2 Bs 1 0,332 0,33

' 1 / n

2,370192 Bs3

being growing with

knowing why to choose


and

n and not

* between 1 / 6

0,2 0,33 implies that

1 / max n , the tax rate of optimal

0,32768 2
Bs 1
2,370192

resources allocation in the economy is 20%


because it corresponds to minimax

, '

that

is

to

say

Bs 2,689

and the State can subsidize the economy if it


realizes a tax surplus on its uses while that
corresponding to maximax

* 1/ n

with

, '

or

0,33 4 Bs Bs 3Bs 1 0,332 0,33

leads to

n equal to the number of

1,777644 Bs3

taxpayers and to the panic of this one.


It follows that

* 1/ n

with

* 1/ 5
n5

1 / 5 is better
n 5 because
*

than

0,2 0,33 implies that

is better than

1/ n
*

0,32768 2
Bs 1
1,777644

with

that

is

to

say

Bs 2,328

0,2 4Bs Bs4 1 0,24 0,2 0,32768Bs5

0,5 4Bs 4Bs 1 0,50,5 4Bs2

0,25 4 Bs Bs2 2 BS 1 0,253 0,25

0,2 0,5 implies that

0,84375BS4

0,2 0,25 implies that

0,32768 3
Bs 1
4

that

is

Bs 2,302
Neither
160

1 / 5

is superior to

to

say

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

s 1

s 1

endowment of amortization of its equipments

1 0,2 0,2 Bs Bs 0,08192


4

was analyzed by the accounting literature as


the depreciation of their acquisition values

4 Bs Bs 0,32768 B

5
s

needed to be offset by investments of their

s 1

renewal financed by availabilities of money


up to this one.

The optimal tax rate, that is to say the one


that must be applied by the taxpayers on the

But it turns out that since the distributable

tax base to obtain the tax they must pay to

profit traditionally to owners of the company

the State, is 20%.

in the form of dividends is

The Tax on Corporate Profits Base

Bd as

Bd B A B A a

The amortization of immobilizations is the


regulatory

monetary

value

of

B1 A1 a

physical

impairment for having used them and the


reduction of the result, represented by the

where B is the profit before amortization

difference between the monetary value of

A and tax, is the regulatory rate of profit

sales plus the change in inventories of

tax fixed by the State and may be different

products and that of purchases reduced of

from

changes in inventories of materials, needed

return on products to deduct from the tax

to obtain the gross of tax on the profit result

base in respect of regulation unfairly, the

after deduction of provisions which are

annual effective retention in regime of

values

stability

decreases

of

heritage

elements

1 / 5 and a the excess of charges to

of

on

the

profit

before

considered probable at the date of closing of

amortizations net of profit tax may contribute

the tax period.

to the financing its amortizable goods is

A1 a .

This is traditionally the product of that one,


plus reinstatements of purchases

and

Moreover, the monetary value of physical

provisions that can not be the subject of

depreciation of the investment can not be

regulatory justifications of deduction and less

accurately determined to be considered

certain products, by a rate fixed by the State

corresponding to its regulatory amortization.

hoping by varying it to regulate the economy


with a view to achieve what it calls the

On the other hand, companies could pay the

optimal allocation of resources in the

money of amortization of their equipments or

economy.

finance with it purchases of non-amortizable


heritage elements to be unable forward to

The reduction of the tax base to the profit tax

renew those ones or be forced to finance their

of the company represented by the profit

renewal by new equity or expensive loans

after amortization and before this one as the

revaluers with inflation of their acquisitions


161

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

prices

and

therefore

of

annuities

of

Besides economic injustice due to the fact

amortization later if not contributors to lower

that a company is allowed not to pay tax only

annual results as and when measure their

because his annual profit before amortization

repayment.

and tax is lower than the net value of its


investments even if its cumulated profits net

Furthermore, it is possible that the company

of its annual losses before amortization and

is just to be free or forced to relinquish

tax exceeds its cumulated investments from

storable goods over a year from the date of

the date of its commencement to produce

their purchase at the end of the exercise of

while another is obliged to pay the tax on the

which the tax is unfairly undervalued.

basis of the excess of its annual profit before


amortization and tax on the net value of its
From this stems the idea that there is no

investments even if its cumulated profits

economic

of

before amortization and tax net of annual

consideration that only goods deemed to be

losses are below its cumulated investments

kept more than a year in the business are

since the date of its entry into production, it

investments but are just being its investments

is not optimal tax rate having as taxable basis

goods it uses otherwise than to sell them in

the excess of cumulated annual profits net of

the state or after processing and are

annual losses before amortization and tax on

depreciable and only these ones are right to

the cumulated investment simply because the

be amortizable.

permission to the State to cash annually a fair

justice

in

the

matter

share of the profit before amortization and


The

amortization

of

investments

by

tax of the economy in form of tax and to this

businesses being not a question of recovering

one to cash a share or all of the excess of that

of a capital necessary to finance their

one on this one in the form of dividends is

renewal, the economy being deemed to have

preferable to banning this one to cash

paid to the State the tax on them prior to the

dividends until its cumulated annual profits

date of their realization, they are just being

net of cumulated losses are higher than its

necessarily deductible from the tax base of

cumulated investments.

those who exploit them as owners.


The change in method of determining taxable
Even if their producers pay to the State the

profit through the accounting years is

tax on the excess of their sale prices on the

contrary to the accounting principle of

costs of purchasing by them the factors of

continuity of methods and leads to non-

their production, the economy is deemed to

optimal allocation of resources in the

have paid the tax on their sale prices because

economy.

the costs of purchasing are included in their


sale prices and sellers of these ones are

The taxable amortization is the linear

deemed to have paid the tax on their sales

amortization, the progressive or declining

prices.

amortization is of allocational inefficiency of


162

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

resources in the economy and amortization

rate times the number of days between the

rates

date of this one and the December 31

of

tangible

and

intangible

immobilizations must be set by the State and


variable

through

different

types

included divided by 365.

of

immobilizations.

The State must choose between the perpetual


inventory method and the method of periodic

The ongoing immobilizations and financial

inventory for the accounting of economic

immobilizations are not amortizable.

transactions by firms of the economy and the


method chosen must not be replaced by the

The

additional

amortization

of

other method otherwise it permits the non

immobilizations reformed or exchanged is

respect of the principle of the permanence of

equal to the excess of their original value or

methods and leads to the non optimal

purchase cost on the cumulated amortization

allocation of resources in the economy.

at the end of the last year.


Companies of some economies are allowed
Unlike the traditional accounting regulation,

to choose a method among that of LIFO (last

lands are amortizable.

in first out), FIFO (first in first out) or


WAUC (weighted average unit cost) to

The

regulatory

of

evaluate the cost of purchasing goods or

traditionally

securities sold or in stock or of materials in

known variations in time which is contrary to

stock and the cost of production of products

the accounting principle of the permanence

in stock.

immobilizations

of

methods

amortization

rates

and

have

implies

non-optimal

allocation of resources in the economy.

The FIFO method must be used to evaluate


the cost of purchasing goods in perpetual

The amounts charged to the debit of the

inventory system and of securities sold that

account of fictitious assets "other non-current

must be charged to the credit of the stock

assets", centralizing formation expenses and

account of goods and of securities of each of

deferred

traditionally

them at the date of its sale and the result on

amortizable which is of allocational non

its sale is the excess of its selling price on its

optimality of resources in the economy

purchasing cost.

charges,

are

because must be amortizable at rates set by


the State only maintenance and repair costs

The result on a sale of a product of perpetual

activated of tangible immobilizations.

inventory must be the excess of its selling


price on its cost of production of FIFO.

If the investment is realized during the year,


then its amortization of the first year of its

The stock of goods, materials or securities of

use is prorata temporis that is to say it must

intermittent inventory must be equal to the

be its original value times the amortization

sum of the products of the physical inventory


163

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

quantities by the unit costs of purchases of

companies,

the

owners

of

sole

FIFO.

proprietorships and individuals employed or


not by these companies or firms.

The stock of intermittent inventory products


must be equal to the sum of the products of

They are the only taxpayers because they

physical inventory quantities by the unit

share the gains of the economy and are the

costs of production of FIFO.

users of socio- collective State investments.

Dividends received by a company from

The owners of companies and enterprises

another in the capital of which it holds

earn the profit before tax realized by them.

participations are deductible from the base of


the tax on the profit of the first because the

They cash dividends annually, which are

second is deemed to retain on its profit the

represented at the maximum by the profit

tax and remit it to the State.

before tax decreased by tax and reserves,


after paying this one possibly to the State.

The cumulated net loss of result of


disinvestment at the end of the last year is

The tax period for the tax on the profit is the

just to be postponed on the result of the

year because the maximum period for

current year.

agricultural activities is the year and there is


no

Subsidies received by companies must have

optimal

period

for

all

industrial,

commercial or service activities.

the effect to increase the result of the year in


which they were given by their economic

The tax on the profit can be liquidated during

environment.

the year following that at the title of the


profit of which it is determined.

The taxable profit of a company can be the


traditional accounting profit before tax,

Taxes declared to the State are traditionally

reserves and dividends plus endowments for

paid to it before certain regulatory time

provisions

limits.

and

minus

recoveries

on

provisions, dividends cashed and losses on


prior years or the cashed profit represented

Traditionally, the more the State increases

by the excess of cashed products over

the tax rate the more some taxpayers declare

disbursed charges including the amortization

to it less their taxable base that it is to say the

of

more they pay it less tax than he ordered

the

purchase

cost

disbursed

of

immobilizations.

them to pay what leads it to redress some of


them by forcing them to pay him a

The Liquidation and Use of the Tax

complement of tax on the basis of an audit of

Taxpayers of economic activities sectors are

their accounts or of the external signs of their

represented by partners or shareholders of

wealths.
164

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

If the taxpayer company does not have

transfer duty of 20%, must be fixed by the

enough cash at the end of the current fiscal

State.

year to pay the State the tax on the profit at


the title of the previous year, then the priority

Gains on sales of items of personal wealth, in

on the payment of dividends may be from the

excess of a minimum gain set by the State or

beginning of the current year given to the

concerning a list of regulatory elements of

settlement of the remaining tax on the basis

heritage, by individuals are subject to the tax

that the owners of this one must be paid by it

at the rate of 20%.

only annual dividends.


Subsidies or inheritances recipients are
Employees of companies or firms earn their

required to pay transfer taxes to the State

gross of tax earnings and of voluntary

before a deadline set by this one before

deductions.

which they do not have the right to give or


sell them and after which it can sell them at

They cash their net pay of tax, represented by

public auction to get paid in the case of their

20% of their gross pay, and of deductions.

insolvency.
This one must be withheld at the source and

The State must invest up to a share of taxes it

paid to the State periodically by their

collects in equipments for the exploitation of

employers.

public goods in respect of the same


feasibility conditions than those required by

The State must collect the tax on income of

the realization by the economy of its

individuals employed by companies or

investments projects and sell goods arising

businesses before they are cashing their net

from this one at market prices financed on

pay.

the basis of the equipment budget for the


production of public goods.

Subsidies and inheritances received by


individuals are subject to transfer duty of

It must deduct on this one the necessary

20% of their value, which must not be

amounts to finance the maintenance and

greater than or equal to a minimum value set

renewal of equipments for the production of

by the State, paid by their beneficiaries to

public goods.

this one.
It is fair to be intended to provide subsidies
Assessment of subsidies and inheritances

to the economy.

must be done by experts approved by the


State.

If the tax is too low, then the State can


borrow or instigate the economy to possibly

The list of goods and services, received by

grant it subsidies.

individuals as subsidies subject to the


165

Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 3(7) 2013: 154-166

The State may, as it has traditionally done,

Ben

Ali

Z.

(1997).

The

Corporate

sell to the economy goods, finished products,

Accounting System, Printing Official of

securities or services.

the Tunisian Republic.


Bouchabou B. (1997). The Basis of the New

Traditionally, there are two taxation systems:

Accounting

the taxation according to the residence and

Editions, Tunisia.

the taxation by nationality.

System,

International

Grandguillot B. and Grandguillot F. (1999).


General Accounting, Gualino editor, 3rd

Although in countries opting for the second


regime

taxpayers

have

tax

Edition, Paris.

credit,

Medini F. (1996). Financial Accounting,

represented by the tax paid as a resident

Research Center and Administrative

abroad, the first regime prevails because the

Studies, State Printing, Tunisia.

income from economic activities abroad net

Paysant A. (1999). Public Finance, Fifth

of tax according to the first regime is taxed

Edition, Armand Colin, Paris.

twice which is contrary to the principle of

Planche

optimal allocation of resources in the

A.

(1996).

Mathematics

for

Economist, Wiley, Paris.

economy.

Raulet C. and C. (2000). Management and


Accounting corporations, 12th Edition,

In addition, the company of the national

Dunod, Paris.

taxpayer resident outside is deemed to

Taxation, fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiscalit

benefit from socio-economic investments of

The

the State of its country of residence.

Tax

Policy

Analysis,

www.oecd.org/fr/ctp/politiquesfiscales/
Willie G. (1998). C Language, Micro
Application Pocket PC, France, 1998

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Business Management Collection, Tunis,

166