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2002 Pavement Design

Federal Highway Administration


June 2001

Thomas P. Harman
Asphalt Team Leader

Predicting Pavement
Performance
Pavements are designed to fail
But how do they perform?

Defining Performance
Structural vs. functional
Structural: load carrying capacity
Functional: ride quality and safety

Associated failures
Load: caused by traffic
Non-load: caused by climate, materials,
and construction

Performance Modeling
Input
Input Data
Data
Environmental
Environmental
Effects
Effects
Models
Models

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response
Model
Model

Distress
Distress
Model
Model

Material
Material Characterization
Characterization Model
Model

Performance
Performance
Predictions
Predictions

Our Project
State of Confusion
10 mile section
36 feet wide

Our Project

Materials
Environment
Traffic
Modeling
Performance Prediction

Material Characterization
Input
Input Data
Data
Environmental
Environmental
Effects
Effects
Models
Models

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response
Model
Model

Distress
Distress
Model
Model

Material
Material Characterization
Characterization Model
Model

Performance
Performance
Predictions
Predictions

Materials
2 layer system

Glooptonyte
Base

Materials Characterization
Response to. . .
Load

Materials Characterization
Response to. . .
Load,
Temperature

Materials Characterization
Response to
Load,
Temperature,
Moisture

Materials Characterization
Response to
Load,
Temperature,
Moisture, &
Time.

Glooptonyte

All Glooptonyte is the same


It is homogeneous, isotropic, and elastic
It is not effected by moisture
It is not effected by time

Stress (Load/Area)

Glooptonyte
100
80
60

40

20C
0C

20
0
0

Strain (Length/Length)

Material Characterization
Model
Modulus, E = Stress / Strain
Predictive Model

Does our model work?

Stress

Strain = Stress / E

100
80
60
40
20
0
0

Strain

Environmental Effects
Input
Input Data
Data
Environmental
Environmental
Effects
Effects
Models
Models

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response
Model
Model

Distress
Distress
Model
Model

Material
Material Characterization
Characterization Model
Model

Performance
Performance
Predictions
Predictions

Glooptonyte

Modulus, E

25
20
15
10
5
0
0C

20C
Temperature

Environmental Effects
Model
Modulus, E = 20 0.5 (T)
T is the temperature in C

Does our model work?

25
20
15
10
5
0
0C

20C

Testing the Model


25

E = 20 0.5 (T)
Modulus, E

At T = 10C

20

16

15
10
5
0

E predicted = ?

0C

10C
Temperature

20C

Inputs
Input
Input Data
Data
Environmental
Environmental
Effects
Effects
Models
Models

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response
Model
Model

Distress
Distress
Model
Model

Material
Material Characterization
Characterization Model
Model

Performance
Performance
Predictions
Predictions

Environmental Conditions

Temperature, C

30
20
10

Pavement

0
-10

Winter

Spring

Summer

Season

Fall

Glooptonyte Modulus, E

Environmental Effects
Model
25

EE == 20
20 0.5
0.5 (T)
(T)

20
15
10
5
0
Winter

Spring

Summer

Fall

Traffic
No more ESALs
Traffic input by
Vehicle type
Axle weight

Load Spectra

Traffic Conditions
State of Confusion
Unicycles only
Two loadings

Traffic Conditions
Category A Unicycle
Load, P
Pressure, p
Contact, a

750 lbs
60 psi
2 in

Category B Unicycle
Load, P
Pressure, p
Contact, a

a, contact radius p = P / ( r2 )

1250 lbs
100 psi
2 in

Traffic Conditions
AADT 600,000

Category B
AADT 400,000

AADT, (millions)

Category A

No
NoAnticipated
AnticipatedGrowth
Growth

1.2
1.0
0.8

Total

0.6
0.4

Cat A
Cat B

0.2
0.0
1

Time, years

Design Life
20 years
Total anticipated traffic:
Category A = 12 million
Category B = 8 million
TOTAL
= 20 million

Pavement Response
Input
Input Data
Data
Environmental
Environmental
Effects
Effects
Models
Models

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response
Model
Model

Distress
Distress
Model
Model

Material
Material Characterization
Characterization Model
Model

Performance
Performance
Predictions
Predictions

Pavement Response

To Load

Pavement Response Tools


Analytical solutions (e.g. Burmister)
Multi-layer elastic theory
Finite element analysis
2D, 3D

Hybrid methods

Analytical Solution
(Burmister)
Assumptions
= 0.5 (Poissons ratio)
E BASE = 1/10 E Glooptonyte

Surface deflection = 1.5 p a F2


E BASE

FF22==ff(a,
(a,EE22//EE11,,tt11))

Burmister

1.5
1.5 pp aa FF22
EE BASE
BASE

Glooptonyte, t = 8 inches
Category A Unicycle, p = 60 psi, a = 2
Summer time, T = 20C
E1 = 20 0.5 (T) = 10 ksi
E2 = 1/10 E1 = 1 ksi = 1000 psi
F2 = f (a, E2 / E1, t1 ) = 0.20 (from a Table)
Surface
Surface Deflection
Deflection == 0.04
0.04

Pavement Sections

44 inches
inches

66 inches
inches

88 inches
inches

Pavement Response Model


Season
Winter / Spring
(Tp = 0C)
Summer / Fall
(Tp = 20C)

E1 / E2 Category A Category B
psi
p = 60 psi p = 100 psi
4 = 0.03
20 / 2 6 = 0.025
8 = 0.02
4 = 0.06
10 / 1 6 = 0.05
8 = 0.04

4 = 0.045
6 = 0.038
8 = 0.03
4 = 0.09
6 = 0.075
8 = 0.06

Distress
Input
Input Data
Data
Environmental
Environmental
Effects
Effects
Models
Models

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response
Model
Model

Distress
Distress
Model
Model

Material
Material Characterization
Characterization Model
Model

Performance
Performance
Predictions
Predictions

Glooptonyte
Only fails in rutting

Pavement Distress Model


Empirical
Mechanistic
Mechanistic-Empirical

Empirical Model

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response

Traffic
Traffic
Loading
Loading

Pavement
Pavement
Performance
Performance

Empirical Model
Log ( P / B ) = C1 + C2 Log (N)
Where:

P , Permanent deformation
B , Burmister deflection
C1 and C2, Constants (-3.1, 0.5)
N, load applications

Performance Criteria
What is acceptable performance?

Rutting < 0.3 inches

Performance Prediction
Input
Input Data
Data
Environmental
Environmental
Effects
Effects
Models
Models

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response
Model
Model

Distress
Distress
Model
Model

Material
Material Characterization
Characterization Model
Model

Performance
Performance
Predictions
Predictions

Empirical Model
Rutting
Rutting

Session

Cat

N design

W/S

0.030

6,000,000

0.06

S/F

0.060

6,000,000

0.12

W/S

0.045

4,000,000

0.07

S/F

0.090

4,000,000

0.14

Log
Log (( PP // BB )) == CC11 ++ CC22 Log
Log (N)
(N)

0.39

Performance Prediction
Rutting, inches

0.40
0.35
Prediction

0.30

Criterion

0.25
0.20
2

Glooptonyte Thickness, inches

10

Performance Prediction
Input
Input Data
Data
Environmental
Environmental
Effects
Effects
Models
Models

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response
Model
Model

Distress
Distress
Model
Model

Material
Material Characterization
Characterization Model
Model

Performance
Performance
Predictions
Predictions

Models Calibration
Log ( P / B ) = 1 C1 + 2 C2 Log (N)
Where:
1 , 2 calibration factors

Measured Performance

Models Calibration
11,,22
*
*
* **
* * *
* *
*
*
*

*
*

Predicted Performance

National
National
Then
Then Local
Local

Performance Modeling
Input
Input Data
Data
Environmental
Environmental
Effects
Effects
Models
Models

Pavement
Pavement
Response
Response
Model
Model

Distress
Distress
Model
Model

Material
Material Characterization
Characterization Model
Model

Performance
Performance
Predictions
Predictions

Thank You