Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

# Lecture Notes

ME 269
Ayman El-Hag
DC Machine
Part no. 1
Basic principles and physical construction

1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

## DIRECT CURRENT (DC)

MACHINES Fundamentals
Generator action: An emf (voltage) is induced in a
conductor if it moves through a magnetic field.
Motor action: A force is induced in a conductor that
has a current going through it and placed in a
magnetic field
Any DC machine can act either as a generator or as
a motor.
1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

DC Generator Fundamentals
e = ( v B) l
e = Blv sin cos

## e = induced voltage, v = velocity of the conductor, B =

flux density and l is the length of the conductor

## " - angle between the direction in which the

conductor is moving and the flux is acting.

## \$ - smallest possible angle the conductor makes

with the direction of, the vector product, ( v B)
and for maximum induction, \$ = 0. Hence, e =
Blv for most cases.
( v B) indicates the direction of the current flow
in the conductor, or the polarity of the emf.
1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

DC Generator Fundamentals
Example: Find the
induced voltage for
a road with a length
of 1 m.
B=3T

V = 1 m/s

1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

## Generated Voltage in a Loop

(a coil of one turn)

## For emf to be induced, the

conductors must cut the flux
lines as they move.
Otherwise, ( v B) = 0.
eloop = eab + ebc + ecd + eda
eloop = Blv + 0 + Blv + 0
eloop = 2 B l v

1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

## Generated Voltage in a Loop

(a coil of one turn)

## Note: Induced voltages are always AC.

1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

## Generated Voltage in a Loop

(a coil of one turn)

1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

DC MACHINES
Real DC machine Construction

## Stator: Stationary part of the machine.

The stator carries a field winding that is
used to produce the required magnetic
field by DC excitation. Often know as
the field.

Field
Rotor

## Rotor: The rotor is the rotating part of

the machine. The rotor carries a
distributed winding, and is the winding
where the emf is induced. Also known
as the armature.

1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

Brush

Stator with
with poles

## DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES

DC machine Construction

## The picture shows the

stator of a large DC
machine
with
several
poles.

Field poles

## The iron core is supported

by a cast iron frame.

1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

DIRECT CURRENT
MACHINES
DC machine Construction

shaft.

## The end of the coils are bent and

tied together to assure mechanical
strength.

## Note the commutator mounted on

the shaft. It consists of several
copper segments, separated by
insulation.

Poles
Brushes

Rotor winding
Bearing

1/23/2004

Fan

ME 269 DC Machine

Commutator

10

## DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES

Ring

Insulator

Flag

DC Machine Construction

## The adjoining picture shows the

commutator of a large DC machine.

## The segments are made out of

copper and mica insulation is placed
between the segments.

## The end of each segment has a flag

attached. The coil endings are
welded to these flags.

## An insulated ring is placed on the

coil
ends
to
assure
proper
mechanical strength.
1/23/2004

Copper

ME 269 DC Machine

11

DC MACHINES
Generated EMF in a Real DC Machine

ZP
ZP
EG =
n = k gn =
= k m
60a
2a
Where
Z = total number of conductors, P = total number of poles
a = P for lap winding, a = 2 for wave winding, = flux,
= speed in rad/s and n = speed in rpm.
1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

12

DC Motor Fundamentals
F = ( l B )i

## F = induced force, B = flux density, I is the current passing

in the conductor and l is the length of the conductor

## R is a vector in the direction of the

flow of the current.

## (RB) direction indicates the

direction of force.

1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

13

DC Motor Fundamentals
Example: Find
the force for
a conductor with
a length of 1 m.

B = 0.35 T

i=2A

1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

14

DC Motor Fundamentals
Counter EMF:
When the motor is running, internally
generated emf, (EG = EC) opposes the
applied voltage, thus:

VT EC
IA =
RA
1/23/2004

## Where: VT = terminal voltage, Ec = counter

EMF, RA is the armature resistance and IA is
the armature current

ME 269 DC Machine

15

## The relationship between the

induced EMF and torque
Econductor = Blv
Tconductor = Blir
therefore,
E Blv v
=
= , v = r
T Blir ir
E
=
T
i

Ei = T
{
{
electric
power

1/23/2004

EI
ZP
T=
=
IA

2 a
T = k m I A

mechanical
power

ME 269 DC Machine

16

Example
A six-pole DC machine has a flux per pole of 30 mWb.
The armature has 536 conductors connected as a lap
winding. The DC machine runs at 1050 rpm and it
delivers a rated armature current of 225 A to a load
connected to its terminals, calculate:
A) Machine constant, Km
B) Generated voltage, EG
C) Conductor current
D) Electromagnetic torque.
E) Power delivered by the machine.
1/23/2004

ME 269 DC Machine

17