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Lecture Notes

ME 269
Ayman El-Hag
DC Machine
Part no. 1
Basic principles and physical construction

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ME 269 DC Machine

DIRECT CURRENT (DC)


MACHINES Fundamentals
Generator action: An emf (voltage) is induced in a
conductor if it moves through a magnetic field.
Motor action: A force is induced in a conductor that
has a current going through it and placed in a
magnetic field
Any DC machine can act either as a generator or as
a motor.
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ME 269 DC Machine

DC Generator Fundamentals
e = ( v B) l
e = Blv sin cos

e = induced voltage, v = velocity of the conductor, B =


flux density and l is the length of the conductor

" - angle between the direction in which the


conductor is moving and the flux is acting.

$ - smallest possible angle the conductor makes


with the direction of, the vector product, ( v B)
and for maximum induction, $ = 0. Hence, e =
Blv for most cases.
( v B) indicates the direction of the current flow
in the conductor, or the polarity of the emf.
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ME 269 DC Machine

DC Generator Fundamentals
Example: Find the
induced voltage for
a road with a length
of 1 m.
B=3T

V = 1 m/s

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ME 269 DC Machine

Generated Voltage in a Loop


(a coil of one turn)

For emf to be induced, the


conductors must cut the flux
lines as they move.
Otherwise, ( v B) = 0.
eloop = eab + ebc + ecd + eda
eloop = Blv + 0 + Blv + 0
eloop = 2 B l v

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ME 269 DC Machine

Generated Voltage in a Loop


(a coil of one turn)

Note: Induced voltages are always AC.


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ME 269 DC Machine

Generated Voltage in a Loop


(a coil of one turn)

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ME 269 DC Machine

DC MACHINES
Real DC machine Construction

Stator: Stationary part of the machine.


The stator carries a field winding that is
used to produce the required magnetic
field by DC excitation. Often know as
the field.

Field
Rotor

Rotor: The rotor is the rotating part of


the machine. The rotor carries a
distributed winding, and is the winding
where the emf is induced. Also known
as the armature.

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ME 269 DC Machine

Brush

Stator with
with poles

DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES


DC machine Construction

Dc motor stator construction

The picture shows the


stator of a large DC
machine
with
several
poles.

Field poles

The iron core is supported


by a cast iron frame.

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ME 269 DC Machine

DIRECT CURRENT
MACHINES
DC machine Construction

DC motor rotor construction

The rotor iron core is mounted on the


shaft.

Coils are placed in the slots.

The end of the coils are bent and


tied together to assure mechanical
strength.

Note the commutator mounted on


the shaft. It consists of several
copper segments, separated by
insulation.

Poles
Brushes

Rotor winding
Bearing

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Fan

ME 269 DC Machine

Commutator

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DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES


Ring

Insulator

Flag

DC Machine Construction

The adjoining picture shows the


commutator of a large DC machine.

The segments are made out of


copper and mica insulation is placed
between the segments.

The end of each segment has a flag


attached. The coil endings are
welded to these flags.

An insulated ring is placed on the


coil
ends
to
assure
proper
mechanical strength.
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Copper

ME 269 DC Machine

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DC MACHINES
Generated EMF in a Real DC Machine

ZP
ZP
EG =
n = k gn =
= k m
60a
2a
Where
Z = total number of conductors, P = total number of poles
a = P for lap winding, a = 2 for wave winding, = flux,
= speed in rad/s and n = speed in rpm.
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ME 269 DC Machine

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DC Motor Fundamentals
F = ( l B )i

F = induced force, B = flux density, I is the current passing


in the conductor and l is the length of the conductor

R is a vector in the direction of the


flow of the current.

(RB) direction indicates the


direction of force.

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ME 269 DC Machine

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DC Motor Fundamentals
Example: Find
the force for
a conductor with
a length of 1 m.

B = 0.35 T

i=2A

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ME 269 DC Machine

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DC Motor Fundamentals
Counter EMF:
When the motor is running, internally
generated emf, (EG = EC) opposes the
applied voltage, thus:

VT EC
IA =
RA
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Where: VT = terminal voltage, Ec = counter


EMF, RA is the armature resistance and IA is
the armature current

ME 269 DC Machine

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The relationship between the


induced EMF and torque
Econductor = Blv
Tconductor = Blir
therefore,
E Blv v
=
= , v = r
T Blir ir
E
=
T
i

Ei = T
{
{
electric
power

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EI
ZP
T=
=
IA

2 a
T = k m I A

mechanical
power

ME 269 DC Machine

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Example
A six-pole DC machine has a flux per pole of 30 mWb.
The armature has 536 conductors connected as a lap
winding. The DC machine runs at 1050 rpm and it
delivers a rated armature current of 225 A to a load
connected to its terminals, calculate:
A) Machine constant, Km
B) Generated voltage, EG
C) Conductor current
D) Electromagnetic torque.
E) Power delivered by the machine.
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ME 269 DC Machine

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