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Improved Climb

Performance
Performance Engineer
Engineer Operations
Operations
Flight
Flight Operations
Operations Engineering
Engineering
Tom
Tom Ruckman
Ruckman

November
November 2001
2001

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Improved Climb
What is Improved Climb?
How is Improved Climb Used?
Airplane
Airplane Flight
Flight Manual
Manual (AFM)
(AFM)
Operations
Operations Manual
Manual (OM)
(OM) // Flight
Flight Planning
Planning &
& Performance
Performance Manual
Manual
(FPPM)
(FPPM)

Operational Considerations
Other Methods of Improving Climb Performance
W004b. 2

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

What is Improved Climb?


Improved Climb is a tool available to the
Performance Engineer to optimize the aircraft
takeoff performance resulting in increased takeoff
weights.

V1 Policy
Flaps

Bleed

Improved Climb
W004b. 3

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

5 Factors Determining Performance Limited


Takeoff Gross Weight
1. Field Length
2. Climb
3. Tire Speed
4. Brake Energy
5. Obstacle

W004b. 4

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

5 Factors Determining Performance Limited


Takeoff Gross Weight
1. Field Length
2. Climb
3. Tire Speed
4. Brake Energy
5. Obstacle

W004b. 5

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Field Length Limited Weight


Weight at which following an engine failure just
prior to V1 the aircraft continues accelerating, with
one engine inoperative, and reaches a height of 35
feet at the end of the runway.

Available Runway Length

W004b. 6

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Field Length Limited Weight


Weight at which following an engine failure just
prior to V1 the aircraft continues accelerating, with
one engine inoperative, and reaches a height of 35
feet at the end of the runway.

35 Feet

Available Runway Length

W004b. 7

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Field Length Limited Weight

35 Feet

Available Runway Length

FAR Part 25.107 defines the minimum speed


required at the 35 foot height as highest of:
1.13*Vs1g
1.10*Vmca
Vr + acceleration to 35 feet

W004b. 8

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Field Length Limited Weight

35 Feet

Available Runway Length

Distance (S) = f{ a, V }
Takeoff Distance is f{ Thrust, Config, Weight }:
sets acceleration
sets V2 speed
W004b. 9

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Takeoff Weight Capability


To maximize Field Length limit weight:
- need large acceleration

Runway
Runway
Length
Length
Required
Required

- low Takeoff Safety Speed, V2

Flap
Flap 15
15
Field
Field Limit
Limit

Takeoff
Takeoff Gross
Gross Weight
Weight
W004b. 10

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

5 Factors Determining Performance Limited


Takeoff Gross Weight
1. Field Length
2. Climb
3. Tire Speed
4. Brake Energy
5. Obstacle

W004b. 11

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Climb Limited Weight


Weight at which following an engine failure just
prior to V1 the aircraft continues accelerating, with
one engine inoperative, and has the minimum
regulatory climb gradient capability upon reaching
the gear up point.

Available Runway Length

W004b. 12

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Climb Limited Weight


Weight at which following an engine failure just
prior to V1 the aircraft continues accelerating, with
one engine inoperative, and has the minimum
regulatory climb gradient capability upon reaching
the gear up point.

35 Feet

Available Runway Length

W004b. 13

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Climb Limited Weight

35 Feet

Available Runway Length

FAR Part 25.107 defines the minimum speed


required at the 35 foot height as highest of:
1.13*Vs1g
1.10*Vmca
Vr + acceleration to 35 feet

W004b. 14

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Takeoff Weight Capability

Runway
Runway
Length
Length

Flap
Flap 15
15
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit
Takeoff
Takeoff Gross
Gross Weight
Weight
W004b. 15

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Takeoff Weight Capability

Flap
Flap 11
Climb
Climb
Limit
Limit

Runway
Runway
Length
Length

Flap
Flap 11
Field
Field Limit
Limit
Flap
Flap 55
Field
Field Limit
Limit

Flap
Flap 55
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit

Flap
Flap 15
15
Field
Field Limit
Limit

Flap
Flap 15
15
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit
Takeoff
Takeoff Gross
Gross Weight
Weight
W004b. 16

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Climb Limited Weight


A Climb Limited Takeoff Weight results in not
using all the Available Runway Length

35 Feet

Available Runway Length


Actual Runway Length
Unused Runway
Length Available

W004b. 17

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Takeoff Weight Capability

Flap
Flap 11
Climb
Climb
Limit
Limit

Runway
Runway
Length
Length
Required
Required

Flap
Flap 11
Field
Field Limit
Limit
Flap
Flap 55
Field
Field Limit
Limit

Flap
Flap 55
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit

Flap
Flap 15
15
Field
Field Limit
Limit

Flap
Flap 15
15
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit
Takeoff
Takeoff Gross
Gross Weight
Weight

Unused
Unused Takeoff
Takeoff Weight
Weight Capability
Capability
W004b. 18

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Definition of Climb Gradient


Thrust
Weight

Drag
Lift

Climb Gradient (Grad) =


1 + Accel Factor
Where:

Thrust is How Much Push We Have


Drag is How Much We Have to Push
Lift is How Much We Can Carry
Weight is How Much We Have to Carry

W004b. 19

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Definition of Climb Gradient


Thrust
Weight

Drag
Lift

Climb Gradient (Grad) =


1 + Accel Factor
Thrust (Fn) is f{ Alt, Temp, Speed }
Drag is f{ Alt, Temp, Config, Speed }
Weight (Wgt) is a constant
Lift is f{ Wgt }
Accel Factor is f{ Alt, Temp, Speed }

For a given condition, Grad will vary as a function of Speed


W004b. 20

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Climb Gradient Terms versus Speed

Climb
Climb
Gradient
Gradient
Terms
Terms

11 ++ Accel
Accel

Thrust
Thrust
Weight
Weight
Drag
Drag

V
V22 Speed
Speed

Lift
Lift

Speed
Speed
W004b. 21

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Lift Coefficient Required versus Speed


22
Lift = CLRequired
*
0.5
*

*
Speed
Required

CLRequired
=
Required

Lift
0.5 * * Speed22

Lift
Lift Coefficient
Coefficient
Required,
Required, C
CLL Required
Required

V
V22 Speed
Speed

Speed
Speed
W004b. 22

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Lift-Drag Relationship

Drag
Drag Coefficient,C
Coefficient,CDD

C
CDD for
for
V
V22 Speed
Speed

Increasing
Increasing Speed
Speed

Lift
Lift Coefficient,
Coefficient, C
CLL

C
CLL for
for
V
Speed
V22 Speed

W004b. 23

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Climb Gradient Versus Speed

Grad
Grad

Best
Best Gradient
Gradient

Optimum
Optimum Climb
Climb Speed
Speed

V
V22 Speed
Speed

Speed
Speed

Increasing
Increasing Climb
Climb Speed
Speed may
may improve
improve climb
climb gradient
gradient capability
capability

W004b. 24

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Climb Gradient Versus Speed

Grad
Grad
Required
Required Gradient
Gradient

Weight
Weight 11
Increasing
Increasing

Weight
Weight 22

V
V22 Speed
Speed

Speed
Speed

Increasing
Increasing Climb
Climb Speed
Speed may:
may:
-- improve
improve climb
climb gradient
gradient capability
capability for
for given
given weight
weight ,, or
or
-- allow
allow higher
higher weight
weight for
for fixed
fixed gradient
gradient
W004b. 25

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Climb Limited Weight Without Improved Climb

35 Feet

Available Runway Length


Actual Runway Length
V1

VR

V2

Unused Runway
Length Available

W004b. 26

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Climb Limited Weight With Improved Climb

35 Feet

Available Runway Length


Actual Runway Length
V
V11 with
with
Improved
Improved
Climb
Climb

Unused Runway
V
V
V22 with
VRR with
with
with Length Available
Improved
Improved Improved
Improved
Climb
Climb
Climb
Climb

W004b. 27

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Field
Field Limit
Limit CRL
CRL
And
And Climb
Climb Limit
Limit CRL
CRL
With
Climb
Limit
With Improved
Improved
Climb
Climb
Limit CRL
CRLClimb
With
Improved
Climb
CRL
WithLimit
Improved
Climb
Climb
Limit
CRL Climb
Climb
Limit
CRL
Climb
Limit CRLClimb
With
With Improved
Improved
Climb
With
Improved
Climb
With Improved Climb

Actual
Actual Takeoff
Takeoff
Distance
Distance Available
Available
Engine-Out
Engine-Out
Takeoff
Takeoff
Distance
Distance

Climb
Climb Limit
Limit CRL
CRL

Actual
Actual Accel/Stop
Accel/Stop
Distance
Distance Available
Available
Accel/Stop
Accel/Stop Distance
Distance
W004b. 28

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Field
Field Limit
Limit CRL
CRL
Actual
Actual Takeoff
Takeoff
Distance
Distance Available
Available
Engine-Out
Engine-Out
Takeoff
Takeoff
Distance
Distance

Climb
Climb Limit
Limit CRL
CRL

Actual
Actual Accel/Stop
Accel/Stop
Distance
Distance Available
Available
Accel/Stop
Accel/Stop Distance
Distance
W004b. 29

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Field
Field Limit
Limit CRL
CRL
And
And Climb
Climb Limit
Limit CRL
CRL
With
With Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Actual
Actual Takeoff
Takeoff
Distance
Distance Available
Available
Engine-Out
Engine-Out
Takeoff
Takeoff
Distance
Distance

Climb
Climb Limit
Limit CRL
CRL

Actual
Actual Accel/Stop
Accel/Stop
Distance
Distance Available
Available
Accel/Stop
Accel/Stop Distance
Distance
W004b. 30

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Determination of Improved Climb Limited


Weight

Field
Field Limit
Limit Weight
Weight

Weight
Weight

00

Climb
Climb Limit
Limit Weight
Weight
11

22

33

44

55

Speed
Speed Increase
Increase
W004b. 31

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Determination of Improved Climb Limited


Weight
Field
Field Limit
Limit Weight
Weight

Weight
Weight

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb
Limit
Weight
Limit Weight

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb
Speed
Speed Increase
Increase

Climb
Climb Limit
Limit Weight
Weight
00

11

22

33

44

55

Speed
Speed Increase
Increase
W004b. 32

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Takeoff Weight Capability With Improved Climb

Flap
Flap 15
15
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit
Runway
Runway
Length
Length
Required
Required

Flap
Flap 15
15
Improved
Improved Climb
Climb
(Field
+
Climb
(Field + Climb Limited)
Limited)

Flap
Flap 15
15
Field
Field Limit
Limit

Takeoff
Takeoff Gross
Gross Weight
Weight
W004b. 33

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Takeoff Weight Capability With Improved Climb


Flap
Flap 11
Climb
Climb
Limit
Limit

Runway
Runway
Length
Length

Flap
Flap 11
Field
Field Limit
Limit
Flap
Flap 55
Field
Field Limit
Limit

Flap
Flap 55
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit

Flap
Flap 15
15
Field
Field Limit
Limit

Flap
Flap 15
15
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit
Takeoff
Takeoff Gross
Gross Weight
Weight
W004b. 34

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Development of AFM Improved Climb Limit


Weight Chart Format
Field
Field Limit
Limit Weight
Weight

Weight
Weight

Climb
Climb Limit
Limit Weight
Weight
00

11

22

33

44

55

Speed
Speed Increase
Increase
W004b. 35

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

AFM Improved Climb Limit Weight Chart


Format

W004b. 36

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

AFM Improved Climb Limit Weight Chart


Format

W004b. 37

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

AFM Improved Climb Limit Weight Chart


Format

W004b. 38

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Use of AFM Improved Climb Limit Weight Chart


Field Length Limit = 78,000 Kgs
Climb Limit = 66,000 Kgs

70,500
70,500 Kgs
Kgs

12.8
12.8 Units
Units

W004b. 39

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

AFM Improved Climb Speeds Chart Format

W004b. 40

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Use of AFM Improved Climb Speeds Chart

Speed
Speed With
With
Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Speed
Speed Without
Without
Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Improved
Improved
Climb
Climb Units
Units

W004b. 41

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Development of Operations Manual Improved


Climb Chart Format
Field Length Limit = 78,000 Kgs
Climb Limit = 66,000 Kgs

Field
Field Length
Length Limit
Limit Weight
Weight
Minus
Minus
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit Weight
Weight

Climb
Climb Weight
Weight Improvement
Improvement

W004b. 42

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Operations Manual Improved Climb Chart


Format

W004b. 43

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Use of Operations Manual Improved Climb Chart

Delta
4300 Wgt
kg

Delta
V1
16
knots

Delta
V2
15VR,
knots

W004b. 44

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

5 Factors Determining Performance Limited


Takeoff Gross Weight
1. Field Length
2. Climb
3. Tire Speed
4. Brake Energy
5. Obstacle

W004b. 45

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Tire Speed Limited Weight


Weight at which the maximum speed reached on
the ground does not exceed the rated speed limit
of the tire.

Available Runway Length

W004b. 46

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Tire Speed Limited Weight


Weight at which the maximum speed reached on
the ground does not exceed the rated speed limit
of the tire.

35 Feet

Available Runway Length

W004b. 47

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Determination of Tire Speed Limited Weight


Flap
Flap 55

Lift-Off
Lift-Off
Speed
Speed

Tire
Tire Limit
Limit Speed
Speed

Tire
Tire Speed
Speed Limit
Limit Weight
Weight

Takeoff
Takeoff Gross
Gross Weight
Weight
W004b. 48

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

AFM Improved Climb Limit Weight Chart


Format

W004b. 49

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

AFM Improved Climb Limit Weight Chart


Format

W004b. 50

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

5 Factors Determining Performance Limited


Takeoff Gross Weight
1. Field Length
2. Climb
3. Tire Speed
4. Brake Energy
5. Obstacle

W004b. 51

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Obstacle Limited Weight


Weight at which following an engine failure just
prior to V1 the aircraft continues accelerating, with
one engine inoperative, and the net flight path
clears all obstacles by at least 35 feet.
Gross
Gross
Net
Net

35
35 Feet
Feet

W004b. 52

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Obstacle Limited Weight


Obstacle limited weight performance with
Improved Climb is a trade between increased
takeoff distance and improved climb gradient
capability.
Weight improvement, if any, is dependent on
obstacle location.

Gross
Gross
Net
Net

35
35 Feet
Feet

Normal
Normal

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

W004b. 53

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Operational Considerations
Anti-skid must be operative and ON
FMS V-speeds are NOT valid
Operations Manual V-speeds are not valid without
making FPPM Improved Climb speed adjustments

W004b. 54

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Other Methods of Improved Climb Performance


Flap
Flap 11

Dial-A-Flap System

Flap
Flap 22
Runway
Runway
Length
Length

Flap
Flap 33
Flap
Flap 44
Flap
Flap 55
Flap
Flap 66
Flap
Flap 77
Flap
Flap 88

Takeoff
Takeoff Gross
Gross Weight
Weight
W004b. 55

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem
Airplane
Airplane == 737-400
737-400
Engines
Engines == CFM56-3-B2
CFM56-3-B2
Flaps
Flaps == 55
Slope
Slope == 0.5%
0.5%
Airconditioning
Airconditioning == Auto
Auto
Anti-Skid
Anti-Skid == ON
ON
OAT
OAT == 30
30 Deg
Deg C
C
Wind
Wind == 00 Kts
Kts
Altitude
Altitude == 3000
3000 ft
ft
Obstacles
Obstacles == None
None
V1/Vr
V1/Vr Ratio
Ratio
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 57,000
57,000 kg
kg
Field
Field Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 62,000
62,000 kg
kg
Tire
Tire Speed
Speed Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 69,000
69,000 kg
kg

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb Weight
Weight
Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
V11
Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
VRR
Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
V22

W004b. 56

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (AFM Format)

W004b. 57

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (AFM Format)

59,150 kg

6.2
6.2 Units
Units

W004b. 58

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (AFM Format)

W004b. 59

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (AFM Format)

60,150 kg

10
10 Units
Units

W004b. 60

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (AFM Format)


Airplane
Airplane == 737-400
737-400
Engines
Engines == CFM56-3-B2
CFM56-3-B2
Flaps
Flaps == 55
Slope
Slope == 0.5%
0.5%
Airconditioning
Airconditioning == Auto
Auto
Anti-Skid
Anti-Skid == ON
ON
OAT
OAT == 30
30 Deg
Deg C
C
Wind
Wind == 00 Kts
Kts
Altitude
Altitude == 3000
3000 ft
ft
Obstacles
Obstacles == None
None
V1/Vr
V1/Vr Ratio
Ratio
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 57,000
57,000 kg
kg
Field
Field Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 62,000
62,000 kg
kg
Tire
Tire Speed
Speed Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 69,000
69,000 kg
kg

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb Weight
Weight

59,150
59,150 kg
kg

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
V11
Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
VRR
Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
V22

W004b. 61

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (AFM Format)

148

154

146
W004b. 62

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (AFM Format)

153

156

161.5

W004b. 63

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (AFM Format)

170.5
W004b. 64

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (AFM Format)


Airplane
Airplane == 737-400
737-400
Engines
Engines == CFM56-3-B2
CFM56-3-B2
Flaps
Flaps == 55
Slope
Slope == 0.5%
0.5%
Airconditioning
Airconditioning == Auto
Auto
Anti-Skid
Anti-Skid == ON
ON
OAT
OAT == 30
30 Deg
Deg C
C
Wind
Wind == 00 Kts
Kts
Altitude
Altitude == 3000
3000 ft
ft
Obstacles
Obstacles == None
None
V1/Vr
V1/Vr Ratio
Ratio
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 57,000
57,000 kg
kg
Field
Field Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 62,000
62,000 kg
kg
Tire
Tire Speed
Speed Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 69,000
69,000 kg
kg

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb Weight
Weight

59,200
59,200 kg
kg

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
V11

153
153 Kt
Kt

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
VRR

156
156 Kt
Kt

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
V22

161.5
161.5 Kt
Kt

W004b. 65

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)

W004b. 66

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)

2075
2075 kgs
kgs
5.9
5.9 knots
knots

7.1
7.1 knots
knots

W004b. 67

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)

W004b. 68

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)

2850
2850 kgs
kgs
9.2
9.2 knots
knots

10
10 knots
knots

W004b. 69

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)

W004b. 70

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)

0.5
0.5 Knots
Knots

154
154 Knots
Knots

145
145 Knots
Knots
148
148 Knots
Knots

W004b. 71

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)

W004b. 72

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)

1.0
1.0

169.3
169.3

W004b. 73

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)


Calculation of Improved Climb Takeoff Weight
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit Weight
Weight
Climb
Climb Weight
Weight Improvement
Improvement

57,000
57,000 kg
kg
2,075
2,075 kg
kg

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb Takeoff
Takeoff Weight
Weight

59,075
59,075 kg
kg

Calculation of Improved Climb Takeoff Speeds


V
V11

V
VRR

V
V22
154
154

Base
Base Speeds
Speeds
Slope
Slope Correction
Correction
Improved
Improved Climb
Climb Correction
Correction

145
145
0.5
0.5
5.9
5.9

148
148
7.1
7.1

7.1
7.1

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb Takeoff
Takeoff Speeds
Speeds (knots)
(knots)

151.4
151.4

155.1
155.1

161.1
161.1

W004b. 74

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb

Example Problem (FPPM Format)


Airplane
Airplane == 737-400
737-400
Engines
Engines == CFM56-3-B2
CFM56-3-B2
Flaps
Flaps == 55
Slope
Slope == 0.5%
0.5%
Airconditioning
Airconditioning == Auto
Auto
Anti-Skid
Anti-Skid == ON
ON
OAT
OAT == 30
30 Deg
Deg C
C
Wind
Wind == 00 Kts
Kts
Altitude
Altitude == 3000
3000 ft
ft
Obstacles
Obstacles == None
None
V1/Vr
V1/Vr Ratio
Ratio
Climb
Climb Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 57,000
57,000 kg
kg
Field
Field Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 62,000
62,000 kg
kg
Tire
Tire Speed
Speed Limit
Limit Weight
Weight == 69,000
69,000 kg
kg

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb Weight
Weight

59,075
59,075 kg
kg

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
V11

151.5
151.5 Kt
Kt

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
VRR

155
155 Kt
Kt

Improved
Improved Climb
Climb V
V22

161
161 Kt
Kt

W004b. 75

Improved Climb
Performance
Performance Engineer
Engineer Operations
Operations
Flight
Flight Operations
Operations Engineering
Engineering
Tom
Tom Ruckman
Ruckman

November
November 2001
2001