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Completion Report for the Proposal for a

Bridge Design
Prepared for
Albus Dumbledore, CEO, Gryffindor Housing Co.
Prepared by
Viet Tran, CEO, Tran Mechanics

ran

echanics

Tran Mechanics
678 Evergreen Ter
Oklahoma City, OK 73099
(405) 555-6849
Viet@tranmechanics.com

June 7, 2015









Completion Report for the


Proposal For a Bridge Design

Executive Summary
On July 23, 2015 Tran Mechanics was contracted to ideate and design a bridge for
Gryffindors new housing and community development on Slytherin Lane in Yukon,
Oklahoma. In an effort to add a touch of beauty to the community, Gryffindor constructed
two large ponds with a small river flowing from each one. These rivers created
obstructions, which have disabled pedestrians to cross from one side to the other. In order
to complete its housing development and remain cost effective, Gryffindor requested
proposals for a bridge design from the countrys most innovative engineering firms.
Gryffindor Housing Co. required that the design of the bridge addressed and solved the
issues listed below:

They must span the four feet width of the rivers of the neighborhood.

The length must also account for possible erosion of the riverbanks.

They must also be corrosive resistant.

The width of the bridge should allow three average adults to walk comfortably side-
by-side.

Handle an evenly distributed weight of 600 pounds.


The work that was completed in order to meet the demands of the bridge specifications is
broken down into the phases below:

Phase 1: Research of Current Bridge Design

Phase 2: Ideate and Design Based on Research

Phase 3: Testing of Bridge Design


Tran Mechanics was able to successfully complete the tasks listed above ahead of schedule
on June 5, 2015 with a total cost of $3,250. We were able to complete the project with great
efficiency by not only finishing two days ahead of schedule but also decreasing the overall
cost by $450. Payment was received in full as soon as the project was complete on June 7,
2015 from Gryffindor Housing Co.

Completion Report for the


Proposal For a Bridge Design

Introduction
On July 22, 2015, Gryffindor Housing Co. awarded Tran Mechanics the contract to ideate
and design a bridge for its new housing and community development on Slytherin Lane.
Tran Mechanics began working hard on the project on July 24, 2015 in order to deliver
exemplary results. This allowed us to not only complete the project ahead of schedule, but
also allowed us to decrease the overall expenses.

Tran Mechanics researched and designed a bridge that met and exceeded the specifications
as requested by Gryffindor Housing Co. Through advanced research and development
methods, we found that an amalgamate of cold-forged steel and an alloy of wrought iron
and aluminum was the perfect material for this project. The strength and durability of this
amalgamate was tested using ASTM testing standards and plotted on an S-N curve. From
this information, we designed a bridge that was similar to the Pratt design. Our research
revealed that by adding additional beams to the trusses, the strength of the overall design
was significantly enhanced.

Methods
In order to provide Gryffindor with the most innovative and cost effective bridge design
possible for its housing development, we produced a four-phase plan to deliver one that
surpasses its guidelines and expectations. This is a culmination of research, design, and
testing in our advanced facility.

Phase 1: Research
Tran Mechanics conducted extensive research beyond its own scope of experience to
ensure Gryffindor receives the industry-leading design. Not only did we research for the
perfect design of the bridge, we also discovered the optimal material to use that save
money and is durable under applied loads. Using SolidWorks, an industry standard
modeling software, we modeled several designs and found which works best. We also
found the different materials yield strength, tensile strength, and also its rigidity and
toughness.

Completion Report for the


Proposal For a Bridge Design
Numerous tests and simulations were conducted in order to determine the optimal
material that fits with budget and strength standards. The following equations were used
to analyze the total strength.

The tensile stress can be found by the following equation:

= /

(1)

The extensional strain is calculated by:


= /!

(2)

The Youngs modulus of a material can be found by combining the two equations, giving the
following:
!

!/!

= ! = !!/!

(3)

And finally the force of each member can be determined by manipulating Eq. 3, giving the
following:

!"!!
!!

(4)

Where = tensile stress


= extensional strain

= Youngs modulus

= force

A = area

L = length


Phase 2: Design based on research
Several industry leading bridge designs were researched and analyzed such as the Parker
and Howe bridge designs, and were determined to be insufficient in strength. The design of
this bridge was created with inspiration from the Pratt Bridge. From this current design,

Completion Report for the


Proposal For a Bridge Design
we included internal beams to reinforce the trusses, which increased the overall strength of
the bridge. These beams carried some of the stresses away from the existing beams and
distributed it evenly throughout its members. This allows the bridge to significantly endure
constant loading, which also allows the bridge greater resistance to fatigue, and thus
ensures a longer life as compared to other designs.

Phase 3: Testing the final design
Using Tran Mechanics state-of-the-art in-house testing facility, we built a 1:1 scale size
model to fully test the design to its structural integrity. Our competitors scale down their
models for testing because they simply dont have the facility or equipment necessary for a
full-sized testing prototype. Because of this, their results will give a 9.2% margin of error
when compared to actual results.

We employed several industry standard-testing mechanisms such as the Wohler test to
determine the shear stress versus life and plotted it on an S-N curve for analysis. We also
used methods for testing the overall strength of the bridge design, which includes
incrementally applying loads to the bridge at specific points and determining where the
bridge failed at a certain location. We did this to ensure the safest possible location for the
bridge to fail and also to determine which member would supply the least amount of
structural support in order to enhance its strength.

Results
From the research that we conducted, we were able to conclude that an amalgamate of
cold-forged steel and an alloy of wrought iron and aluminum was the perfect material for
this project. The material properties were calculated and found to be as follows:

Table 1: Comparison of Material Strengths

Amalgamate
AISI Steel
Material Property
Strength
Material Property
Tensile Stress ()
4,400 psi
Tensile Stress ()
Extensional Strain ()
2.54
Extensional Strain ()
Youngs Modulus ()
3.55
Youngs Modulus ()

Strength
2,600 psi
1.45
2.31

Completion Report for the


Proposal For a Bridge Design
We tested the amalgamate for its ability to handle tensile stress, extensional strain, as well
as tested its Youngs Modulus and compared to AISI steel. The results are listed and
compared above.

Next, we then worked to design the bridge based on the research that we conducted. The
following is an illustration of the Pratt design that our design was based off of. From this
design we were able to improve upon the entire structural integrity, which gave us a final
design shown in Figure 2 below.

Figure 1: Pratt Bridge Design


Figure 2: Final Design Based on Research


From our 1:1 scale testing with repeated loading, we were able to plot the S-N curve for the
bridge design with the amalgamate as the material. The curve was plotted with the original
Pratt design made with AISI steel. The results are shown below in Figure 3.

Completion Report for the


Proposal For a Bridge Design


Figure 3: S-N curve showing stress vs. cycles

Conclusions
Based on our research, we discovered that the amalgamate of cold-forged steel and an alloy
of wrought iron and aluminum was able to withstand a tensile stress of 4,400 psi, where
the AISI steel was only able to withstand a tensile stress of 2,600 psi. This was about a 60%
increase in strength over the steel, a traditionally used metal for bridges. The amalgamate
also had an extensional strain of 2.54. This was 57% increase over the extensional strain of
AISI steel. Lastly, the amalgamate had a Youngs Modulus of 3.55, which was a 65%
increase over the AISI steel.

For the final bridge design, we chose to improve upon the design of the Pratt Bridge. From
our research, we found this design to be the most efficient at distributing the loads across
all of its members. However, the strength was not entirely suitable. From these results, we
were able to include our own idea into this design with the addition of additional members.
We included sway bracing to the top and also bracing to the portal struts. This dramatically
increased the strength of the bridge.

From our testing, we were able to plot the continuously loaded weight on the newly
designed bridge versus the number of cycles. From the results, we found that the bridge

Completion Report for the


Proposal For a Bridge Design
was able to withstand 50% more cyclical loads than the Pratt Bridge with AISI steel. The
design also began to level off with the additional load cycle without any loss of strength,
whereas the Pratt Bridge continued to decline.

Recommendations
From the project conducted, it was concluded that the design of Tran Mechanics bridge
effectively and efficiently caters to the needs of Gryffindors specifications. It is
recommended that this design be implemented into their housing development as soon as
possible in order for Gryffindor to stay on schedule with its plans. The amalgamate is both
adequate in strength as well as economic.

The design can hold a maximum distributed weight of 2,000 lbs, which far exceeds the
minimum specification as required by Gryffindor. It is recommended that no more than 10
average adults be on the bridge at any one time.

The upkeep and maintenance of this bridge is minimal, however it should be inspected
once every five years for corrosion or erosion from weathering as a safety precaution. Any
questions or concern should be directed to Tran Mechanics chief design engineer, Adam
Levine.

Conclusion
Tran Mechanics successfully designed a bridge that provided a solution for the pedestrians
of Gryffindors future inhabitants a way to cross the rivers. We did this by the ideation and
design using our most qualified engineers, which resulted in an effective and efficient
product. The work conducted by our staff led to a bridge that surpasses expectations with a
high strength capacity as well as being highly economic. The new bridge design was able to
handle 2,000 lbs as well as costing only $3,250, $450 less than expected. Tran Mechanics
has enjoyed the partnership with Gryffindor Housing Co. and would welcome the
opportunity for any collaborative projects in the furture.

Completion Report for the


Proposal For a Bridge Design

References
1. "Cable Tie Truss Bridges." Instructables.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2015.
2. Wikipedia. "Truss Bridge." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 8 May 2015.
3. http://www.efunda.com/formulae/solid_mechanics/fatigue/fatigue_highcycle.cfm