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Callum Lam

Chemistry: Unit 1 Exam Revision

Chemistry Unit 1

Chapter 1: How did chemistry begin?


Year
450
BCE
450
BCE
1600
s

Name
Empedocles

1661

Robert Boyle

1774
1785
1805

Joseph Priestly
Antoine
Lavoisier
John Dalton

1828

Berzelius

1869

Mendeleev

Democritus
Alchemists

Contribution
Proposed that all matter was made from four substances, water, air, fire and
earth
Suggested that everything was composed of minute, indivisible, indestructible
particles of pure matter.
Discoveries were made by trial and error
Discovered the elements: S, Hg, Fe, Pb, Cu, Sn, Ag, Au, P, As, Sb, Bi, Zn
He was the first person to define an element, as a pure substance and
compounds of being formed from a combination of elements.
First person to chemical isolate elemental oxygen
Law of conservation of mass matter is neither created nor destroyed, in a
chemical reaction.
Proposed that:
all matter is made up of tiny indivisible atoms
Elements were composed of many of the same atoms
Chemical reactions involves the rearrangement of the atoms
Each atom has its own unique weight
Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in reactions
Identified, purified, and prepared many of the chemical elements and hundreds
of compounds
Devised the idea of using letters as symbols to represent names of
elements
Calculated accurately the relative atomic masses for many elements
Period Law chemical properties varied periodically with increasing atomic
weights.
Arranged elements with similar chemical properties in vertical groups.
Arranged the elements in order of increasing relative atomic mass into
horizontal periods.
Left gaps in the table for as yet undiscovered elements.

Chapter 2: A particle view of matter


Year
1897

Name
Joseph
Thomson

1890
s

Marie Curie

1911

Ernest
Rutherford

1913

Niels Bohr

Contribution
Discovered the electron and therefore proved that atoms were not indivisible.
Cathode ray experiment after firing cathode rays through a tube, instead
of going straight through the tube they diverted out at a random angle. The
negative cathode rays could only have been repelled by a negative charge.
Therefore there must be negative particles inside atoms (electrons).
Plum Pudding Model an atom was a positively charged jelly-like sphere
embedded with negatively charged electrons.
Discovered Radium and Polonium
Identified the existence of unstable, elements that gave off energy called
radioactive
Radioactive decay emits alpha particles
Fired Alpha particles through thin foil, found that most pass through, but some
bounced back
Proposed:
Most of the mass of an atom and all of the positive charged, must be
located in the tiny central region, that he called the nucleus, where the
mass is.
Most of the volume of an atom is empty space, occupied only be electrons.
The force of attraction between the positive nucleus and the negative
electron is electrostatic.
Planetary model shows electrons revolving around a dense central
nucleus/mass however, it did not show shells
Suggested that electrons in an atom:
Circle the nucleus without losing energy

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1926

Erwin
Schrodinger

1932

James
Chadwick

Chemistry Unit 1
Could move only in fixed orbits
Emission Spectra heating an element causes the electrons to absorb
energy and jump to a higher energy state, when the electrons return to their
lower energy state they emit photons(light energy)
Bohr model electrons circled the nucleus in certain orbits of fixed energies
called shells.
Quantum Mechanics electrons were not restricted to a specific orbit, but
behaved like a negative clouds of charge found in regions of space called
orbitals.
Discovers the neutron, this helps to example hydrogen and Heliums atomic
weight.

The Nuclear Atom


Component
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
Isotopes
Ion

Description
Positively charged particles found in the nucleus
Negatively charged particles surrounding the nucleus
Uncharged particles found in the nucleus
The same element but with a different mass number, meaning a different number of
neutrons
Charged particles formed when an atom either loses or gains electrons.
Eg. Sodium atom =
Sodium ion

Cation
Anions

Alpha particles
Beta particles
Gamma
particles

it has 11 electrons, 1 valence electron not stable.


+

it has 10 electrons, it have a full outer shell, however its

needs to gain an
electron to return an atom.
Positively charged ions (metals)
Negatively charged ions (non-metals)
P+N are the Mass number, which is the protons plus neutrons.
P
is the atomic number, the number of protons in the element
X
is the chemical symbol for the element
Helium nuclei, positively charged, very reactive, and therefore can only travel a short
distance
Electron, relatively reactive, but will travel further than Alpha particles
Neutron, will not reactive, and will travel for the longest distance.

Shells, subshells and electronic configuration

The shell closest to the nucleus is of the lowest energy, and as the shell gets further away from the
nucleus, the shells become of higher energy.
Shells major energy levels in an atom, labelled 1, 2, 3 etc.
Subshells sub-level of energy within the electron shell, labelled s, p, d, f
Orbitals region of space around the nucleus in which the electron is found.
o Pauli Exclusion Principle Only a maximum of 2 electrons can occupy each orbital.
Electron
No. of
No. of
Names of
No. of
Max. No. of
Max. No. of
Shell
shells
subshel shell
orbital
Electrons in
(2n2)
ls
subshell
Electrons in
shell
K
1
1
1s
1
2
2
L
2
2
2s
1
2
8
2p
3
6

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Chemistry Unit 1
3s
1
2
18
3p
3
6
3d
5
10
N
4
4
4s
1
2
32
4p
3
6
4d
5
10
4f
7
14
Shells fill in a specific order: 1s<2s<2p<3s<3p<4s<3d<4p<5s<4d<5p<4fetc.
E.g. Bromine (35)
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5
1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5 rearranged into order
Ground state the state of an atom in which all electrons are in the lowest possible energy level
Excited state the state of an atom in which some electrons are in a higher energy level
First ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the valence electron of an atom
Limitation of the shell model, it does not explain:
Why electrons move in circular orbits
Why shells have specific energies
Why we need a specific rule to limit the number of electrons in each shell
M

Chapter 3: The Periodic Table

Periods horizontal rows, numbered from 1 to 7, elements in a period all have the same number of
shells
E.g.
Na
1s22s22p63s1
Mg
1s22s22p63s2
Al
1s22s22p63s23p1
Groups vertical columns, numbered 1 to 18, Elements in the same group have the same number of
valence electrons
E.g.
Li
1s22s1
Na
1s22s22p63s1
K
1s22s22p63s23p64s1

Blocks of Elements
Bloc
Part of Periodic Table
Similarities in elements (outer
k
shell)
S
Group 1 and 2 Alkali and Alkali earth metals
Outer shell will be s1 or s2
P
Group 3 to 12 Transition metals
Outer shell will be d1s2 to d10s2
D
Group 13 to 18 Non-metals
Outer shell will be s2p1 to s2p6
F
Lanthanides and Actinides
The f subshell fills progressively
Trends in Periodic Table
Property
Description
Down the table
Across the table
Atomic size
The diameter of the atom
Increase; more shells
Decrease; move protons
in the nucleus, means
increased core charge,
the outer shells are

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Electronegativit
y

The ability to attract electrons

Ionisation
energy

The energy required to remove


valence electron

Core change
(atomic
number)

The attraction between the


outer shell and nucleus

Metal reactivity:
Non-metal reactivity:

Decreases; the distance


between the nucleus and
outer shell electrons is
further.
Decreases, increasing
number of shells, means
the outer shells further
in distance from the
nucleus, and the
attraction force becomes
weaker.
Constant

Increase down the table

Chemistry Unit 1
attracted closer to the
nucleus.
Increases; the shells are
pulled closer by the
greater core charge.
Increases; increase in
core charge, shells
closer together, so it is
harder to remove the
valence electrons.
Increases; more protons
in the nucleus.

decreases across the table


decreases down the table

The octet rule is a simple chemical rule of thumb that states that atoms tend to combine in such a way
that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells, giving them the same electronic configuration
as a noble gas. The rule is applicable to the main-group elements, especially carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and
the halogens, but also to metals such as sodium or magnesium. In simple terms, molecules or ions tend to
be most stable when the outermost electron shells of their constituent atoms contain eight electrons.

Chapter 4: Relative atomic mass and the mole

Relative isotopic mass (RIM) is the mass of an atom of that isotope relative to the mass of an
atom of Carbon 12, taken as 12 units exactly.
o
RIM are detected by a mass spectrometer.
o Symbol = Ir
Mass spectrometer detests isotopes
o Number of peaks = the number of isotopes
o Height of peaks = the relative abundance
= abundance percentage

Relative atomic mass (RAM) the weighted average of the relative masses of isotopes of the
element on the Carbon 12 scale.
o Symbol = Ar
o

Ar(element)=

or

Finding the abundance Ar(element)=

where x is the abundance of RIM1

Relative molar mass is the mass of one molecule of that substance relative to the mass of a Carbon
12 atom, which is exactly 12.
o Symbol = Mr
o Mr = Ar(element)
The Mole the amount of substance that contains the same number of specified particles as there are
12g of carbon 12, it can also be defined as:
o 1 atom of carbon 12 has a relative atomic mass of 12 exactly
o 1 mol of Carbon 12 atoms has a mass of 12g exactly
o Symbol = n
o Unit of measurement = mol
Molar mass the mass of 1 mole of a particular element or compound, in general it is:
o The relative atomic mass of the element/compound expressed in grams
o Symbol = M

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o Unit of measurement = g/mol or g mol-1


Avogadros constant the number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12
o Symbol = NA
o NA = 6.022 X 1023

Chemistry Unit 1

N = number of particles
n = mol
m= mass in grams
M = molar mass (g/mol)
Percentage composition the amount of an element present in a compound

o
Empirical Formula the simplest whole number ratio of a compound
o Step one: record the mass (m) in grams or percentage
o Step two: divide the respective masses by their respective molar mass (M) or mass number
o Step three: divide them again with the smallest answer obtained in the previous step
Molecular formula gives the actual numbers of atoms in one molecule of a compound
o Divide the molar mass of the actually compound, by the molar mass of the empirical formula,
and multiply the answer through the empirical formula.

Chapter 5: Metals
The metallic bonding model:
Cations are arranged in a closely packed structure, described as a regular, 3D lattice
Ions occupy fixed positions
Outer shell electrons are not fixed and are free to move throughout the lattice, creating a sea of
delocalised electrons.
Metallic bonds the electrostatic attraction between cations and delocalised electrons.
Metallic properties
Property
description
Hard
The ability to resist force
High BP and
MP
Conduct heat

Temperature at which the


state changes.
The ability to allow heat to
flow through.

Conduct
electricity
lustrous

Ability to allow an electric


current to flow through
The shininess reflect light

Malleable,
Ductile

Ability to be shaped, and


drawn into a wire

Explanation
Strong electrostatic forces between the cations and
delocalised electrons make it difficult to separate the
particles.
Due to strong electrostatic bonds, large amount of
energy is required to break the bonds
The delocalised electrons absorb the heat energy and
become excited, and rapidly collide with each The other
transferring the heat.
The free moving delocalised electrons are able to carry
the charge.
The delocalised electrons reflect the light, or emission
spectra theorem
Strong multidirectional bonds, held together by the
delocalised electrons.

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Chemistry Unit 1
Alloys formed by melting two or more metals together.
o Generally stronger, but less malleable than constituent metal
o Substitutional alloy made from similar metal elements (chemical property)with similar atom
size
o Interstitial alloy made from small proportions of an element with smaller atom size
Work hardening hammering the metal to rearranged the crystal gains, to form a strong more
compact metal
Heat treatment using heat to change the properties
o Annealing metal is heated then cooled slowly, resulting in a softer and more ductile metal.
o Quenching metal is heated then cooled rapidly, resulting in a harder but more brittle metal.
o Tempering metal is quenched then annealed at a lower temperature, resulting in a harder
but not brittle metal.
Limitations to the metallic bonding model:
o Does not explain the range of melting points and densities
o Does not explain the differences in electrical conductivity
o Does not explain the magnetic nature of certain metals

Chapter 6: Ionic compounds


The ionic bonding model:
Positive metal ions (cations) and negative non-metals (anions) arranged in a regular lattice
arrangement
Bond forms when the cations transfer its outer shell electrons to the anions
Ionic bonds the electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged ions
Ionic properties
Property
Usually a crystalline solid
High MP and BP
Non-conductive in solid form
Conductive in
aqueous form
Hard
Solubility
Brittle

molten

or

Explanation
Ions are arranged in a repeating 3D pattern
Very strong bonds between the cations and anions, hence large amount
of energy is required to separate the bonds.
All particles are locked in; there are not free moving particles to carry
the charge.
In molten form, ions are able to slide pass and transfer the charge.
There are moving particles to carry the charge.
Very strong bonds between the cations and anions.
Water molecules move between the ions freeing them and disrupt the
bonding.
An external forces causes a layer to shift, this results in repulsion from
like charges.

Chapter 7: Covalent molecules, network lattice


Covalent bonding model:
Formed when non-metals bond, by sharing electrons
Involves two kinds of force:
o Intermolecular the weak forces of attraction in between molecules
o Intramolecular the strong forces of attraction within the molecules
Covalent molecular compounds:
o Liquids or gases at room temperature
o Low melting and boiling point
o Do not conduct electricity
Non-polar covalent bonds - covalent bonds in which the bonding electron pair is shared equally and
uniformly distributed between the nuclei of the bonded atoms
Polar covalent bonds covalent bonds in which the bonding of the electrons unequally shared and
therefore asymmetrically distributed between the nuclei of the two bonded atoms.

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Chemistry Unit 1
o Formed between atoms of different electronegativity
o The shared pair of electrons move closer to the electronegative end
o The higher electronegative end becomes slightly negatively charged o The lower electronegative end becomes slightly positively charged +
Non-polar molecules
o Molecules in which polar bonds cancel each other out
o Linear or tetrahedral molecules
Polar molecules
o Pyramidal or V shaped molecules
Intermolecular attractions:
Hydrogen bonding is the strongest of all the intermolecular forces, it occurs between two molecules
in which hydrogen is bonded to H N, O, and F. When hydrogen bonded with a more electronegative
atom, its electron moves closer to the other atom, causing a dipole, which is much stronger than usual.
Dipole-dipole bonding occurs when the positive side of one molecule attracts the negative side of
another molecule, it is present in all polar molecules.
Dispersion forces is the weakest of the intermolecular forces, it occurs when the nuclei attracts
electrons from the neighbouring atoms, all covalent molecular substances have dispersion forces in
between their molecules. Two factors influence the strength of the dispersion forces: the number of
electrons, the more the stronger the forces; the shape of the molecule, the closer the molecules the
stronger the attractions.
Covalent lattice:
Covalent network lattice An arrangement of atoms into a lattice in which there are strong covalent
bonds between the atoms in all three dimensions (tetrahedral), each atom is bonded in all four
surrounding atoms
o Examples: Diamond, Silicon dioxide
Property
Explanation
High BP and
The strong bonds only break upon extreme amounts of energy, and it decomposes
MP
instead.
Difficult to
In order to scratch, it is necessary to separate the carbon atoms, however due to the
scratch
nature of the bonds it is very difficult.
Brittle
When covalent bonds break, the lattice is distorted.
Insoluble in
All atoms are strongly bonded to one another in a strong lattice formation.
water
Non conductor
There are no mobile charged particles.

Covalent layer lattice A two dimensional array of atoms held together by covalent bonds. Weak
dispersion forces operate in between the layers. Each atom is bonded to three other atoms
o Examples: Graphite
Property
Explanation
High BP and MP
The strong bonds only break upon extreme amounts of energy, and it
decomposes instead.
Soft, flaky and slippery
Weak dispersion forces between the layers allow the layers to slide.
to touch
Metallic sheen
Light interacts with the delocalised electron..
Can conduct electricity
There is one delocalized electron in between the layers to carry charge.

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Chemistry Unit 1

Chapter 8: Compounds of Carbon


Hydrocarbons:
Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen molecules
Homologous series families of hydrocarbons with the same general formula but only differ by - CH 2
Carbon Prefix
Carbo
Prefix
s
ns
1
Meth6
Hex2
Eth7
Hept3
Prop8
Oct4
But9
Non5
Pent10
Dec Alkanes:
o Single bonded Saturated
o Suffix ane
o General formula: CnH2n+2
Alkenes:
o Double bonded Unsaturated
o Suffix ene
o General formula: CnH2n
o More reactive than alkane
Alkyne:
o Triple bonded Unsaturated
o Suffix yne
o General formula: CnH2n-2
o More reactive that alkene

Isomers compounds that have the same chemical formula, but different molecular structure (the
carbons are in different places)

Trends in boiling points, the more carbons and hydrogen the higher the boiling point, due to the
greater dispersion forces, the boiling point further increases when functional groups amine, alkanol or
carboxylic acid are added, because of hydrogen bonds.
Functional
Name of the group
Formula name
Group
Alkanol (-O-H)
-ol
Amine (N=H2)

Amino-

Haloalkane

Chloro-, Fluro-, Iodo-,


Bromo-oic acid

Carboxylic acid (-C=O,-O-

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H)
Alkanal (-H, =O)

Chemistry Unit 1
-al

Polymers:
Large covalent molecular substances
o
Usually tens of thousands of atoms
o
Formed by the joining of monomers, in a process called polymerisation
Addition polymerisation
o
Covalent bonds form between the monomers to form the polymer molecule
o
Addition polymerisation are suitable for unsaturated monomers
Thermoplastic means it can be heated again and reshaped, same as thermosoftening
Thermosetting means the shape will not change when heated, and it will decompose instead of
melting
Degree of branching
o
Branching is the amount of side groups that extend from the main chain
o
In HDPE the degree of branching is very low, it allows for the chains to pack closely together with a
stronger dispersion force and strengthen the chain overall, but is less flexible. The packed
crystalline regions scatter light greatly, increasing the obliqueness.
o
In LDPE the degree of branching is very high, as a result LDPE is much softer and flexible
Nature of side groups The side group like styrene (C6H5) is bulky and prevents chains from stacking
close together and forming crystalline regions (amorphous)
Arrangement of side groups
o Atactic has side groups randomly distributed, this prevents chains from stacking closely and
forming crystalline regions. Usually forms a soft and greasy substance.
o
Isotactic has side groups all on the same side, allowing for uniform stacking, resulting in strong
attraction forces and many crystalline regions, it does not soften or deform when heated and can
also form very strong fibres
Cross-linking
o
Extensive Thermosets are brittle and once formed cannot be remoulded and they do not soften
upon heating
When heated to a point, the covalent bonds just break and the polymer decomposes
The chains cannot slip pass each other, and when force is applied it shatters rather than
bend
o
Occasional Elastomers are materials that regain their shape after being manipulated (elastic
memory)
Small numbers of cross-links this stops the chains from slipping pass each other
extensively
The cross-linking pulls the chains back, to reform shape
Vulcanisation is the adding of cross-links to make something elastic
Copolymers are the combination of two different monomers
Plasticisers add flexibility to polymers, they are small molecules that fit between the chains and
hold them slightly further apart, this reduces the effectiveness of the intermolecular forces, making it
softer and more flexible.

Callum Lam
Chemistry Unit 1

Callum Lam 2010


This material may be edited for revision purposes, Parts sourced from Benny Pojer Materials
and Periodic Table notes.

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