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RS 240 Test #3

1. What happens to mAs when you reduce quantum mottle?


a. Increase mAs reduces quantum mottle
o S # of 600 to drop it from 600 to 300 you double the mAs
They are directly proportional
2. What is image receptor variability?
o Image receptor variability- you will not get the same exact
S number if you do the same image twice
3. What does Fluorescence mean?
a. Ability of phosphors to emit visible light ONLY when
exposed to x-ray with no afterglow
4. What is Phosphorescence? What does it cause?
a. The continued emission of light after the x-ray source has
terminated. This causes unwanted exposure to the film
The phosphorescence is called screen lag or
afterglow
This means that something is wrong with the
receptor if it occurs in analog
5. What does dropping/rough handling of the IR cause?
Screen- film contact
o Image receptors are subjected to rough handling, dropping,
etc
o Could lead to warping of screens resulting in poor screenfilm contact
o Exhibited by loss of recorded detail and areas of increased
density when viewed @6
6. How do we test this? When should it be performed?
o QC testing consisting of the wire mesh test should be
performed annually
When you suspect that it is not air or light tight
Look at mesh to see if there is an area that is darker
or it is more blurry
7. Why do you want it to be air tight?
o Want air tight so the emulsion of the film is in direct
contact from the light
Anatomy that is in the light from the screen to get to
the emulsion of the film
o Light tight so the film doesnt get fogged

8. What is a CR imaging plate? How many screens does it have?


o Similar to a conventional receptor expect it does not need
to be light tight
This is because there is not film in it
o Has 1 screen so you dont have the double construction
9. What does

a Conventional IR have?
Carbon fiber front
Polyester base
Adhesive layer
Phosphor layer
Reflective layer
Protective layer
Aluminum/lead foil for backscatter

10.

What

does a CR plate have?


Carbon fiber front
Polyethylene terephtalate (PET) base
Blue tinted antihalo and reflective layer
Reflective layer redirects radiation to film
BaFx: Eu2+ or CsBr: EU2+
Barium fluoride or cesium bromide
Barium fluorhalo is a powder
Cesium bromide is needle filaments
Cesium bromide is more condensed which
means there is better resolution which means
they dont diffuse light as much as powder
would
CsBr= always has better resolution
Lead foil for backscatter

11.

Which is better Barium fluoride or cesium bromide why?


Cesium bromide is needle filaments
Cesium bromide is more condensed which means there is
better resolution which means they dont diffuse light as
much as powder would
CsBr= always has better resolution

12.

Explain the process of a CR being read.


o Put plate in CR read, once its in it pulls the plate out. Neon
helium laser will scan plate as it moves through the system
in a left to right scanning pattern (raster) then top to
bottom every time the laser hits the phosphor it gives off

the image it captured, giving off


reddish color and you dont want
it go to through the reflective
layer which is what the antihalo
layer does
13.

When is a latent image formed?


Image acquisition and readout
o A latent image is formed when exit radiation is absorbed
by the PSP and the europium creates metastable electrons,
causing these electrons to excitate to a higher energy
level, where they become stored

14.

How many of the PSP are useless?


o During this process, approximately 50% of the PSPs
storage energy in F centers, while the rest will emit nondiagnostic light
F center- active part that stores radiation
50% of PSP are useless

15.

When will the stored radiation energies be released?


o Stored radiation energies will be released during the
readout phase when exposed to a neon-helium laser

16.

What is the line focus principle?


o Principle by which an anode target is constructed in order
to produce a smaller effective focal spot

17.

What is the blurriness in the outer part of the beam?


o Outer edge of radiation beam- penumbra- blurriness in the
outer part of the beam
o Effective focal spot is what is giving you the resolution

18.

What does angling the anode do?


o By angling the anode you can redirect the photons down
toward the patient

19.

What does a large focal spot do?


o Large focal spot will make more heat
o Smaller the number the better the resolution
o Manufacturer tells you the size of the effective focal spot
Test manually every year
Test for focal spot blooming- increases in effective
focal spot

20.

Why do we use grids? Where are they located?


Grids
o Used for all procedures requiring increased exposure or
kVp due to part thickness
o IT DOES NOT REDUCE SCATTER PRODUCTION
o Located in radiographic table and upright

21.

What are the primary functions of a grid?


o Primary functions
Absorb scatter
Coming from patient
Increase contrast
More scatter=less contrast

22.

When do you use a grid?


o If part thickness exceeds 10-12 cm
o If kVp exceeds 70
o For portable, stretcher, wheelchair chests, if thickness is >
26 cm
o Why is the thickness more when for a chest?
Due to air in the lungs/radiolucentness in the lungs

23.

What is grid frequency?


Grid frequency- the # of Pb strips/inch or cm (40/cm-103/in)

24.
What is grid ratio? Which one is more important? What
does it affect?
Grid ratio- height of the Pb strips in relation to the distance
between strips
o R=h/d
o More important than grid frequency!
o What is the ratio of a grid that possess 4mm lead strips
and interspacing of 0.5 mm?
4.0/0.5= 8
Grid ratio is identified as 8:1
Effects of density/radiographic exposure
25.
What does anything that results in less scatter being
produced or absorbs more scatter result in in terms of contrast
and density?
o Anything that results in less scatter being produced, or
absorbs more scatter, results in more contrast, but less
density

26.

What happens as the grid ratio increases?


As grid ratio increases, its scatter absorption efficiency
increases, but density decreases w/o compensation
o More scatter=more contrast=less density

27.

What are the three types of grids?


Parallel, focused, and crossed

28.
What is a parallel grid? What is an advantage? What is an
disadvantage?
o Parallel
Not in common practice
All lead strips parallel to each other
Get advantage because it can give you an unlimited
SID without having grid cut off because of beam
divergence
More primary gets absorbed by the parallel beam
Density goes down significantly
Minimal use in modern radiology departments
Primary advantage= unlimited SID use
Disadvantage=not as efficient as other grids
29.

What is a focused grid?


o Focused
Primarily in practice
Are most efficient than parallel due to canted Pb
strips that coincide with the divergent beam
Used in all modern radiographic tables and uprights

30.
What is a crossed grid? What does it do to mAs? Can you
angle the central ray? What does more lead strips mean in terms
of primary beam?
o Crossed
Designed by placing 2 parallel grids at 90 degrees
Crossed grids are most efficient design
Cannot angle the central ray in any direction
Require significant increases in mAs, and result in
excessive patient dose
Recommended with high kVp techniques only
Might see them in a dedicated chest room but
nothing else
The more lead strips= the more primary beam your
loosing

31.

What happens when you increase RSI?


More density= detail= dose

What happens when you increase grid ratio?


Contrast= dose

32.