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Autoimmune system




: Biology


: XI Grades


: Immune systems


: 90 Minutes

Subtopics : Immune system disorder



: To understand the functions of the immune system disorder


: Himawati Adiapsari

Immune system disorders vary from the unserious one, such as allergic, to the more serious ones, such as organ transplant rejection, immunodeficiency, and autoimmune disease.


Allergies are exacgerated(hypersensitive) responses to certain antigens called allergens. The Most common allergies involve antibodies of the IgE.Hay fever for instance, occurs when plasma cells secrete IgE antibodies specific for antigens on the surface of pollen grains. Some of these antibodies attach by their base to mast cells in connective tissues. Latter, when pollen grains again enter the body, the attach to the antigen binding sites og IgE on the surface of the mast cell. Interaction with the large pollen grains cross-links adjacent IgE molecules, including the mast cell to release histamine and other inflammatory agent from granules(vesicles), a process called degranulation. Recall that histamine cause dilatation and increased permeability of small blood vessels. Such vascular changes lead to typical allergiy symptoms: sneezing, runny nose, tearing eyes, and smooth muscle contractions that can result in breathing difficulty. Drugs called antihistamine diminish allergy symptoms (and imflamation) by blocking receptors for histamine.

(Source: Chambells 7 th ) Urtikaria
(Source: Chambells 7 th )
Autoimmune system 2009 HAND OUT Lesson : Biology Class : XI Grades Topic : Immune systems
Autoimmune system 2009 HAND OUT Lesson : Biology Class : XI Grades Topic : Immune systems

Reaksi Fotoalergik from Bramida

Autoimmune system



In some people, the immune system turns against particular molecules of the body., causing autoimmune disease. This loss of tolerance can take some many forms. In systemic lupus erythematosus, commonly called lupus, the immune system generates antibodies against histones and DNA released by the normal breakdown of body cells. These self-reactive antibodies cause skin rashes, lever, arthritis and kidney dysfunction. Another antibody-mediated autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, leads to damage and painful inflammation of cartilage and bone of joints (Figure 1).

Autoimmune system 2009 Autoimmune In some people, the immune system turns against particular molecules of the
Autoimmune system 2009 Autoimmune In some people, the immune system turns against particular molecules of the

Type 1 diabetes mellitus, the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are the target of the autoimmune cytotoxic T cells. The most common chronic neurogical disorder in developed countries ia an autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis. In the disease, T cells infiltrate the central nervous system, leading to destruction of the myelin sheath of that surrounds parts of many neurons

Gender, genetics, and environment influence susceptibility to autoimmune disorders. For example, members of certain families show an increased susceptibility to particular autoimmune disorders. In addition, many autoimmune diseases afflict females more often than males. Women are two to three times as likely as men to suffer from multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis and nine times more likely to develop lupus. There has been substantial progress in the field of autoimmunity. For example, we now know that regulatory T cells ordinarily help prevent attack by any self-reactive lymphocytes that remain functional in adults. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about these often-devasting disorders.

The immune system normally distinguishes self from non-self. Some lymphocytes are capable of reacting against self, but these are generally suppressed. Autoimmune diseases occur when there is some interrupyion of the normal control process, allowing lymphocytes to escape from suppression, or when there is an alteration in some body tissue so that it is no longer recognized as self. The exact mechanisms behind autoimmune malfunctions are not fully understood but pathogens or drugs may play a role in triggering an autoimmune response in some one who already has genetic predisposition. The reaction are similar to those that occur in allergies, except that in autoimmune disorders the hypersensitivity responses is to the body itself, rather than to an outside substance.

Autoimmune system


Multiple sclerosis

MS is a progressive immflamatory disease of the central nervus system in which scaltered patches of myelin in the brain and spinal cord are destroyed. Myelin is the fatty connective tissue sheath surrounding conducting axons and its destruction result in the symptoms of MS: numbness, tingling, muscle weakness, and paralysis.

MS usually start early and adult life and the disease is charecterised by a patchy pattern of disabilities, often with dramatic unpredictable improvements. There is a genetic component to the disease, as relativies of affected people are eight times more likely to contract the disease.

Exertion, Stress and Immune System

Autoimmune system 2009 Multiple sclerosis MS is a progressive immflamatory disease of the central nervus system

Many forms of exertion and stress influence immune system function. Consider, for example, susceptibility to the common cold and other infections of the upper respiratory tract, Moderate exercise improves immune system function and significantly reduces the ris of these infections. In contrast, exercise to the point of exhaustion leads to more frequent infections and to more severe symptoms. Studies of marathons runners support the conclusion of the exercise intensity is the critical variable. Such runners get sick lessoften than their more sedentary peers during training, a time of moderate exertion, but a marked increase in illness in the period immediately following the grueling race itself. Similarly psychological stress has been shown to disrupt immune system regulation by altering the interplay of the hormonal nervous, and immune systems.

Immunodeficiency Diseases

A didsorder in which the ability of an immune system protect against pathogens is defective or absent is called immunodeficiency. An inborn immunodeficiency results from a genetic or developmental defect in the immune systems. An acquired immunodeficiency develops later in life following exposure to chemcical or biological agents. Whatever its cause and nature, an immunodeficiency can lead to frequent and recurrent infections and increased susceptibility to sertain cancers.

Lupus Eritematosus Sistemik ( Bhs. Indonesia)

LES (Lupus Eritematosus Systemik) adalah penyakit peradangan kronik multisistem yg dihubungkan dg ketidaknormalan sistem imun. SLE berpengaruh pd kulit, persendian & membran serosa (pleura, perikardium), jantung, ginjal, sistem hematologi & neurologi (Lewis et al, 2004) Penyakit autoimun yang melibatkan berbagai organ dengan manifestasi klinis yang bervariasi dari yang ringan sampai berat .

Autoimmune system


Pada keadaan awal, sering sekali sukar dikenal sebagai LES, karena manifestasinya sering tidak terjadi bersamaan. Sampai saat ini penyebab LES belum diketahui ada dugaan faktor genetik, infeksi dan lingkungan ikut berperan pada patofisiologi LES Reaksi sistem imun terhadap antigen jaringan sendiri. Antigen tersebut disebut autoantigen sedang antibodi yang dibentuk disebut autoantibody. Dibagi 2 kelompok:

Kelompok ringan : panas , artritis, perikarditis ringan, efusi pleura / perikard ringan, kelelahan dan sakit kepala. Kelompok berat : Termasuk pada kelompok ini ialah : efusi pleura dan perikard masif, penyakit ginjal, anemia hemolitik, trombositopenia, lupus serebral, vaskulitis akut, miokarditis, lupus pneumonitis dan perdarahan paru.

Tanda dan gejala

  • Keluhan umum adalah demam, penurunan BB, arthralgia, kelemahan yang berlebihan.

  • Dermatologi

  • Lesi pembuluh darah di kulit dapat timbul di semua lokasi, namun paling sering di area kulit yang terpapar sinar matahari. Reaksi kulit yang berat dapat terjadi pada orang yang fotosensitif

Rush kupu-kupu
Rush kupu-kupu
  • Tanda rash kupu2 didaerah pipi, melewati area hidung dialami oleh 50% pasien dg SLE

  • Ulser pada mulut atau membran nasopharing tjd lebih dari ½ pasien dg SLE.

  • Umum terjadi: gatal pd kulit kepala & rambut rontok, kebotakan (alopesia) dengan atau tanpa lesi pada kulit kepala.

  • Rambut dapat tumbuh kembali selama masa penyembuhan, tapi kehilangan rambut dapat menjadi permanen di sekitar lesi.

  • Kulit kepala menjadi kering, bersisik & atrofi.


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Cambell et. all. Biology. 8 th ed. Pearson Benjamin Cumming. San Francisco. 2008. P: 106 109; 933 - 936

Jones,Mary et. All. Biology, As Level and A Level. Second edition. Cambridge University Press. 2007. P: 124-141