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A religion is any systematic approach to living that involves beliefs

about one's origins, one's place in the world, or a responsibility to live
and act in the world in particular ways. Religion is often equated with
faith and belief in a higher power or truth, but it is more commonly
defined in religious studies as the patterns that express that faith and
reinforce it in day-to-day living. One can share the philosophy of a
religion, believing in its higher truth, without manifesting that faith

Aspects of religion include narrative, symbolism, beliefs, and practices

that are supposed to give meaning to the practitioner's experiences of
life. Whether the meaning centers on a deity or deities, or an ultimate
truth, religion is commonly identified by the practitioner's prayer,
ritual, meditation, music and art, among other things, and is often
interwoven with society and politics. It may focus on specific
supernatural, metaphysical, and moral claims about reality (the
cosmos and human nature) which may yield a set of religious laws and
ethics and a particular lifestyle. Religion also encompasses ancestral or
cultural traditions, writings, history, and mythology, as well as personal
faith and religious experience.

The term "religion" refers both to the personal practices related to

communal faith and to group rituals and communication stemming
from shared conviction. "Religion" is sometimes used interchangeably
with "faith" or "belief system," but it is more socially defined than
personal convictions, and it entails specific behaviors, respectively.

The development of religion has taken many forms in various cultures,

with continental differences. Any case, about the roots, it considers
psychological by Sigmund Freud, philsophical by Ernesto De Martino
and social by Emile Durkheim, along with origins and historical

Religion is often described as a communal system for the coherence of

belief focusing on a system of thought, unseen being, person, or
object, that is considered to be supernatural, sacred, divine, or of the
highest truth. Moral codes, practices, values, institutions, tradition,
rituals, and scriptures are often traditionally associated with the core
belief, and these may have some overlap with concepts in secular
philosophy. Religion is also often described as a "way of life" or a life

Religion is derived from the Latin religiō, the ultimate origins of which
are obscure. One possibility is derivation from a reduplicated *le-ligare,
an interpretation traced to Cicero connecting lego "read", i.e. re
(again) + lego in the sense of "choose", "go over again" or "consider
carefully". Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell
favor the derivation from ligare "bind, connect", probably from a
prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re (again) + ligare or "to reconnect," which was
made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation of
Lactantius. However, the French scholar Daniel Dubuisson notes that
relying on this etymology "tends to minimize or cancel out the role of
history"; he notes that Augustine gave a lengthy definition of religion
that sets it quite apart from the modern word "religion.


The word "religion" as it is used today does not have an obvious pre-
colonial translation into non-European languages. Daniel Dubuisson
writes that "what the West and the history of religions in its wake have
objectified under the name 'religion' is ... something quite unique,
which could be appropriate only to itself and its own history." The
words used in other languages for similar concepts, such as dharma,
bhakti, Tao, or Islam, have vastly different histories. The history of
other cultures' interaction with the religious category is therefore their
interaction with an idea that first developed in Europe under the
influence of Christianity.

Religion and the body politic

A good understanding of the meaning of Christianity before the word

"religion" came into common usage can be found in St. Augustine's
writing. For Augustine, Christianity was a disciplina, a "rule" just like
that of the Roman Empire. Christianity was therefore a power structure
opposing and superseding human institutions, a literal Kingdom of
Heaven. Rather than calling one to self-discipline through symbols, it
was itself the discipline taught by one's family, school, church, and city
authorities.[8] At this point, too, the root of the English word "religion",
the Latin religio, was in use only to mean "reverence for God or the
gods, careful pondering of divine things, piety" (which Cicero further
derived to mean "diligence"). Max Müller characterized many other
cultures around the world, including Egypt, Persia, and India, as having
a similar power structure at this point in history. What is called ancient
religion today, they would have only called "law".
At this point, Western Europe and the rest of the world diverged. As
Christianity became commonplace, the charismatic authority identified
by Augustine, a quality we might today call "religiousness", had a
commanding influence at the local level. This system persisted in the
Byzantine Empire following the East-West Schism, but Western Europe
regulated unpredictable expressions of charisma through the Roman
Catholic Church. As the Church lost its dominance during the
Protestant Reformation and Christianity became closely tied to political
structures, religion was recast as the basis of national sovereignty, and
religious identity gradually became a less universal sense of spirituality
and more divisive, locally defined, and tied to nationality. It was at this
point that "religion" was dissociated with universal beliefs and moved
closer to dogma in both meaning and practice. However there was not
yet the idea of dogma as personal choice, only of established

Religious belief

Religious belief usually relates to the existence, nature and worship of

a deity or deities and divine involvement in the universe and human
life. Alternately, it may also relate to values and practices transmitted
by a spiritual leader. Unlike other belief systems, which may be passed
on orally, religious belief tends to be codified in literate societies
(religion in non-literate societies is still largely passed on orally In some
religions, like the Abrahamic religions, it is held that most of the core
beliefs have been divinely revealed.

Religion and superstition

While superstitions and magical thinking refer to nonscientific causal

reasoning, applied to specific things or actions, a religion is a more
complex system about general or ultimate things, involving morality,
history and community. Because religions may include and exploit
certain superstitions or make use of magical thinking, while mixing
them with broader considerations, the division between superstition
and religious faith is subjective and hard to specify. Religious believers
have often seen other religions as superstition. Likewise, some
atheists, agnostics, deists, and skeptics regard religious belief as
superstition. Religious practices are most likely to be labeled
"superstitious" by outsiders when they include belief in extraordinary
events (miracles), an afterlife, supernatural interventions, apparitions
or the efficacy of prayer, charms, incantations, the meaningfulness of
omens, and prognostications.
Greek and Roman pagans, who modeled their relations with the gods
on political and social terms, scorned the man who constantly trembled
with fear at the thought of the gods as a slave feared a cruel and
capricious master. Such fear of the gods (deisidaimonia) was what the
Romans meant by superstitio (Veyne 1987, p 211). Early Christianity
was outlawed as a superstitio Iudaica, a "Jewish superstition", by
Domitian in the 80s AD, and by AD 425, Theodosius II outlawed pagan
traditions as superstitious.

The Roman Catholic Church considers superstition to be sinful in the

sense that it denotes a lack of trust in the divine providence of God
and, as such, is a violation of the first of the Ten Commandments. The
Catechism of the Catholic Church states that superstition "in some
sense represents a perverse excess of religion.

Superstition is a deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this

feeling imposes. It can even affect the worship we offer the true God,
e.g., when one attributes an importance in some way magical to
certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the
efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external
performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand is
to fall into superstition.

Religion and science

Religious knowledge, according to religious practitioners, may be

gained from religious leaders, sacred texts (scriptures), and/or
personal revelation. Some religions view such knowledge as unlimited
in scope and suitable to answer any question; others see religious
knowledge as playing a more restricted role, often as a complement to
knowledge gained through physical observation. Some religious people
maintain that religious knowledge obtained in this way is absolute and
infallible (religious cosmology).

The scientific method gains knowledge by testing hypotheses to

develop theories through elucidation of facts or evaluation by
experiments and thus only answers cosmological questions about the
physical universe. It develops theories of the world which best fit
physically observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is subject to
later refinement in the face of additional evidence. Scientific theories
that have an overwhelming preponderance of favorable evidence are
often treated as facts (such as the theories of gravity or evolution).

Many scientists have held strong religious beliefs (see List of Christian
thinkers in science) and have worked to harmonize science and
religion. Isaac Newton, for example, believed that gravity caused the
planets to revolve about the Sun, and credited God with the design. In
the concluding General Scholium to the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia
Mathematica, he wrote: "This most beautiful System of the Sun,
Planets and Comets, could only proceed from the counsel and
dominion of an intelligent and powerful being." Nevertheless, conflict
has repeatedly arisen between religious organizations and individuals
who propagated scientific theories that were deemed unacceptable by
the organizations. The Roman Catholic Church, for example, has in the
past[37] reserved to itself the right to decide which scientific theories
were acceptable and which were unacceptable. In the 17th century,
Galileo was tried and forced to recant the heliocentric theory based on
the church's stance that the Greek Hellenistic system of astronomy
was the correct one. Today, however, only 7% of the members of the
National Academy of Sciences believe in a god.
Republic of the Philippines

Marinduque State College

Tanza, Boac, Marinduque





Submitted by:



Submitted to:



March 12, 2010

religious blends that have resulted,
when combined with the strong
personal faith of Filipinos, have
given rise to numerous and diverse
revivalist movements. Generally
Religion in the Philippines characterized by antimodern bias,
supernaturalism, and
Religion in the Philippines are authoritarianism in the person of a
spiritual beliefs held by Philippine charismatic messiah figure, these
citizens. Religion holds a central movements have attracted
place in the life of the majority of thousands of Filipinos, especially in
Filipinos, including Catholics, areas like Mindanao, which have
Jewish, Muslims, Buddhists, been subjected to extreme
Protestants and animists. It is pressure of change over a short
central not as an abstract belief period of time. Many have been
system, but rather as a host are swept up in these movements, out
experiences, rituals, ceremonies, of a renewed sense of fraternity
and adjurations that provide and community. Like the highly
continuity in life, cohesion in the visible examples of flagellation and
community and moral purpose for reenacted crucifixion in the
existence. Religious associations Philippines, these movements may
are part of the system of kinship seem to have little in common with
ties, patron-client bonds and other organized Christianity or Islam. But
linkages outside the nuclear family. in the intensely personalistic
Philippine religious context, they
Christianity and Islam have been have not been aberrations so much
superimposed on ancient traditions as extreme examples of how
and acculturated. The unique religion retains its central role in

Ancient indigenous beliefs deities, such as the Tagalog

supreme deity, Bathala, and his
Animism, is the term used to children Adlaw, Mayari, and Tala, or
describe the indigenous spiritual the Visayan deity Kan-Laon; while
traditions practiced in the others practice Ancestor worship
Philippines during pre-colonial (anitos). Variations of animistic
times. Today, a handful of the practices occur in different ethnic
indigenous tribes continue to groups. Magic, chants and prayers
practice it. The traditions are a are often key features. Its
collection of beliefs and cultural practitioners were highly
mores anchored more or less in the respected[citation needed] (and some
idea that the world is inhabited by feared) in the community, as they
spirits and supernatural entities, were healers, midwives (hilot),
both good and bad, and that shamans, witches and warlocks
respect be accorded to them (mangkukulam), priests/priestesses
through nature worship. These (babaylan/katalonan), tribal
spirits all around nature are known historians and wizened elders that
as "diwatas", showing cultural provided the spiritual and
relationship with Hinduism traditional life of the community. In
(Devatas). Some worship specific the Visayan regions, there is a
belief in the existence of witchcraft estimates range between 100 and
or barang and mythical creatures 500 people (0.000001% and
such as the "aswang", "balay sa 0.000005% of the country's total
dwendi" and "Bakonawa", despite population).
the existence of the Christian and
Islamic faiths. Today, Metro Manila boasts the
largest Jewish community in the
In general, the spiritual and Philippines, which consists of
economic leadership in many pre- roughly 40 families. The country's
colonial Filipino ethnic groups was only synagogue, Beth Yaacov, is
provided by women, as opposed to located in Makati, as is the Chabad
the political and military leadership House of the Ashkenazi Haredim.[3]
according to men. Spanish There are, of course, other Jews
occupiers during the 16th century elsewhere in the country,[2] but
arrived in the Philippines noting these are obviously fewer and
about warrior priestesses leading almost all transients, either
tribal spiritual affairs. Many were diplomats or business envoys, and
condemned as pagan heretics. their existence is almost totally
Although suppressed, these unknown in mainstream society.
matriarchal tendencies run deep in There are a few Israelis in Manila
Filipino society and can still be recruiting caregivers for Israel and
seen in the strong leadership roles a few other executives. A number
modern Filipino women are are converts to Judaism. There are
assuming in business, politics, few Jewish, Hasidic and Kabbalah
academia, the arts and in religious groups that exists in the
institutions. Philippines. In the Metro Manila,
the Kabbalah Centre [5] established
Folk religion remains a deep source its first Kabbalah Study Group, with
of comfort, belief and cultural pride a total of 50+ members, as is the
among many Filipinos. Nominally Ang Ilaw Kabbalah Study Group,
animists constitute about one which follows Hasidic tradition
percent of the population. But (Breslover) houses its chapter in
animism's influence pervade daily Antipolo City, Rizal.
life and practice of the colonial
religions that took root in the Bahá'í Faith
Philippines. Elements of folk belief
melded with Christian and Islamic The Bahá'í Faith in the Philippines
practices to give a unique started in 1921 with the first Bahá'í
perspective on these religions. first visiting the Philippines that
year,[7] and by 1944 a Bahá'í Local
Spiritual Assembly was established.
In the early 1960s, during a
period of accelerated growth, the
community grew from 200 in 1960
to 1000 by 1962 and 2000 by
Judaism 1963. In 1964 the National Spiritual
Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the
Philippines was elected and by
As of 2005, Filipino Jews number at
1980 there were 64,000 Bahá'ís
the very most 500 people. Other
and 45 local assemblies. The
Bahá'ís have been active in approximately 90% of the
multi/inter-faith developments. No population belonging to the
recent numbers are available on Christian faith, the other
the size of the community. Christian nation being East
Catholic Church
Buddhism in the Philippines is
largely confined to the Filipino Roman Catholicism is the
Chinese, Chinese, Japanese, Indian, predominant religion and the
Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese largest Christian denomination,
communities. There are temples in with estimates of 81-85% of the
Manila, Davao, and Cebu, and population belonging to this faith in
other places. According to the 2000 the Philippines. The country has a
Philippine census, 0.1% of the significant Spanish Catholic
population is Buddhist.[10] Other tradition, and Spanish style
sources claim different figures, Catholicism is highly embedded in
however. The publication, An the culture, which was acquired
Information Guide — Buddhism, for from priests or friars (prayle in
example, claims that as of 2007 Filipino). This is shown in traditions
Buddhists formed 2% of the total such as Misa de Gallo, Black
population.[11] Several schools of Nazarene procession, Santo Niño
Buddhism are present in the and Aguinaldo procession, where
Philippines - Mahayana, Vajrayana, large crowds gather, honouring
Theravada Buddhist temples as their patron saint or saints.
well as Lay Organizations are Processions and fiestas are
present in the Philippines as well as conducted during feast days of the
meditation centers and groups patron saints of various barrios or
such as Soka Gakkai International . barangays. Roman Catholicism is
also the de facto state religion in
Christianity arrived in the the Philippines.
Philippines with the landing of
Ferdinand Magellan in Every year on October 31, Filipino
1521. In the late 16th century, families celebrate the Day of the
soldiers and missionaries Dead, which they spend much of
firmly planted the seeds of the day and evening visiting their
conversion when they ancestral graves, showing respect
officially claimed the and honor to their departed
archipelago for Spain and relatives by feasting and offering
named it after their king. prayers. On November 1 Filipino
Missionary activity during the families celebrate All Saint's Day,
country's long colonial rule by where they honor the saints of the
Spain and the United States Catholic church. Then November 2
transformed the Philippines is All Soul's Day.
into the first and then one of
the two (perhaps three, Christmas in the Philippines is a
considering South Korea's celebration spanning just more
growing Christian population) than the day itself. Christmas
predominantly Christian season starts in September. Many
nations in East Asia, with traditions and customs are
associated with this grand feast, Philippines to the United States.
along with New Year. Holy Week in After a bitter fight for
the Philippines is also an important independence against its new
time for the country's Catholics. To occupiers, Filipinos surrendered
spread more the gospel, the and were again colonized. The
Roman Catholic Church established arrival of Protestant American
Catholic Media Network with its missionaries soon followed.
main tv station Tv Maria as a tool
for evangelization. other large • Apostolic Catholic Church
Roman Catholic television channels (Independent Catholic)
like EWTN and Familyland are also • Association of Fundamental
available and watched in the Baptist Churches in the
Philippines Philippines
• Baptist Bible Fellowship in
Roman Catholic Charismatic the Philippines (Baptist)
Renewal and the • Christian and Missionary
Neocatechumenal Way Alliance
• Church of the Foursquare
The El Shaddai movement is a Gospel in the Philippines
large Catholic Charismatic Renewal (Pentecostal)
led by 'Brother Mike Velarde'. • Conservative Baptist
Other groups include Couples for Association of the Philippines
Christ, Ligaya Ng Panginoon, (Baptist)
FAMILIA Community, etc. • Convention of Philippine
Baptist Churches (Baptist)
The Neocatechumenal Way has a • Episcopal Church in the
very large and rapidly expanding Philippines (Anglican)
presence in the Philippines, • Jesus Is Lord Church
especially in Luzon, Manila and the (Pentecostal)
Visayan Islands, especially Panay. • Jesus Miracle Crusade
Nowadays there are more than (Pentecostal)
seven hundred Neocatechumenal • Luzon Convention of
communities, the highest number Southern Baptists (Baptist)
in Asia and one of the highest • Mindanao and Visayas
numbers in the World. Convention of Southern
Baptists (Baptist)
Orthodox Church • Lutheran Church of
Philippines (Lutheran)
Orthodoxy has been continuously • The United Methodist Church
present in the Philippines for more (Methodist)
than 200 years. Today, Orthodox • United Church of Christ in
number at around 560.. the Philippines
Protestantism Presbyterian, Disciples,
United Brethren, Methodist).
• Jesus Is The Rock Church
Protestantism arrived in the
(Full Gospel).
Philippines with the coming of the
• Christ Living Epistle
Americans at the turn of the 20th
Ministries Inc. (Full
century. In 1898, Spain lost the
• Victory Christian Fellowship Restorationist
• United Pentecostal Church Restorationism describes religious
(Pentecostal) movements that follow what they
understand to be a pristine, or
Filipino Catholic Church original, form of Christianity:
independent from Rome
• The Church of Jesus Christ of
• Philippine Independent Latter-day Saints - During
Church more commonly the Spanish-American War in
known as the Iglesia Filipina 1898, two men from Utah
Independiente or Aglipayans, who were members of the
arose from a Catholic United States artillery
nationalist movement at the battery, and who were also
turn of the century.It's the set apart as missionaries by
second biggest Christian the Church before they left
denomination in the the United States, preached
Philippines, after the Roman while stationed in the
Catholic Church, which has Philippines. Missionary work
parishes and churches work picked up after World
around the Philippines and War II, and in 1961 the
parishes around the United Church was officially
States, Europe, mostly in the registered in the Philippines.
UK and Sweden, and in Asia. In 1969, the Church had
The total membership spread to eight major islands
counts vary from 3 to 7 and had the highest number
million members. It is in full of baptisms of any area in
communion with the the Church. A temple was
Philippine Episcopal Church, built in 1984 which located
the rest of the Anglican in Quezon City and another
Communion, and the Union one which is under
of Utrecht. construction is in Cebu City.
• The Apostolic Catholic The Manila Missionary
Church (ACC) is a catholic Training Center was
denomination founded in the established in 1983.
1980s in Hermosa, Bataan. It Membership in 1984 was
formally separated in the 76,000 and 237,000 in 1990.
Roman Catholic Church in Membership was 594,655 in
1992 when Patriarch +Dr. 2007. In 2008,
John Florentine Teruel groundbreaking began on a
registered it as a Protestant new temple in Cebu.
and Independent Catholic
denomination. Today, it has • Jehovah's Witnesses -
more than 5 million Missionaries of the Jehovah's
members worldwide. The Witnesses arrived in the
largest international Philippines during the
congregations are in Japan, American Occupation (1898-
USA and Canada. 1945). They have been
involved in several court
controversies because of
their stand on flag-saluting persecuted church during
and blood transfusions. They Arroyo's administration.
are best known by their
preaching in pairs from • The Most Holy Church of God
house to house. Currently in Christ Jesus is a Philippine
there are more than 150,000 religious
members in the Philippines • organization established in
as of the year 2006. May, 1922 by Teofilo D. Ora.
This church is also known in
• The Kingdom of Jesus Christ, the country through its radio
the Name Above Every program Ang
Name - The Kingdom of Kabanalbanalan which airs
Jesus Christ, the Name on several radio stations
Above Every Name was nationwide.
founded by Pastor Apollo C.
Quiboloy, claiming to be the • Seventh-day Adventist
appointed Son of God, on Church - The church founded
September 1, 1985. by Ellen G. White which is
best-known for its teaching
• Members Church of God that Saturday, the seventh
International - The Members day of the week, is the
Church of God International, Sabbath, and that the
is a nontrinitarian religious second advent of Jesus
organization known through Christ is imminent. As of
its television program, Ang 2007, there were 88,706
Dating Daan (ADD). This Adventist churches in the
group is an offshoot of Philippines, with a
Nicholas Perez's Iglesia ng membership of 571,653 and
Diyos kay Kristo Hesus Haligi an annual membership
at Suhay ng Katotohanan growth rate of 5.6%
(Church of God in Christ
Jesus, Pillar and Support of • The Iglesia ni Cristo a
the Truth). The split occurred corporation sole religious
after Eliseo Soriano was organization that originated
excommunicated from from the Philippines.
Perez's group, the former
believes that Perez's Iglesia Ni Cristo was founded by
successor, Levita Gugulan, Felix Y. Manalo when he officially
should not lead the church registered the church as a
because she is a woman. unipersonal corporation at the then
The church leadership keep Kawanihan ng Komersyo or
their membership a secret Securities and Exchange
but is estimated to be more Commission with him as executive
than 2,000,000 as of 2008, minister on July 27, 1914 and
and their membership is because of this, most publications
phenominaly increasing refer to him as the founder of the
because of the truthful church. The Iglesia Ni Cristo is
teachings in the scriptures widely regarded as very influential
by Eliseo Soriano. But this due to their ability to deliver votes
church also is the very through block voting during
elections but this statement is only mythology. Many Filipino customs
a deception of INC. The church have strong Buddhist influences.
leadership keep their membership Hinduism arrived when the Hindu
a secret but is estimated to be less religion and culture arrived from
than 500,000 as of 2008, and their India by southern Indians to
membership is rapidly decreasing Southeast Asia from the 4th
because of the many rampant bad centuries to the 1300s. The same
doings of their ministers. case can also be found in
Buddhism since early Buddhist did
Islam follow many of the Hindu
cosmology and Hindus themselves
Islam reached the Philippines in the considered Buddha to be an avatar
14th century with the arrival of of their god, Vishnu. The Srivijaya
Malay and Javanese merchants and Empire and Majapahit Empire on
Arab merchants from Malaysia and what is now Malaysia and
Indonesia, although the spreading Indonesia, introduced Hinduism
of Islam in the Philippines is due to and Buddhism to the islands[24].
the strength of Muslim India. India Statues of Hindu-Buddhist gods
brought Islam to Southeast Asia, have been found in the Philippines.
specifically Malaysia and Indonesia,
and in turn the latter two brought Today Hinduism is largely confined
Islam to the Philippines. Filipino to the Indian Filipinos and the
Muslims make up about five expatriate Indian community.
percent of the population and are Theravada and Vajrayana
concentrated in the western Buddhism, which are very close to
portion of the island of Mindanao. Hinduism, are practiced by
The Bangsamoro or Muslim Nation, Tibetans, Sri Lankan, Burmese and
a term used to define the disparate Thai nationals. There are Hindu
ethnic groups that profess Islam in temples in Manila, as well as in the
the Philippines as their religion, provinces. There are temples also
have been fighting the most for Sikhism, sometimes located
protracted war of independence in near Hindu temples. The two Paco
world history. These include the temples are well known,
Tausugs and the Maranaos. The comprising a Hindu temple and a
Islamic separatist movement in the Sikh temple.
Philippines had been and is being
waged for almost five centuries --
against the Spanish, the
Americans, the Japanese and the
predominantly Christian Filipinos of
today's independent republic.
Filipino Muslims follow the Sunni

Sikhism and Hinduism Atheism and agnosticism

Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism

has existed in the Philippines for
centuries. A great deal of Philippine Phil Zuckerman estimated in 2007
mythology is derived from Hindu that slightly less than 1% of the
population of the Philippines were weekly meetings, they have held
atheist. two open forums, with a combined
attendance of over 100 members.
Discussions on atheism are active
in academic institutions such as
the University of the Philippines.
One of the well known atheist
organizations in UP is UPAC
(University of the Philippines
Atheist Circle). There were also
atheists in Luneta Park, yet they
never called themselves as
"atheists". Most label themselves
as freethinkers. Filipino non-
believers are comfortable to label
themselves as agnostics, Humanist
and rationalist than atheists.

Prominent atheists here in the

Philippines were quite few. Most
notable is Mr. Ramon "Poch"
Suzara of the The Bertrand Russell
Society, Philippines. The advent of
the Internet revolution in the
1990’s was also a landmark in
Philippine atheism. A lot of Filipino
atheist went "out" and started
posting their atheism on their
personal blogs. There were also
groups that came out like
Radioactive atheist, a Yahoo
atheist group created by Joebert
Cuevas, Alixi Gumila and Jose Juan
"John" Paraiso in November 2002.
Today there are a lot of atheist
blogs and forum created by
Filipinos. One of the first is Pinoy
Atheist. It was created by Jose Juan
"John" Paraiso in Feb, 2005.

On February 2009, Filipino

Freethinkers[28] was formed. The
group, composed mostly of
atheists, agnostics, and humanists,
discuss daily through its online
channels, with a combined
membership of more than 200
members spread across their
mailing list, forum, and social
networking group. Aside from