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Internship Report submitted to the University of Mysore in partial fulfillment

of the requirements of II Semester MBA degree examinations 2015


#15, New BEL Road, MSRIT Post, M S Ramaiah Nagar
Bangalore 560054

Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies/ Sciences

Bangalore - 560054

This is to certify that this Internship Report on Organizational Study at D-VOIS
SUPRITH, carried out under my guidance and supervision.

Place: Bangalore

[Signature of the Faculty Guide]

I hereby declare that this Internship Report on Organizational Study at D-VOIS
COMMUNICATION (P) LTD submitted in partial ful1fillment of the requirement for II
Semester MBA Degree examinations 2015 of University of Mysore through Ramaiah
Institute of Management Sciences is our original work and not submitted to any other
university. This work has been done under the supervision of Prof. BHARATH, in
Ramaiah Institute of Management Sciences, Bangalore.

Place: Bangalore


REG NO 14MB3577


It is my special privilege to extend words of thanks to all of them who have helped
us and encouraged us in completing the Organizational Study successfully.
I owe a special debt of gratitude to Mr. Sarvesh Rao who has been kind
enough to permit us to take up Organizational Study at D-VOIS COMMUNICATION (P)
LTD. We express our gratitude to Mr. Manjunatha, HR Manager of D-VOIS for their
valuable guidance and ideas during the Organization study. Our warm thanks to all the
employees of D-VOIS for their kind co-operation.
I extend our sincere gratitude to our Dean Dr. Y. Rajaram. We are
indebted to our guide Prof. BHARATH, for his encouragement and support for the
completion of study.
My gratitude will not be complete with our thanking God and we are most grateful
to our beloved parents who have been a constant source of aspiration and blessings in our
pursuit for studies.

Certificate from the Company ..I
Certificate from the Faculty GuideII
Declaration III

1. Introduction.......1
2. Industry Profile..........4
3. Company Profile.......20
4. Organizational Hierarchy
4.1 Organizational Chart......21
5. Study of Functional Departments
5.1 Finance Department25
5.2 Marketing Department35
5.3 Human Resource Department.37
5.4 IT Department 40
6. SWOT Analysis.46
7. Summary of Findings49
8. Conclusions and Suggestions49
9. Bibliography..VI


D-vois is a Category A Internet Service Providers (ISP), engaged in providing
internet and other related value added services to its customers under the brand I-On.
Incorporated in 2006 with the objective of providing integrated telecom and IT services,
D-Vois has positioned itself as a technology partner for its customers. They provide
wireless broadband access and a suite of value added services with a distinctive delivery
mechanism based on the build own and operative model.
D-vois has the privilege of setting up perhaps Indias largest University Campus
Wi-Fi Network at Manipal University campus, Karnataka. The seamless network is
spread over approx. 5 sq. kms and is capable of supporting 15000 subscribers. The
network already has 8000+ subscribers who can access Internet and other value added
services with a single sign-on, anytime be it their hostel rooms, roads, canteens, food
court, library or the administration block.
D-vois is very much aware of the security exposure of Wi-Fi services especially as
medium to access Internet. In the line with the need of the hour, D-vois has drawn up a
plan to comply with several of standards, both from the network security and from the
policy / procedure / standards perspective.

D-vois is currently implementing ISO: 27001. The framework touches each and
every aspects of D- vois activity, services and delivery; thereby ensuring that the quality
of services standard is consistently met and adhered to D-vois ensures that the services
are free of known malicious activities.


Directors ID Number

Ramesh Rao


Date of Appointment
19 July 2006


Dhananjay Gopal


14 May 2011


Vijaya Laxmi


30 March 2012

1.2 Need for the Study:8

D-VoiS Communication Pvt Ltd is the well growing organization in the market
especially in the internet services. To know how the each and every department in the
organization functions. The techniques and strategies used by the organization.
The company mainly provide internet services to its customers.
The present study was concentrated on working capital management at D-VoiS
Communication Pvt LTD. Because working capital is very important for every
organization, either it is big or small. It shows the liquidity position of the company, as it
involves only current assets and current liabilities are those which can be converted into
cash in days or weeks. So studying the current cash position, etc. is very useful in
planning future activities of the organization.

1.3 Best practices of the company: Company adapt the technique of the zero investment by the customer for
procuring the products and services of the company.
They follow the niche marketing strategy for the promotion of the products and
The adoption of the 24/7 customer services and the quick monitoring the
connection problems in the internet
The good work place for the employees to accomplish the targets.


The Scope of my study is confined to all the working departments in the
organization. The study concentrates on the methods and techniques followed by the DVoiS and its relative merits and demerits.
How the work are to be accomplish in the each department and the functions of it
are consider to be the main factor for the study. The work place ethics and work
environment important for the organization.

1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: To know the working capital management of the firm through operating cycle
To study sensitivity of components of operating cycle period.
To make relationship between different components in operating cycle period.

To find out the current assets investment policy of the firm.

To the reasons to increase/decrease current assets in the firm.
To know networking capital of the firm.
To know the fluctuation operating cycle period influence of turnover of the

To study the functions of all the departments.

1.6 METHODOLOGY: Had discussions with concerned executives of all the Functional Department
regarding the , its performance, and its system of working capital management
with regard to current assets and changes in working capital gap.
Made a relative study of the concepts in practice in D-Vois
Finally conclusions and suggestions have been drawn based upon the calculations.
To achieve the above objectives information was collected from both primary and
secondary sources.
Data was collected from the annual reports and records of D-Vois discussions
were held with the personnel of the marketing and other departments of the

The material was gathers about the internet broadband from various websites and
books about the internet service providers.

1.7 LIMITATIONS: The data made available by the D-VoiS Communication Pvt LTD to the extent of
annual reports, which are used extensively throughout report.
The time limit for project is only their 30 days for that does not cover all related



An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for
accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be
organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or
otherwise privately owned.
Internet services typically provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet
transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, colocation.


The Internet was developed as a network between government research
laboratories and participating departments of universities. By the late 1980s, a process
was set in place towards public, commercial use of the Internet. The remaining
restrictions were removed by 1995, 4 years after the introduction of the World Wide Web.
In 1989, the first ISPs were established in Australia, and the United States. In
Brookline, Massachusetts, The World became the first commercial ISP in the US. Its first
customer was served in November 1989.
On 23 April 2014, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was
reported to be considering a new rule that will permit ISPs to offer content providers a
faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position. A possible
solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor
Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School. On 15 May 2014,
the FCC decided to consider two options regarding Internet services: first, permit fast and
slow broadband lanes, thereby compromising net neutrality; and second, reclassify
broadband as a telecommunication service, thereby preserving net neutrality. On 10
November 2014, President Barack Obama recommended that the FCC reclassify
broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net
neutrality. On 16 January 2015, Republicans presented legislation, in the form of a U.S.
Congress H.R. discussion draft bill, that makes concessions to net neutrality but prohibits
the FCC from accomplishing the goal or enacting any further regulation affecting Internet
service providers. On 31 January 2015, AP News reported that the FCC will present the





caveats") Title



carrier) of

the Communications Act of 1934 to the internet in a vote expected on 26 February

2015. Adoption of this notion would reclassify internet service from one of information to


one of telecommunications and, according to Tom Wheeler, chairman of the FCC,

ensure net neutrality. The FCC is expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according
to the New York Times.
On 26 February 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by adopting Title II
(common carrier) of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 in the
Telecommunications act of 1996 to the Internet. The FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler,
commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a
plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept."
On 12 March 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality
rules. On 13 April 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality"

Access providers ISP
ISPs provide Internet access, employing a range of technologies to connect users
to their network. Available technologies have ranged from computer modems
with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable (CATV), wireless Ethernet
(Wi-Fi), and fiber optics.
For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to
provide dial-up, DSL (typically asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), cable
modem or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) (typically basic rate interface).
Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber to the Home or similar names.
For customers with more demanding requirements (such as medium-to-large businesses,
or other ISPs) can use higher-speed DSL (such as single-pair high-speed digital subscriber
line), Ethernet, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate
Interface, ATM



Mode) and synchronous

networking (SONET).
Wireless access is another option, including satellite Internet access.
Edge providers
Edge providers create Internet content.



Mailbox providers
A mailbox provider is an organization that provides services for hosting electronic
mail domains with access to storage for mail boxes. It provides email servers to send,
receive, accept, and store email for end users or other organizations.
Many mailbox providers are also access providers, while others are not
(e.g., Yahoo! Mail,, Gmail, AOL Mail, post box). The definition given
in RFC 6650 covers email hosting services, as well as the relevant department of
companies, universities, organizations, groups, and individuals that manage their mail
servers themselves. The task is typically accomplished by implementing Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and possibly providing access to messages through Internet
Message Access Protocol (IMAP), the Post Office Protocol, Webmail, or a proprietary
Hosting ISPs
Internet hosting services provide email, web-hosting, or online storage services.
Other services include virtual server, cloud services, or physical server operation.
Transit ISPs

Just as their customers pay them for Internet access, ISPs themselves pay
upstream ISPs for Internet access. An upstream ISP usually has a larger network than the
contracting ISP or is able to provide the contracting ISP with access to parts of the
Internet the contracting ISP by itself has no access to.
In the simplest case, a single connection is established to an upstream ISP and is
used to transmit data to or from areas of the Internet beyond the home network; this mode


of interconnection is often cascaded multiple times until reaching a tier 1 carrier. In

reality, the situation is often more complex. ISPs with more than one point of
presence (PoP) may have separate connections to an upstream ISP at multiple PoPs, or
they may be customers of multiple upstream ISPs and may have connections to each one
of them at one or more point of presence. Transit ISPs provide large amounts of
bandwidth for connecting hosting ISPs and access ISPs.
Virtual ISPs
A virtual ISP (VISP) is an operation that purchases services from another ISP,
sometimes called a wholesale ISP in this context, which allow the VISP's customers to
access the Internet using services and infrastructure owned and operated by the wholesale
ISP. VISPs resemble mobile virtual network operators and competitive local exchange
carriers for voice communications.
Free ISPs
Free ISPs are Internet service providers that provide service free of charge. Many
free ISPs display advertisements while the user is connected; like commercial television,
in a sense they are selling the user's attention to the advertiser. Other free ISPs, sometimes
called free nets, are run on a nonprofit basis, usually with volunteer staff.
Wireless ISP
A wireless internet service provider (WISP) is an Internet service provider with a
network based on wireless networking. Technology may include commonplace Wi-Fi
wireless mesh networking, or proprietary equipment designed to operate over open
900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 4.9, 5.2, 5.4, 5.7, and 5.8 GHz bands or licensed frequencies such as
2.5 GHz (EBS/BRS), 3.65 GHz (NN) and in the UHF band (including the MMDS
frequency band) and LMDS.

ISPs may engage in peering, where multiple ISPs interconnect at peering
points or Internet exchange points (IXs), allowing routing of data between each network,
without charging one another for the data transmitteddata that would otherwise have
passed through a third upstream ISP, incurring charges from the upstream ISP.
ISPs requiring no upstream and having only customers (end customers and/or peer
ISPs) are called Tier 1 ISPs.


Network hardware, software and specifications, as well as the expertise of

network management personnel are important in ensuring that data follows the most
efficient route, and upstream connections work reliably. A tradeoff between cost and
efficiency is possible.

Law enforcement and intelligence assistance

Internet service providers in many countries are legally required (e.g.,
via Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) in the U.S.) to
allow law enforcement agencies to monitor some or all of the information transmitted by
the ISP. Furthermore, in some countries ISPs are subject to monitoring by intelligence
agencies. In the U.S., a controversial National Security Agency program known
as PRISM provides for broad monitoring of Internet users traffic and has raised concerns
about potential violation of the privacy protections in the Fourth Amendment to the
United States Constitution. Modern ISPs integrate a wide array of surveillance and packet
sniffing equipment into their networks, which then feeds the data to lawenforcement/intelligence networks (such as DCS Net in the United States, or SORM in
Russia) allowing monitoring of Internet traffic in real time.

Internet users

Internet users per 100 inhabitants

Graph- 1.1


World-wide internet users

World population
Not using the Internet
Using internet
Users in the developed countries
Users in the undeveloped countries

6.5 billions

6.9 billions

7.2 billions

Internet users by region












Arab states




Asia and pacific




Common wealth of independent states









2.3 History in India

India's telecommunication network is the second largest in the world based on
the total number of telephone users (both fixed and mobile phone). It has one of the
lowest call tariffs in the world enabled by the mega telephone networks and hypercompetition among them. It has the world's third-largest Internet user-base. According to
the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), the Internet user base in the
country stood at 190 million at the end of June, 2013. Major sectors of the Indian
telecommunication industry are telephony, internet and television broadcast Industry in
the country which is in an ongoing process of transforming into next generation network,
employs an extensive system of modern network elements such as digital telephone
exchanges, mobile switching centers, media gateways and signaling gateways at the core,
interconnected by a wide variety of transmission systems using fiber-optics or Microwave


radio relay networks. The access network, which connects the subscriber to the core, is
highly diversified with different copper-pair, optic-fiber and wireless technologies. DTH,
a relatively new broadcasting technology has attained significant popularity in the
Television segment. The introduction of private FM has given a fillip to the radio
broadcasting in India. Telecommunication in India has greatly been supported by
the INSAT system of the country, one of the largest domestic satellite systems in the
world. India possesses a diversified communications system, which links all parts of the
country by telephone, Internet, radio, television and satellite.
Indian telecom industry underwent a high pace of market liberalization and
growth since the 1990s and now has become the world's most competitive and one of the
fastest growing telecom markets. The Industry has grown over twenty times in just ten
years, from under 37 million subscribers in the year 2001 to over 846 million subscribers
in the year 2011. India has the world's second-largest mobile phone user base with over
929.37 million users as of May 2012. It has the world's third-largest Internet user-base
with over 137 million as of June 2012.
The total revenue of the Indian telecom sector grew by 7% to 2832
billion (US$45 billion) for 201011 financial year, while revenues from telecom
equipment segment stood at 1170 billion (US$19 billion).
Telecommunication has supported the socioeconomic development of India and
has played a significant role to narrow down the rural-urban digital divide to some extent.
It also has helped to increase the transparency of governance with the introduction of egovernance in India. The government has pragmatically used modern telecommunication
facilities to deliver mass education programs for the rural folk of India.
Market share of major companies

Market share

Bharati Airtel






Reliance communication







Market share as on March 2014






Bharati Airtel



Reliance communication



2.4 Characteristics of ISP Services
Different ISPs offer different services depending on how big they are and the
infrastructure of their networks. Mainly, providers can be categorized by their method of
physical Internet access, the applications they provide, and the security services they
The following physical access methods are the most commonly deployed throughout the

Leased linesLeased lines could be provided at 19.2 Kbps or 56 Kbps, with

increments of 56 Kbps or 64 Kbps up to T1/E1 lines on the lower-end, and T3 and
fractional T3 (in multiple T1s) on the higher-end of the bandwidth scale. Leased lines are
usually used when traffic bandwidth is predictable and the frequency of network access is
high enough to justify a line being up 24 hours a day. Of course, the trade-off is the cost,
which is higher than any other connection type.
Frame relayFrame relay connections are one of the most economical
ways for corporations to hook up to the Internet. Purchasing sufficient point-to-point
leased line connections can be prohibitively expensive for some companies, in which case
they may want to consider connecting to existing frame relay backbones on a per-need


basis. With frame relay, corporations can buy enough bandwidth to meet their existing
needs and to easily expand as traffic requirements increase. The trade-off is that you are
limited by the bandwidth offered by your provider. Other wide area network services such
as ATM are starting to be used and recognized, but do not have the success that frame
relay has experienced.
Dialup services- This includes Asynchronous dialup at 9.6, 14.4, and 28.8
Kbps, ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI), or Primary Rate Interface (PRI). Dialup services
range from serving individual users to serving corporations that are subcontracting with
providers to obtain all their remote login needs. ISDN BRI and PRI services have
experienced great growth lately due to their on-demand nature and their capability to
carry digital signaling essential for multimedia services.
Prices for ISP services are often predicated on physical access methods, as
discussed further in the next section. Customers need to weigh costs and benefits of the
different options against their needs.
Almost every single provider offers the following basic services: electronic mail,
Usenet newsgroups, ftp, Gopher retrieval, and Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS)
resource discovery tool. In addition, due to the phenomenal popularity of the World Wide
Web, most ISPs provide this service in one form or another. Customers who do not want
to maintain an in-house WWW server can buy space from a shared server on the ISP's
premises. Some ISPs are even offering total Web solutions for companies that need a total
package, such as advertising, enabling customers to order online, updating inventory,
billing, and shipping.
ISPs can offer consulting for different security services. The easiest service would
be providing packet filtering on the router level. More security measures involve firewalls
and, usually, additional fees. ISPs can integrate their own firewalls or help you configure
firewalls that you buy from outside vendors.
ISP Backbone Selection Criteria
An ISP's backbone encompasses many important technical characteristics. These
include physical network topologyconnections, network bottlenecks, level of
redundancy, distance from destination networksand traffic exchange agreements. This
section is aimed at both customers and designers of ISPs. Customers should certainly
evaluate these characteristics in choosing a provider; they are far more important than


prices in predicting service quality. Designers should consider the potential benefits and
pitfalls associated with these characteristics when setting up or expanding their networks.
Physical Connections
Customers should investigate the provider's physical connections, and the
provider should be able to show a decent map of the network, with every connection
indicated. With respect to connections, a healthy physical topology is one that can provide
consistent, adequate bandwidth for the whole traffic trajectory. The existence of highspeed links such as T3 and OC3/12 does not by itself guarantee overall high-speed access
for the customer. Your traffic might flow on the provider's network over some backdoor
T1 or frame relay clouds that might slow down the overall access.
Potential ISP Bottlenecks
The provider's network is only as strong as its weakest link. A provider should not
oversubscribe its connections. ISPs that save money by overloading their routers or their
connections will end up losing customers and credibility in the long run.
Oversubscribing happens when the cumulative traffic of multiple links exceeds the
bandwidth of the pipe used to carry the traffic to the rest of the Internet. A provider selling
20 T1s at the POP (Point Of Presence) and connecting to the NAP via a T1 link will
experience a bottleneck at the NAP connection. As illustrated in figure 2-1, a rule of
thumb is a 5 to 1 ratio: there should be no more than five T1 links for each T1 pipe. Even
this ratio might not be accurate if most of the T1s get heavily loaded all at the same time.
For ISP network designers, a better approach is to monitor the pipe and to start adding
bandwidth whenever line utilization starts exceeding 50 percent of the pipe's capacity.
Level of ISP Internet Access Redundancy
Murphy is out there, ready to make your life miserable. Whether because of bad
weather, carrier problems, or bad luck, an ISP's connection to a NAP or another POP
might go down from time to time, with the potential for leaving customers without
service. A redundant network will enable traffic to take another route until the problem is
fixed. A well-designed ISP network is a network that has its POPs connected to multiple
NAPs or to multiple other POPs, as illustrated in figure 2-3.


Distance to Destinations
Customers should be concerned with the number of hopsthat is, the number of
interim networksneeded to reach a destination network through their ISP. In general,
the more hops, the more potential for traffic to get delayed, misdirected, or garbled.
The distance to destinations depends on how the provider is connected to the NAPs. As
you know by now, the Internet is a set of overlapping backbones from different providers,
with the NAPs being the crossover between one provider and another. Small providers
might connect to only one NAP or might not connect to any NAPs at all. In the latter
case, a provider could offer service by being the customer of another provider who is
connected to the NAP.
In general, providers that claim less than five hops to a destination are those who
are connected to most of the NAPs and have a widespread backbone. Smaller resellers tap
into major providers, and the traffic might end up hopping a couple of different
backbones before reaching the final destination.
Traffic Exchange Agreements
It is important that an ISP be part of all traffic exchange agreements, such as the
CIX. Every ISP has to pay its due; there is no free lunch out there. If an ISP is not part of
an interexchange agreement with other ISPs, its traffic might be denied when it reaches
other providers' networks.
Demarcation Point
Finally, in addition to pricing and backbone issues, customers will want to
consider demarcation point (DP) issues in selecting an ISP and forming an agreement.
A demarcation point is the point that differentiates the provider's network from the
customer's network, as illustrated in figure 2-4. It is important to differentiate between the
areas of responsibility of both parties, provider and customer. Demarcation points are
defined down to the cables and connectors to make sure that no arguments occur in case
of equipment or network problems.
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) usually includes the router, the CSU/DSU,
the cabling, and probably an analog modem for monitoring. ISPs typically offer
customers the choice of buying the CPE and the access line, buying just the access line, or
just paying a monthly fee with all equipment and access needs taken care of by the ISP.


Any arrangement is available at a price. ISPs usually are responsible for maintaining
equipment or packages that they provide. An ISP might have a predefined package that
includes CPE and/or access. If the customer does not want to take the package, then the
customer would be required to choose equipment that is pre-approved by the ISP. The
customer would then be responsible for troubleshooting and maintaining its own
equipment. The provider is always available to solve problems at an extra charge. Figures
2-5 through 2-7 illustrate some examples of ISP packages.
Router Collocation
Collocation is the act of placing one party's equipment on another party's
premises. An example of collocation is putting the customer's router on the provider's site,
as illustrated in figure 2-8. The customer motivation for such a collocation scheme would
be to have the ISP provide local monitoring of the equipment. Usually ISPs do not like to
put customer routers on their premises unless they really have to in order to satisfy the
customer. Real estate is becoming a real issue, and the ISPs are having problems finding
places for their own equipment at the POP.
Looking Ahead
Technical characteristics of an ISP's network have significant repercussions for the
customer's service, including the quality of routing architecture. Because the customer
might not have direct control over some of these technical characteristics, it is critical that
the customer at least evaluate them and make sure that they will deliver the required
connectivity and quality.
If you are an ISP customer whose demarcation point and collocation agreements
stipulate that you are running and maintaining equipment on your premiseseven if you
do not own it outrightyou are likely to be taking a significant hands-on role in
developing the routing policies and architecture for your network. Even if you are not
running and maintaining the equipment, there are decisions you will need to make and
understand with respect to routing architecture.

2.6 Challenges faced by the internet service providers

Given the significant transformation in the telecommunications industry and the
reduction in both top line revenues and margins, I would like to present the top 10
challenges for Service Providers (SPs) going into 2014. I will follow this up with some


suggested solutions in my next blog, including how to address these problems, increase
reserves and free up some much needed cash.
1) Network Security: Service providers are seeing significant strains on their networks
from malicious malware, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks and Advanced
Persistent Threats (APTs). Large amounts of time, cash and resources are being invested
to address security on their networks. The increase and sophistication of attacks has
surpassed the ability of current security solutions to keep up, thereby creating significant
network challenges for SPs.
2) Network Congestion: How do you plan for capacity when mobility induces temporary
congestion and network traffic spikes with little warning? It is all about network coverage
- when you combine that with the balance sheet of the company the SP with highest
network pop coverage will be the biggest winner.
3) All-You-Can-Eat Connectivity Services: Good for content providers, but bad for SPs.
OTT players are increasing bandwidth at a rapid pace. Service providers can use the
analytical data to extract knowledge and use that data to gain additional top line revenue.
4) Peer-to-Peer Traffic: It's growing fast, but there is no business model in sight to
monetize peer-to-peer traffic. This puts a significant strain on the service provider
network and will drive higher capex, impacting cash flow and reserves.
5) Over-the-Top Video: Service providers see their networks being drained by this kind
of traffic. Video-on-demand delivery is using up large amounts of bandwidth with no
returns. The business model for OTT players needs to be optimized for revenues.
Allowing companies that produce video with no care for its distribution will not scale and
is already causing significant issues across networks.
6) Flat ARPU: There is a significant discrepancy between the growth requirements and
the capex requirements to support 50% growth year over year. Add in Smart TV and IOT,
and capex becomes a major factor in scaling platforms for higher revenue.
7) IPv6: This is a massive "must do" with no incremental revenue attached. Many
customers are beginning to demand IPv6 but the business case is lacking. It will be very
challenging for any SP CFO or CIO to view this as a cost of doing business considering
the costs involved.
8) Regulations: Net neutrality is hampering a packet monetization solution that could
make service provider traffic more profitable. I just dont see a pay as you go business
model being allowed by the regulators.
9) The Inability to Monetize Packet Traffic: Service providers are living with lowmargin "dumb"-pipe revenues while Google and others are gaining high-margin traffic


via over-the-top applications. This isn't sustainable for SPs, especially on wireless
networks where spectrum is constrained.
10) Customer Churn: When customers aren't happy, they churn. When they churn,
service providers lose money. As churn goes down with customer loyalty and satisfaction,
revenue should go up and costs should come down as well balancing nice top line
revenue along with superlative margin.

2.7 The list of top ISP providers in India

State owned

BSNL - servicing all of India except Mumbai and Delhi. FTTH, Triple-play
Broadband Services provided by ADSL and VDSL. Also providing internet
services over GPRS, 3G, as well as WiMax.

MTNL - servicing Mumbai and Delhi. Triple-play Broadband Services provided

by ADSL under the "Tri-Band" brand. Also providing GPRS and 3G internet

The two companies are also pioneering 3G services in selected circles. BSNL has also
started EVDO services since November, 2007.
Privately owned, nationwide

FDBS Fortunate Digital Broadband Service in Thane/Mumbai 9870649119

TTN -TTN Broadband; FTTH Broadband and Leased Line Provider in Bangalore.

Nextra - Broadband over Fiber; Download and Upload Speeds Up to 100Mbit/s.

Spectranet - Broadband over Fiber Cable.

ACT Broadband operating as Beam Fiber in Hyderabad - Broadband over Fiber


Airlive Broadband

Excell Broadband - Broadband in Hyderabad

Airmesh- Next Generation Wireless Broadband,

Aircel - GPRS & 3G

Hathway - Broadband over Cable

DEN BOOM NET-Download and Upload Speeds Up to 100Mbit/s


Idea cellular - GPRS & 3G

Reliance Communications - ADSL, GPRS & 3G, Metro-Ethernet, CDMA/EVDO, Wimax

Reliance Industries - LTE (to be launched)

Tata DoCoMo - Fiber Broadband, GPRS & 3G

Tata Indicom - ADSL, CDMA/EV-DO, Metro-Ethernet, WiMax, GPON

Vodafone - GPRS & 3G

Dvois Broad Band Pvt Ltd -

Airtel- ADSL, GPRS, 3G & 4G GPON.

You Broadband - Broadband over Cable.

SwiftMail Communications Ltd

Access Broadband

CONNECT Internet Services

Growth of internet subscribers including broadband

Growth of Internet Subscribers including broadband






Subscribers (in Lakhs)


(Source: Internet Service Provider Association of India)




Company Profile
The company profile as follows:
Name of the Firm
Date of Incorporation
Business Activity
Investment and Sources
Organization Chart
Trade Unions
Corporate Office
Accounts Procedure

Types of Services



Private company
Flat/Line Organizational Structure
General Procedure:
1) Trading and Profit & Loss Account
2) Balance Sheet
Broadband services through leased line

Vision Statement
To be amongst the preferred networking services providers offering Comprehensive
Secured and converged WAN solutions from design, implementation to the management.
By developing the best of breed Technology.
Mission Statement


To help the customers to achieve their business, by providing innovative, best in class
Networking solutions and services.
Committed to meet and exceed the customer Expectations by delivering quality solutions
and services. We strive hard to continually improving the quality of service through shall
up gradation and team work.


4. Organizational Structure


An organizational structure defines how activities such as task allocation,

coordination and supervision are directed towards the achievement of organizational
aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which
individuals see their organization and its environment.
Organizations are a variant of clustered entities.
An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their
objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates
and performs.
Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for









the branch,

department, work group and individual.

Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways :

First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and

routines rest.

Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decisionmaking processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organizations
All managers must bear that there are two organizations they must deal with-one

formal and the other informal. The formal organization in usually delineated by an
organizational chart and job descriptions. The official reporting relationships are clearly
known to every manager.
Alongside the formal organization exists are informal organization which is a set of
evolving relationships and patterns of human interaction within an organization that are
not officially prescribed.

Formal organizational structures are categorized as:



Line organizational structure.

A line organization has only direct, vertical relationships between

different levels in the firm. There are only line departments-departments directly involved
in accomplishing the primary goal of the organization. For example, in a typical firm, line
departments include production and marketing. In a line organization authority follows
the chain of command.

Staff or functional authority organizational structure.

The jobs or positions in an organization can be categorized as:
(i) Line position:
A position in the direct chain of command that is responsible for the

achievement of an organizations goals and objectives.

(ii) Staff position:
A position intended to provide expertise, advice and support for the line
The line officers or managers have the direct authority (known as line authority) to be
exercised by them to achieve the organizational goals. The staff officers or managers have
staff authority (i.e., authority to advice the line) over the line. This is also known as
functional authority.
An organization where staff departments have authority over line personnel in narrow
areas of specialization is known as functional authority organization. Exhibit 10.4
illustrates a staff or functional authority organizational structure.

Line and staff organizational structure.

Most large organizations belong to this type of organizational structure.

These organizations have direct, vertical relationships between different levels and also
specialists responsible for advising and assisting line managers. Such organizations have
both line and staff departments. Staff departments provide line people with advice and
assistance in specialized areas (for example, quality control advising production

Divisional organizational structure.


In this type of structure, the organization can have different basis on

which departments are formed. They are:





Geographic territory,


Project and Combination approach.


Project organizational structure.

A project organization is a temporary organization designed to achieve specific results

by using teams of specialists from different functional areas in the organization. The
project team focuses all its energies, resources and results on the assigned project. Once
the project has been completed, the team members from various cross functional
departments may go back to their previous positions or may be assigned to a new project.
Some of the examples of projects are: research and development projects, product
development, construction of a new plant, housing complex, shopping complex, bridge

Committee organizational structure.

Committee is a group of people or work learns which is formed to solve

some specific problems or to attend some specific objectives. The committee should be
established according to the rules and procedure of the organization.

Matrix organizational structure

It is a permanent organization designed to achieve specific results by
using teams of specialists from different functional areas in the organization.


Hybrid organizational structure.

Hybrid organizations are organizations whose members include both

governmental and nongovernmental entities. At the international level, the most

prominent of these is IUCN - The World Conservation Union, the umbrella organization


of the conservation movement, whose members include state members (i.e., governments
of countries), governmental agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. At the national
Level, hybrid organizations include so-called public-private partnerships, some of which
include businesses as well as governmental agencies and nongovernmental organizations.
The organizational chat is as follows:



Assistant Personnel-1

Assistant personnel-1

Assistant Personnel-2

Assistant personnel-2

IT Department

Marketing Department
Retail Personnel

NOC Department

O&M Department

Educational personnel
Assistant personnel-1

Corporate personnel

Assistant personnel-2

Commercial Personnel

The D-VoiS communication private limited follows the line or flat type of
organizational structure for the governance of the organization.




Meaning of working capital:
Capital required for the business is divided into two aspects

Fixed capital

Working capital

Fixed capital:
It is the amount of money required to maintain the fixed assets of the concern.
Working capital:
The amount of money to meet the day-to-day transactions of the business
is termed as working capital.

Concepts of Working Capital:

The concepts of working capital are:

Gross Working Capital

Net Working Capital


Gross Working Capital:

It refers to the firms investment in the current assets. Current assets are the assets,
which can be easily converted into cash within one accounting year. The gross working
capital focuses attention on two aspects of current assets management.
The way to optimize the investment in current assets.
The opportunity to finance the current assets.
Net Working Capital:
It is the excess of current assets over the current liabilities. Current liabilities
are those claims of outsiders, which are expressed to mature for payment within one
accounting year. Net working capital can be positive or negative. A positive Net Working
Capital indicates the excess of current assets over the current liabilities. A negative Net
Working Capital is a qualitative concept and indicates the liquidity position of the firm. It
suggests the extent to which the working capital may be financed by permanent sources
of funds.
Approaches of Working Capital:
Depending on the mix of short and long-term financing, the approach followed by
any company fall under these three categories Matching Approach
Conservation Approach
Aggressive Approach
Matching Approach:
It refers to the adoption of a financial plan, which matches the expected life of the
assets with the expected life of the source of funds raised to finance assets. In this
approach the long-term financing is used to finance the fixed assets and permanent
current assets. The short-term financing will be used if the firm has the need of only fixed
current assets.
Conservative Approach:


In this approach the financing of permanent assets and a part of temporary current
assets the idle amount of long-term financing can be invested in the tradable securities
and conserve liquidity.
Aggressive Approach:
In this approach the short-term financing is used more to finance a part of its
permanent current asserts. Sometimes in a more aggressive way the short-term financing
is used for financing the fixed assets.
The sources of finance for working capital are of two types. They are permanent
and temporary sources of working capital. The working capital investments in minimum
level of current assets are permanent working capital. The working capital required to
meet the seasonal contingencies is called temporary (or) variable working capital.
The fixed proportion of working capital should be generally financed from the
fixed capital sources while the temporary (or) variable working capital requirements of a
concern from the short-term sources of finance.

Permanent Sources of Working Capital:

The permanent working capital source of finance is done for having an
uninterrupted finance of a long period. There are five important sources of permanent
working capital they are:



Public deposits

Ploughing back of profits

Loans from financial institutions

Generally a company should raise the maximum amount of working capital by the
issue of shares. The preferences carry a preferential right in respect of the divided at a
fixed rate. Equity shares do not have such obligation. A company should not issue
different shares according to the companies act.


Debentures are an instrument issued by the company acknowledging its debt to the
holder. A fixed rate of interests is paid on the debentures secured or paid in prior to the
unsecured debenture holders. The company enjoys tax benefits.
They are the fixed deposits accepted by the business directly from the public. It has both
advantages and dangers. The R.B.I has also down certain limits on the non-banking
Ploughing Back of Profits:
It is an internal source of finance and reinvestment of the surplus

earnings of the

business. It is the cheapest and cost-free sources of finance. Excessive resort to ploughing
back of profits leads to over capitalization and speculation.
Loans and financial institutions:
Financial institutions like commercial banks, IFCI, LIC provide short-term,
medium-term, long-term source of finance suitable to meet the demand of working
capital. A fixed rate of interest is charged against such loans and is paid by way of
Temporary Sources of working Capital:
Indigenous Bankers.
Trade Credits.
Installment Credits
Accounts Receivable Credits.
Accrued Expenses
Deferred Expenses
Commercial Paper
Commercial Banks.
Indigenous Bankers:
These are the private moneylenders who charge high rate of interest for the
loan given by them. These Bankers are more prior to the establishment of the commercial
banks. Now we can fine a few.


Trade Credit:
It is the credit extended by the suppliers of goods in the normal course of
business. The credit worthiness of a firm and the confidence or its suppliers is the main
basis of securing trade credit. There are some advantages such as convenient method of
finance, flexibility as the credit increases.

Installment Credit:
In this method the assets are purchased and the possession of good is taken
immediately but the payment is made in installments over a predetermined period of time.
Firms having ling production cycle take advances from their customers and agents
against their orders. This acts as a cheap source of finance and minimizes their investment
in working capital.

Account Receives able Credit:

It is the services offered to manage the financing of debts arising out of
the credit sales. This service is now available in India only on recourse basis; it has
certain limitations such as the cost of factoring is high perception of financial weakness
about the firm availing these services.
Deferred Incomes:
These are the funds of incomes received by the firm for which it has to supply
goods in future. These funds increase the liquidity of a firm and constitute an important
source of short-term finance.
Commercial paper:
It is unsecured promissory notes issued by the firm to raise short-term funds. The
maturity period of a commercial paper ranges from 91 to 180 days. The drawback is that
can be redeemed only after the maturity date.


Commercial Banks:
The commercial Banks are the most important short-term source of finance that
provides the major part of working capital loans. The different forms in which the banks
normally provide loans and advances are- loans, cash credits overdrafts, purchasing and
discounting bills.
The working capital management or short-term financial management is
concerned with decisions relating to current assets and current liabilities. The key








management is in terms of timing of cash. Long term financial decisions (like buying
capital equipment or issuing debentures) involve cash flow an extended period of time (5
t0 15 or more) short-term financial decisions typically involve cash flows within a year or
within the operation cycle of the firm. The working capital management is a significant
facet of the financial management. It is important stems from two reasons.
Investment in current assets and the level of current liabilities have to gear quickly
to changes in sales.
The important of working capital management is reflected in the fact that financial
managers spend a great deal of time in managing current assets and current liabilities.
Arranging short-term financing, negotiating favorable credit terms, controlling movement
of cash, administrating accounts receivable, and monitoring the investment in inventories
consume a great deal of time financial managers. The management of working capital
depends upon certain basic principles.
In examining the management of current assets (i.e. working capital management)
certain principles have to be borne in the mind. These principles are the answers that are
to be sought to the following questions.
The need of invests funds in the current assets.
Amount of funds to be invested in each type of current assets.
The required proportions of the long-term and short-term funds to finance
current assets.
The appropriate sources of funds needed to finance the current assets.
Constituent of Current Assets and Current Liabilities.




Sundry Creditors

Raw material and components

Trade advances

Work in progress


Finished Goods

Commercial Banks



Trade debtors


Loans and Advances

Cash and Bank Balances


In management of working capital two characteristics of current assets must be
borne in mind.
Short life span
Shift transformation into other assets form.
Current assets have a short life span. Cash balances are held idle for a week or
two, accounts receivable may have a life span of 30 to 60 days, and inventories may be
held for 30 to 100 days. The life span of current assets depends upon the time required in
the activities of procurement, production sales and collection and the degree of
synchronization among them.
The nature of current assets is that they are swiftly transformed into other assets
form. Cash is used for acquiring raw material. Raw materials are transformed into
finished goods, finished are generally sold on credit are converted into accounts
receivable finally accounts receivable, on realization, generate cash.
The swift transaction of current assets and the short life span of the components of
working capital can be seen in the current assets cycle. However, this short life span and
swift transformation has certain implications.
Decisions relating to working capital management are repetitive and frequent.
The difference between profits and present value is insignificant.


The close interaction among working capital components implies that efficient
management of one component cannot be undertaken without simultaneous
consideration of other components.
Investment in working capital is influenced by four key events in the
production and sales cycle of the company.
Purchase of raw material
Payment of raw material
Sale of finished goods
Collection of cash for sales
These keys events affect the cash flows. The firm begins with the purchase of raw
material which is pain for after a delay, which is paid for after delay and which represents
the accounts payable period. Customers pay their bills sometime after the sales the period
that elapses between the date of sales and the date of collection of receivables is the
accounts payable period (debit period).

CASH MANAGEMENT:Cash, the most liquid asset, is of vital importance to the daily operations of the
company. Cash management is concerned with the managing of
Cash flows into and out of the firm.
Cash flows within the firm.
Cash balance held by the firm at a point of time by financing deficit of
inventing surplus cash.







Sales generate cash, which has to be disturbed out. The surplus cash has to be
invested while deficit has to be followed. Cash management seems to accomplish this
cycle at a minimum cost.
At the time, it also seeks to achieve liquidity and control. The management of cash
is important because it is difficult to predict cash flows accurate particularly the inflows
and that there is no perfect coincidence between the inflows and outflows of the cash.
In order to resolve the uncertainness about the cash flows, the firm should
develop appropriate for cash management. The firm should evolve strategies regarding
the following four facts of cash management.
Cash planning; cash inflows and outflows should be planned to project cash
surplus or deficit for each period of the planned period.
Managing the cash flows: the flows of the cash should be properly managed.
Optimum cash level: the firm should decide about the appropriate level of cash
Investing surplus cash: the surplus cash balance should be properly invested to
earn profits.
There are three possible motives for holding cash:


Firm needs cash to meet their transaction needs. The collection of cash is not
perfectly synchronized with the disbursement of cash. Hence, some cash balance is
required as buffer.
There may be some uncertainty about the magnitude and timing of cash inflows
from sales of goods and services, sales of goods and services, sales of assets, and issuance
of securities. To protect it against such uncertainties, a firm may require some cash
Firms would like to tap profit-making opportunities arising from fluctuations in
commodity prices, security prices, interest rates, and foreign exchange rates. A cash rich
firm is better prepared to exploit such bargains. Hence, the financial manager should
establish reliable forecasting and reporting system improve cash collections and
disbursements and achieve optimal conservations and utilization of funds.
Cash budgeting or short-term cash forecasting is the principle tool of cash
management. Cash budgets, routinely prepared by business firms are helpful in:
Estimating cash requirements
Planning short-term financing.
Scheduling payments in connection with capital expenditure projects.
Planning purchases of materials.
Developing credit policies.
Long-term forecasting are generally prepared for a period ranging from two to
five years and serve to provide a broad brush picture of a firms financing needs and
availability of invest bile surplus in the future, the receipt and disbursements method is
used for preparing the long-term cash forecast.



The efficiency of cash management can be enhanced by properly monitoring the
collection and disbursements.
The followings are useful:
By preparing and sending the bills promptly, a firm can ensure remittance. It
should be realized that it is in the area of billing that the companys controls is high and
there is a sizeable opportunity and others in accelerating invoice date, mailing bills
promptly, and identifying payment locations.
When a firm issues a Cheques it reduces the balance in its books. The balance in
the banks books is not reduced till the bank makes the payment. The amount of cheques
issued by the company but not paid for by the referred to as the payment float. The
amount of cheques deposited by the firm in the bank but not cleared is referred to as the
collection float. The difference between payment float and collection float is referred
to as net float.



Marketing is communicating the value of a product, service or brand

to customers, for the purpose of promoting or selling that product, service, or brand. The
main purpose is to increase sales of the product and profits of the company. Marketing
acts a support system to the sales team by propagating the message and information to the
target audience.
Marketing of the products and services is done throughout the India, the concept
direct sale to the customer is followed. The services provided to the customers according
to their needs and preferences. The product and services are marketed with I-On as the
4.2.1 Marketing Mix:The marketing mix consist of 4 Ps in major Place, Price, Product and Promotion.
Place: - The operations taken place in entire India. The market segmentation is as




Shopping Malls


Fig- 4.2.1
Price: - The price of the product depends upon the number users, capital
Investment and area.
Product and Service: - The product and kind of the services can be chosen by the
customer himself, the product and service mix is different for each segmented

Service Mix


Fig- 4.2.2


44 Mix

Value Added



Leased Line


Campus Wi-Fi

Enterprise Wi-

Fig- 4.2.3

Wired Wi-Fi
Different type of product suit for market segments in D-VoiS.
Market Segment

Product Suit
Apartment Wi-Fi, Broadband Internet, e-


Learning, Access Control, VoIP

Lease Line Internet, Network Management

Educational Institutions

Campus Wi-Fi, Broadband Internet, Lease
Line Internet, LAN, e-Learning, e-Library,
Streaming Content, VoIP, IT enabled
Services (ERP, Examination processing etc.)
Internet, VoD, Video Conferencing, VoIP
Wi-Fi, Broadband Internet, Lease line

Shopping Malls

Internet, Advertisements, Streaming Videos

Table- 4.2.1
Promotion: - D-VoiS markets its products with the brand name of I-On. The
promotion for the products and services are done by direct approach with
D-Vois also providing Public Wi-Fi facilities with the aid the Government.

4.2.2 Major Customers:The major customer of the D-Vois in the segments of hotels and educational institites
Taj Group of Hotels

Educational Instititues
Manipal University


Lemon Tree Hotels

RVC Institutions
Le Meridien and Le Royal Meridien Hotels Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College
Royal Orchid
International center for Applied Sciences
Holiday Inn Resorts and Hotels
Kustruba Medical College
Table- 4.2.2


The Human Resource Development (HRD) is to create context for
technological and managerial excellence in a globally competitive in internet service
providers. The changing environment, rapid technological changes accelerated a
paradigm shift in the usage of the internet made the HR to take the more competitive,
ancilliarisation, private partnership, focused diversification to civilian. The overall
objective of the Human Resource Development plan is to build a vibrant performance and
learning culture that meets the challenges of customer, quality cost, delivery and
excellence. Recruitment and retention of competent human resources and develop high
commitment and a sense of belongingness to the Company. The number of employees so
far in employment within the company is around 80 members.
The Human Resource Department in the D-VoiS Communication (P) Ltd mainly
concentrate on the core activities of the HR like Recruitment, Training and Development,
Compensations and Salaries.
5.3.1 HR Objectives: Ensure availability of Total Quality People to meet the Organizational Goals and
Facilitate continuous improvement in Knowledge, Skills and Competence
(Managerial, Behavioral and Technical).
Promote a Culture of Learning, Innovation and Achievement with emphasis on
Integrity, Credibility and Quality.
Motivate workforce through empowerment of Individuals and Team- building.
Play a pivotal role directly and significantly to enhance Productivity, Profitability
and the Quality of Work Life.
5.3.2 RECRUITMENT:Recruitment involves attracting and obtaining as many applications as possible
from the eligible job-seekers. The companies hires the both IT and Non-IT graduates and


post graduates when department applied Man Power Form to HRD. The following is the
process the D-Vois follows while recruitment.
Personal planning
Job vacancies
Job analysis
Recruitment planning
Applicant population
Then the actual selection process begins. It involves
Written Test
Selection Decision
Job Offer
Employment Contract
Recruitment Chart of the D-Vois


Sales Manager
Sales Personals
Network Support
Fig- 3.1

The recruitment for the IT field preference for the candidate with qualification
any technical degree like B.Tech, B.S, B.E along with certified course of Cisco
Certified Network Associate (CCNA).
The recruitment for the Non-IT field preference for the candidate with
qualification of MBA in Marketing.


5.3.3 Induction:Induction of freshers in D-Vois takes place in two streams as:

Other professionals
The induction of meritorious and fresh IT Graduates and other Professionals is
linked to each of the programs with required background, competencies and skill sets.
5.3.4 Learning and development:The objective is that learning should become an integral component of individual
professional development by:
updating knowledge to avoid obsolescence
enhancing creativity & innovation
continuously identify potential for shouldering higher responsibilities
Enlarge market share through competitive advantage and strategic thinking to take up
IT fresher employees will undergo with training program CYBER BUFFING.
Development for the employees must be taken care by the organization
with due-allegiance. The development of the employees in the organization is measured
with the different performance appraisals.

5.3.5 Performance management system:Continuously improve people capabilities, for meeting the Company's goals. The
Performance Management System of Executives formulated on work planning and Task
(mutually agreed tasks), self-review and analysis, systematic review and performance
feedback ensures that the focus be on value adding activities. Identification of Low
performers and High performers enables performance differentials for compensation &
career development. There is a clearly defined system of performance review for
D-VoiS Communication (P) Ltd follows the self-appraisal technique for the
measuring the performance of the employees. If any of the employee performance is not
up to mark they provide chance of increasing the performance of the employee.


5.3.6 Compensations and Salaries: Salaries of the company is decided on the basis of CTC.
The statutory benefits like PF and ESI is provided to the employee.
Apart of the salaries there will be incentives like leave encashment, share of
profit on Banquets.
Allowances like travelling expense and telephone allowance
Facilities providing like laptops and mobiles.
Compensation for the employees on any uncertainty through Medicare.
If any of the employee in the company wants to change the company he have to give
60 days prior notice to the management.
Employee can be fired on the basis of performance is not improved.
5.3.7 HR Policies: Overtime compensation
Payroll deductions
Loan Policies
Laptop Policies
Dress code Policies

of computers and telecommunications

technology (IT)

equipment to







manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it
also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and
telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including

hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom

equipment, e-commerce and computer services.

The IT department in the D-vois major role in the network monitoring and quality control
for the products. The department consists of 2 major teams like Network operating center


and operations and management team this two team co-ordinate with each other in the
quality control. Other than this they are MIS and Systems departments.
System department maintenance the all the system functions and solves the any repairs
and replacement in the systems that used by the company.
MIS department this is important in the organization which maintains all the records of
the company in the receipts and payments and other information regarding to the latest
updates in the technology in internet services providing equipment and


A network operations center (NOC), pronounced like the word knock), also known as a
"network management center", is one or more locations from which network monitoring
and control, or network management, is exercised over a computer, telecommunication or
satellite network.
Early versions of NOCs have been around since the 1960s. A Network Control Center
was opened in New York by AT&T in 1962 that used status boards to display switch and
route information, in real-time, from AT&T's most important toll switches. AT&T later
replaced their Network Control Center with a NOC in 1977 in Bedminster, New Jersey.



and government

by business

agencies that

organizations, public

oversee complex networking

utilities, universities,


require high availability. NOC personnel are responsible for monitoring one or many
networks for certain conditions that may require special attention to avoid degraded
service. Organizations may operate more than one NOC, either to manage different
networks or to provide geographic redundancy in the event of one site becoming
In addition to monitoring internal and external networks of related infrastructure, NOCs
can monitor social networks to get a head-start on disruptive events.
NOCs analyze problems, perform troubleshooting, communicate with site
technicians and other NOCs, and track problems through resolution. When necessary,


NOCs escalate problems to the appropriate stakeholders. For severe conditions that are
impossible to anticipate, such as a power failure or a cut optical fiber cable, NOCs have
procedures in place to immediately contact technicians to remedy the problem.
Primary responsibilities of NOC personnel may include:

Network monitoring

Incident response

Communications management

Reporting problems

NOCs often escalate issues in a hierarchic manner, so if an issue is not resolved in a

specific time frame, the next level is informed to speed up problem remediation. NOCs
sometimes have multiple tiers of personnel, which define how experienced and/or skilled
a NOC technician is. A newly hired NOC technician might be considered a "tier 1",
whereas a technician that has several years of experience may be considered "tier 3" or
"tier 4". As such, some problems are escalated within a NOC before a site technician or
other network engineer is contacted.
NOC personnel may perform extra duties; a network with equipment in public areas
(such as a mobile network Base Transceiver Station) may be required to have a telephone
number attached to the equipment for emergencies; as the NOC may be the only
continuously staffed part of the business, these calls will often be answered there.
Networking environments
Computer environments can range in size from one to millions of servers.
In telecommunication environments, NOCs are responsible for monitoring
power failures, communication line alarms (such as bit errors, framing errors, line coding
errors, and circuits down) and other performance issues that may affect the network.
Satellite network environments process large amounts of voice and video data,
in addition to intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information. Example
organizations that manage this form of NOC includes Aritel, a service provider of
commercial satellite bandwidth to the United States Department of Defense, located
in Herndon, Virginia.[2]


NOCs are frequently laid out with several rows of desks, all facing a video wall,
which typically shows details of highly significant alarms, ongoing incidents and general
network performance; a corner of the wall is sometimes used for showing a news or
weather TV channel, as this can keep the NOC technicians aware of current events which
may have an impact on the network or systems they are responsible for. The back wall of
a NOC is sometimes glazed; there may be a room attached to this wall which is used by
members of the team responsible for dealing with serious incidents to meet while still
able to watch events unfolding within the NOC. Individual desks are generally assigned
to a specific network, technology or area. A technician may have several computer
monitors on their desk, with the extra monitors used for monitoring the systems or
networks covered from that desk. The location housing a NOC may also contain many or
all of the primary servers and other equipment essential to running the network, although
it is not uncommon for a single NOC to monitor and control a number of geographically
dispersed sites.
NOC engineers
A NOC engineer has several duties in order to ensure the smooth running of the
network. They deal with things such as DDoS Attacks, power outages, network failures,
and routing black-holes. There are of course the basic roles, such as remote hands,
support and configuration of hardware (such as firewalls and routers, purchased by a
client). NOC engineers also have to ensure the core network is stable. This can be done
by configuring hardware in a way that makes the network more secure, but still has
optimal performance. NOC engineers are also responsible for monitoring activity, such as
network usage, temperatures etc. They would also have to install equipment, such as
KVMs, rack installation, IP-PDU setup, running cabling. The majority of NOC engineers
are also on call and have a 5-6 day rotation, working different shifts.
Operation and management
Operational maintenance is the care and minor maintenance of equipment
using procedures that do not require detailed technical knowledge of the equipments or
systems function and design. This category of operational maintenance normally consists
of inspecting, cleaning, servicing, preserving, lubricating, and adjusting, as required. Such


maintenance may also include minor parts replacement that does not require the person
performing the work to have highly technical skills or to perform internal alignment.
This department acts as the quality control and complaint grievance in the disconnection of the internet from the server. This works together with the NOC department
in the quality check out. The O&M department works for the 24/7 to solve the complaints
of the customers. Department monitors the networks and if there is any trouble shooting it
identifies with the alternative solution for the trouble shoot.
The quality control system procedure is as follows
The NOC department check out each and every minute for troubleshoot in the
network, if troubleshoot occurs then it try to solve by the software even the troubleshoot
occurs then they will inform to the O&M team for the check in the hardware components
in the site to find out the reasons and solve the problem.
The process of operation in the company
1. The marketing department brings the new customers and document the
requirements of the customers.
2. This document is forwarded to the project team they go to the site and analyze the
requirement with documentation called Bill of Requirement.
3. After formulating the BOR it will goes to the approval of the top management.
4. Once top management approval the project it goes to the O&M for the purchase
of requirements and installation of the system at the site.
5. After the installation the whole documents is forwarded to the customers and the
NOC team for the regular monitoring.
The main concept of the business is on the basis of zero investment for the customers.
The company only provides the all the initial investment for the customers. The rental
agreement is made for the 3 years minimum and the rental is charged on the basis of the
numbers of the users and the amount of the speed that required for the customer.
Systems:This department check out the system maintenance of the companies and the
MIS:Management Information System this department looks after all the information
regarding to the technology in the internet providing products and the updating time to


The quality control monitoring procedure in the internet services is shown in the flow

24*7 network Mointoring

Device or Network down observed

Identification of issue

Generating Trouble Ticket and informs

Site engineer visits the location &

Co-ordinate with NOC team and try to

rectify the issue


Is issue resolved

Inform field team regarding the issue

Visits the site and solves the issue

Getting confirmation form the CE for

Engineer will close the TT & updates
issue details in call log report



A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method
used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in
a project or in a business venture. A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a product,
place, industry or person. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or
project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable
to achieve that objective. Some authors credit SWOT to Albert Humphrey, who led a
convention at the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) in the 1960s and
1970s using data from Fortune 500companies.[1][2] However, Humphrey himself does not
claim the creation of SWOT, and the origins remain obscure. The degree to which the
internal environment of the firm matches with the external environment is expressed by
the concept of strategic fit.

Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over


Weaknesses: characteristics that place the business or project at a disadvantage

relative to others.

Opportunities: elements that the project could exploit to its advantage.

Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or


Identification of SWOTs is important because they can inform later steps in planning
to achieve the objective.
First, the decision makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given
the SWOTs. If the objective is not attainable a different objective must be selected and
the process repeated.
The SWOT analysis of the D-VoiS communication private limited as follows:Strengths: Technology - Superior technology allows D-VoiS ISP to better meet the needs
of their customers in ways they want.
Brand Name - A strong brand name is a major strength of D-VoiS ISP. This
gives D-VoiS ISP the ability to charge more revenue from the services.
Customer Loyalty - When given a choice, customers are loyal to D-VoiS
ISP. Instead of targeting all customers, D-VoiS ISP targeting the specific
kind of the market to maintain.
Strong Management - Strong management can help D-Vois ISP reach its
potential by utilizing strengths and eliminating the weakness of the
Unique Products - Unique products help distinguish DVoiS ISP from competitors. D-VoiS ISP can charge
higher prices for the services provided.
Size Advantages - Size advantages lower D-VoiS ISPs
risks. The larger D-VoiS ISP gets, the more resources they
have to utilize for the maintenance of the market and
customers loyalty.
Weakness: Online Presence - The online market is essential for
displaying information and selling products. A weak online
presence can result in lost opportunities to get new
Weak Brand - A weak brand means D-VoiS ISP cant


charge the same prices for goods and services as their

competitors, because consumers dont value the brand.
Customer Service - Weak customer service hurts D-VoiS
ISPs reputation and causes customers to flee to
competitors, who are more respondent.
Opportunities: Online Market - The online market offers D-VoiS ISP the ability to greatly expand
their business. D-VoiS ISP can market to a much wider audience for relatively
little expense.
New Technology - The online market offers D-VoiS ISP the ability to greatly
expand their business. D-VoiS ISP can market to a much wider audience for
relatively little expense.
New Services - New services help D-VoiS ISP to better meet their customers
needs. These services can expand D-VoiS ISPs business and diversify their
customer base.




offer D-VoiS

ISP new

opportunities to expand the business and increase sales.

New Markets - New markets allow D-VoiS ISP to expand their business and
diversify their portfolio of products and services.
Treats: Intense Competition - Intense completion can lower D-VoiS ISPs profits, because
competitors can entice consumers away with superior products.
Government Regulations - Intense completion can lower D-VoiS ISPs profits,
because competitors can entice consumers away with superior products.

SWOT Conclusion
Strengths + Opportunities = 11
Threats + Weaknesses = 5


The analysis of the company had the more strength and opportunities than the threats
and weakness. the management of the company going on improving their weakness and
the decreasing the treats.



Summary of Findings: D-VoiS had the market strategy of zero investment which customer need not to
pay any capital expenditure for availing the services and the company will
charge the rental on monthly basis or quarterly basis.
The company target majorly huge entities for the business.
The company follows Niche segmentation.
There will be 24/7 checking the network connection of the customer for any
failure in the transmission of the data.
The newly entered into the public Wi-Fi connection.
The recruitment will be done with the help of agencies and within the data base
of the company for the previous applicants if any.
The marketing department plays major role in providing the customers for the

Suggestions: Entering into the all types of segments and global marketing.
Increase in the product width.
Effective utilization of resources.
Branding the image of the company by using advertisement.
Providing facilities to improve the employees the potential skills.
Maintaining the customer relationship.
Suggestion for the CSR activities to be taken place.

Conclusion:D-VOIS COMMUNICATION PVT LTD has the best performance level in the
operation of the activities of providing internet services in the way of the zero investment
from the customer side. They had the different product and the services for the customers.
The company financial position is in the increasing way. The expansion of the business


activities across the India. The company also enjoying the good profits and they entered
into project of public Wi-Fi in the Bangalore with the aid of the government.

International Telecommunications Union *Estimates


Financial Management Author: L M Pandey Publishers: Vikas Publishers

Edition: Eleventh Edition.

Human Resource Management Author: Aswathappa Publisher: TMH

Edition: Seventh edition

Production and Operation Management Author: S N Chary Publisher:

McGraw Hill Education Edition: Fifth Edition

Marketing Management Author: Philip T Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller Publisher:

Prentice Hall Edition: Fourteenth Edition.