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Lab Report Rubric (Assessment Form)

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering


Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Criteria

Laboratory: Hydraulics Laboratory

Section :

Subject Code: BFC 21201

Group Members:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Experiment Title : Flow in Open Channel

SCR

WT

TSCR (%)

Showed interest, used time very


well, guide other students and very
focused on experiment

Student can explain the results of


the experiment in detail and the ways
in which they relate to the research
focus. The student can also evaluate
the significance of the experiment to
the real situation

Attendance &
Dicipline

Student in laboratory more


than 1 hour late

Student in laboratory within


30 minutes to 1 hour late

Student in laboratory within 10


to 30 minutes late

Student in laboratory just


before laboratory start

Student in laboratory 10 minutes


earlier

Aim / Purpose

Purpose is not identified


Relevant variables are not
described

Purpose is somewhat vague


Relevant variables are not
described

Purpose is identified
Relevant variables are
described

Purpose is clearly identified


Relevant variables are described

Materials
(optional)

There is not a list of the


necessary lab materials

Most lab materials included

All necessary lab materials


included and listed

All necessary lab materials included


and listed in an organized manner

Procedure
(optional)

Procedures are not listed

Procedures are listed but not


in clear steps

Purpose is identified
Relevant variables are
described in somewhat unclear
manner
All necessary lab materials
included but not listed in any
particular order
Procedures are listed in clear
steps but not numbered and/or
in complete sentences

Procedures are listed in clear


steps
Each step is numbered and in
a complete sentence

Data lacks precision


Greater than 20% difference
with accepted values

Good representation of the


data using tables and/or graphs
Less than 15% difference with
accepted values
Precision is acceptable

Accurate representation of the


data using tables and/or graphs
Data is fairly precise
Less than 10% difference with
accepted values

Trends / patterns are not


analyzed
Answers to questions are
incomplete
Analysis is inconsistent
A statement of the results is
incomplete with little reflection
on the lab

Trends / patterns are logically


analyzed for the most part
Questions are answered in
complete sentences
Analysis is general
A statement of the results of
the lab indicates whether
results support the hypothesis

Did the job but did not appear


to be very interested. Focus lost
on several occasion

Trends / patterns are logically


analyzed
Questions are answered in
complete sentences
Analysis is thoughtful
Accurate statement of the
results of the lab indicates
whether results support the
hypothesis
Possible sources of error
identified
Used time pretty well. Stayed
focused on the experiment most
of the time

Procedures are listed in clear steps


Each step is numbered and in a
complete sentence
Diagrams are included to describe
the set-up
Accurate representation of the data
using tables and/or graphs
Graphs and tables are labeled and
titled
Data is precise with less than 5%
difference with accepted values
Trends / patterns are logically
analyzed
Questions are answered thoroughly
and in complete sentences
Analysis is insightful
Accurate statement of the results of
lab indicates whether results support
hypothesis
Possible sources of error and what
was learned from the lab discussed

Data

Analysis /
Result

Discussion

Data is not represented or is


not accurate

Trends / patterns are not


analyzed
Questions are not answered
Analysis is not relevant
No disussion was included or
shows little effort and reflection
on the lab

Participation
(during
experiment)

Student was hostile about


participating

Participation was minimal

Interview (for
short reports)

Student cannot answer


questions about the experiment

Student can answer some


questions about the experiment

NAME OF LECTURER :

Student can answer questions


about the experiment and
begins to make connections
between the experiment and its
applications

Student can explain the


results of the experiment in
detail and the ways in which
they relate to the research focus

SIGNATURE :

DATE :

TOTAL SCORE :

Note : SCR = SCORE, WT = WEIGHTAGE, TSCR = TOTAL SCORE

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LABORATORY PAPER INSTRUCTION

Subject Code

BFC 21201

Experiment Code

MKA 02

Experiment Title

FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

Section

STUDENTS ETHICAL CODE (SEC)


DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also
declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and
make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true

.
(STUDENT SIGNATURE)

NAME

MATRIC NO :.
DATE

:....

*This SEC sheet/student is compulsory compiles in this report


FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING

PAGE NO :

1/5

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

EDITION :

REVIEW NO :

WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

EFFECTIVE DATE :

17/05/2005

TITLE : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

AMENDMENT DATE :

17/05/2005

PART A : THE HYDRAULIC JUMPS


1.0 OBJECTIVE
To investigate the characteristic a standing wave (the hydraulic jump) produced when waters
beneath an undershot weir and to observe the flow patterns obtained.
2.0

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the course, students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills they have
learned to:
a. Understand the concept and characteristics of hydraulic jump.
b. Understand the factors which influence the hydraulic jump.

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

PAGE NO :

1/5

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

EDITION :

REVIEW NO :

WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

EFFECTIVE DATE :

17/05/2005

TITLE : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

AMENDMENT DATE :

17/05/2005

3.0 THEORY

When water flowing rapidly changes to slower tranquil flow, a hydraulic jump or standing wave is
produced. This phenomenon can be seen where water shooting under a sluice gate mixes with deeper
water downstream. It occurs when a depth less than critical changes to a depth which is greater than
critical and must be accompanied by loss of energy. An undular jump occurs when the change in depth is
small. The surface of the water undulates in a series of oscillations, which gradually decay to a region of
smooth tranquil flow. A direct jump occurs when the change in depth is great. The large amount of energy
loss produces a zone of extremely turbulent water before it settles to smooth tranquil flow.
By considering the forces acting within the fluid on either side of a hydraulic jump of unit width it can be
shown that:

Where,

is the total head loss across jump (energy dissipated) (m),

jump (m/s),
jump (m) and
and

is the depth of flow before hydraulic jump (m),

is the mean velocity


2/5before

is the mean velocity after hydraulic

is the depth of flow after hydraulic jump (m). Because the working section is short,
. Therefore, simplifying the above equation,

4.0 EQUIPMENTS
1. Self-contained Glass Sided Tilting Flume
2. Adjustable Undershot Weir
3. Instrument Carrier
4. Hook and Point Gauge

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

PAGE NO :

1/5

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

EDITION :

REVIEW NO :

WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

EFFECTIVE DATE :

17/05/2005

TITLE : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

AMENDMENT DATE :

17/05/2005

5.0 PROCEDURES
1. Ensure the flume is level, with the downstream tilting overshot weir,

at the bottom of its travel.

Measure and record the actual breadth (m) of the undershot weir. Install the undershot weir
towards the inlet end of the flume and ensure that it is securely clamped in position.
2. Adjust the undershot weir to position the sharp edge of the weir 20 mm above the bed of the
channel. Increase the height of the tilting overshot weir until the downstream level just start to
rise.
3. Gradually open the flow control valve and adjust the flow until an undular jump is created with
small ripple decaying towards the discharge end of the working section. Observe and sketch the
flow pattern.
4. Increase the height of water upstream of the undershot weir by increasing the flow rate and
increase the height of the tilting overshot weir to create a hydraulic jump in the centre of the
working section. Observe and sketch the flow pattern.
5.
Measure and record the values of ,
,
and . Repeat this for other flow rates (upstream
head) and heights of the gate

6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATION


1.
Calculate
and plot dg against
2.
3.

Calculate
Calculate

and plot
and verify

against
<

<

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

PAGE NO :

3/5
1/5

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

EDITION :

REVIEW NO :

WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

EFFECTIVE DATE :

17/05/2005

TITLE : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

AMENDMENT DATE :

17/05/2005

Channel width, b =....m


Table 6.1: The hydraulic Jumps
Weir
Opening
dg
(m)

Upstrea
m Flow
Depth
do
(m)

Flow
Depth
Above
Jump
d1
(m)

Flow
Depth
Below
Jump
d3
(m)

Flow
Rate
v1
Q
(m3/s)

7.0 QUESTIONS
1. Verify the force of the stream on either side of the jump is the same and that the specific energy
curve predicts a loss equal to

2. Suggest application where the loss of energy in hydraulic jump would be desirable. How is the
energy dissipated?

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

PAGE NO :

4/5
1/5

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

EDITION :

REVIEW NO :

WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

EFFECTIVE DATE :

17/05/2005

TITLE : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

AMENDMENT DATE :

17/05/2005

PART B : THE FORCE ON A SLUICE GATE


1.0 OBJECTIVE
To determine the relationship between upstream head and thrust on a sluice gate (undershot weir)
for water flowing under the sluice gate.
2.0

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the course, students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills they have
learned to:
a. Understand the basic terms and concept of a sluice gate.
b. Understand on the characteristics of the force on a sluice gate.

3.0 THEORY
It can be shown that the resultant force on the gate is given by the equation,
.

The gate thrust for a hydrostatic pressure

distribution is given by the equation,

where,

is resultant hydrostatic thrust (N),


gravitational constant (9.81m/s2),

is volume flowrate (m/s),

is breadth of gate (m),

is upstream depth of flow (m) and

is resultant gate thrust (N),


is density of fluid (kg/m3),

is height of upstream opening (m),

is downstream depth of flow (m).

4.0 EQUIPMENTS
1. Self-contained Glass Sided Tilting Flume
2. Adjustable Undershot Weir
3. Instrument Carrier
4. Hook and Point Gauge

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

PAGE NO :

1/5

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

EDITION :

REVIEW NO :

WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

EFFECTIVE DATE :

17/05/2005

TITLE : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

AMENDMENT DATE :

17/05/2005

5.0 PROCEDURES
1. Ensure the flume is level, with the downstream tilting overshot weir at the bottom of its travel.

2.
3.

Measure and record the actual breadth (m) of the undershot weir. Install the undershot weir
towards the inlet end of the flume and ensure that it is securely clamped in position.
Adjust the undershot weir to set its bottom edge 20mm above the bed of the channel.
5/5
Introduce water into the flume until
= 200mm. With
at this position, take readings for
and

. Raise the undershot weir in increments of 10mm, maintaining constant

. At each level of the weir, record the values of

4.

Repeat the procedure with a constant flow


and

, allowing

and

to vary. Record the values of

6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATIONS


Weir breadth=mm
Table 6.1: The force on the sluice gate
Weir
Opening
(m)

Upstream
Flow
Depth
(m)

Downstream
Flow Depth
(m)

Flow
Rate
(m3/s)

Gate
Thrust
(N)

by varying

Hydrosatic
Thrust
(N)

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

PAGE NO :

1/5

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

EDITION :

REVIEW NO :

WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

EFFECTIVE DATE :

17/05/2005

TITLE : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

AMENDMENT DATE :

17/05/2005

7.0 QUESTIONS
1.
Plot a graph of the ratio

against the ratio

2. Comment on the graph obtained.


3.
Compare your calculated values for

and

and comment on any differences.

4. What is the effect of flowrate on the results obtained?


Prepared by:
WAN AFNIZAN WAN MOHAMED

Updated by:
SABARIAH MUSA

Signature:

Signature:

Date: 14 July 2008

Date: 14 February 2014