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Section 2.4

Problem 20

Prove the statement

using the , definition of a limit

limx10 3 54 x = 5

Soluition

Proof: Let > 0. Then, we need to find a > 0 such that when |x a| < then |f (x) L| < . Hence,

3 4 x (5) <

5

4

x + 8 <

5

4

x 8 <

(1)

5

4

| 1| x 8 <

5

4

x 8 <

5

4

(x 10) <

5

4

|x 10| <

5

|x 10| <

5

=

4

Problem 24

Prove the statement using the , definition of a limit

limxa c = c

Proof: Let > 0. Then, we need to find a > 0 such that when |x a| < then |f (x) L| < . Hence,

|c c| <

0<

>0

Here, can be any value > 0.

Section 11.1

Problem 24

Determine whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges,

2

an = 3+5n

1+n

Solution

2

Diverges, an acts like 5nn = 5n when n is really large.

Problem 26

Determine whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges,

an = 2 + (0.86)n

Solution

Converges to 2.

Problem 28

Determine

whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges,

n

an = 3n+2

Solution

Problem 30

Determine whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges,

4n

an = 1+9

n

Solution

n

Converges to 0 because an acts like 94 when n is large.

Problem 42

Determine whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges, find the limit.

an = ln(n + 1) ln n

Solution

whihc acts like ln nn = ln(1) = 0 when n is large.

an = ln(n + 1) ln n = ln n+1

n

Diverges

Problem 74

Determine whether the sequence is increasing, decreasing, or not monotonic. Is the sequence bounded?

1n

an = 2+n

Solution

2

(n)(2+n)(1n)(3+n)

1(n+1)

n

1n

3+2n+n2

3

1n

= 2nn

= (3+n)(2+n)

< 0. Hence, the sequence

an+1 an = 2+(n+1)

2+n = 3+n 2+n =

(3+n)(2+n)

(3+n)(2+n)

is decreasing. The sequence is also bounded between 0 and -1.

Problem 76

Determine whether the sequence is increasing, decreasing, or not monotonic. Is the sequence bounded?

n

an = 2 + (1)

n

Solution

Note that when n is even, an > 2 and when n is odd, an < 2. Therefore, this sequence is not monotonic but is bounded

between 1 and 2.5. It does converge to the value 2.

Problem 78

Determine whether the sequence is increasing, decreasing, or not monotonic. Is the sequence bounded?

an = n3 3n + 3

Solution

an+1 an = (n + 1)3 3(n + 1) + 3 (n3 3n + 3) = n3 + 3n2 + 3n + 1 3n 3 + 3 n3 + 3n 3 = 3n2 + 3n 2 > 0 for

all n 1. This sequence is increasing but not bounded.

Problem 82

Show that the sequence defined by a1 = 1, an+1 = 3 a1n satisfies 0 < an 2 and is decreasing. Deduce that the sequence

is convergent and find its limit.

Solution

We shall prove this using induction. Let Pn be the proposition that an+1 > an and 0 < an < 3.

1. P1 is true because a2 = 3 11 = 2 > a1 . Also, 0 < a1 < a2 < 3.

2. Assume Pn is true.

1

1

1

< a1n an+1

> a1n 3 an+1

> 3 a1n an+2 > an+1 . So, an+1 is an increasing sequence.

3. Then an+1 > an an+1

Also note an < 3 for all n. Since an is bounded and increasing, it is a convergent sequence.

Section 2.5

Problem 12

Use the definition of continuity and the properties of limits to show that the function is continuous on the given interval.

2

+5t

g(t) = t2t+1

,a=2

Solution

2

+5t

limta g(t) = limt2 t2t+1

=

=

limt2 t2 +5t

limt2 2t+1

(limt2 t)2 +5 limt2 t

2 limt2 t+1

(2)2 +5(2)

2(2)+1

14

5

=

=

= g(2)

Problem 20

Explain(why the function is discontinuous at the given number a. Sketch the graph of the function.

x2 x

if x 6= 1

2

f (x) = x 1

1

if x = 1

Solution

2

x(x1)

x

1

Note that limx1 xx2 x

1 = limx1 (x+1)(x1) = limx1 x+1 = 2 6= 1 = f (1).

Problem 42

Find the numbers at which f is discontinuous. At which of these numbers is f continuous from the right, from the left, or

neither? Sketch

the graph of f .

x

if x 1

2

f (x) = 3 x if 1 < x 4

x

if x > 4

Solution

limx1 f (x) = limx1 2x = 2 = f (1)

limx1+ f (x) = limx1+ 3 x = 2

So, limx1 f (x) = f (1) = 2 which implies f is continuous at 1.

limx4 f (x) = limx4

3 x = 1 = f (4)

limx4+ f (x) = limx4+ x = 2

So, f is left continuous but not right continuous at x = 4.

Problem 46

Find thevalues of a and b that make f continuous everywhere.

x2 4

if x < 2

x2

2

f (x) = ax bx + 3 if 2 x < 3

2x a + b

if x 3

Solution

2

4

= limx2 (x2)(x+2)

= limx2 x + 2 = 4

limx2 f (x) = limx2 xx2

x2

Likewise, limx2+ f (x) = limx2+ ax2 bx + 3 = a(2)2 b(2) + 2 = 4a 2b + 3

limx2 f (x) = limx2+ f (x) 4 = 4a 2b + 3 4a 2b = 1

Next, limx3 f (x) = limx3 ax2 bx + 3 = a(3)2 b(3) + 3 = 9a 3b + 3

And, limx3+ f (x) = limx3+ 2x a + b = 6 a + b

So,

9a 3b + 3 = 6 a + b 10a 3b = 3

4a 2b = 1 8a + 4b = 2 2a = 1 a = 1 b = 1

2

2

10a 4b = 3

10a 4b = 3

2

x 4

if x < 2

x2

1

1

2

f (x) = 2 x 2 x + 3 if 2 x < 3

2x

if x 3

Problem 54

Use the Intermediate

Value Theorem to show that there is a root of the given equation in the specified interval.

ln x = x x, (2, 3)

Solution

Let f (x) = ln x x + x. Note that f (2) = ln(2) 2 + 2 0.1073607 > 0 and f (3) = ln(3) 3 + 3 0.1693369 < 0.

Since f (2) > 0 > f (3), then there is a value c (2, 3) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c = 1 is the root.

Problem 56

Use the Intermediate Value Theorem to show that there is a root of the given equation in the specified interval.

sin x = x2 x, (1, 2)

Solution

Let f (x) = sin x x2 + x. Note that f (1) = sin(1) 12 + 1 0.8415 > 0 and f (2) = sin(2) 22 + 2 1.0907 < 0. Since

f (1) > 0 > f (2), then there is a value c (1, 2) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c 1.617545 is the root.

Problem 58(a)

Prove that the equation has at least one real root.

ln x = 3 2x

Solution

Let f (x) = ln x 3 + 2x. Note that f (1) = ln(1) 3 + 2(1) = 1 < 0 and f (e) = ln(e) 3 + 2(e) = 2(e 1) > 0. Since

f (1) < 0 < f (e), then there is a value c (1, e) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c 1.349962 is the root.

Problem 60(a)

Prove that the equation has at least one real root.

tan1 x = 1 x

Solution

Let f (x) = tan1 x 1 + x. Note that f (0) = tan1 (0) 1 + 0 = 1 < 0 and f (/4) = tan1 (/4) 1 + /4 = /4 > 0.

Since f (0) < 0 < f (/4), then there is a value c (0, /4) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c 0.520269 is the root.

Problem 62

Prove, without graphing, that the graph of the function has at least two x-intercepts in the specified interval.

y = x2 3 + 1/x, (0, 2)

Solution

Let f (x) = x2 3 + 1/x. Note that f (0.1) = (0.1)2 3 + 1/0.1 = 7.01 > 0, f (1) = (1)2 3 + 1/1 = 1 < 0 and

f (2) = (2)2 3 + 1/2 = 1.5 > 0. Since f (0.1) > 0 > f (1), then there is a value c (0, 1) such that f (c) = 0. In fact,

c 0.3472964 is the root. Also, Since f (1) < 0 < f (2), then there is a value c (1, 2) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c 1.532089

is the root.

Section 2.6

Problem 6

Problem 8

Problem 10

Problem 16

Find the limit or show that it does not exist.

2

limx x31x

x+1

Solution

3

2

1/x3 1/x

1x2 1/x

limx x31x

x+1 = limx x3 x+1 1/x3 = limx 11/x2 +1/x3 = 0

Problem 18

Find the limit or show that it does not exist.

3

+6x2 2

limx 4x

2x3 4x+5

Solution

3

3

4+6/x2/x3

+6x2 2

4x3 +6x2 2 1/x

limx 4x

2x3 4x+5 = limx 2x3 4x+5 1/x3 = limx 24/x2 +5/x3 = 2

Problem 20

Find the limitor show that it does not exist.

tt t

limt 2t3/2

+3t5

Solution

1/t3/2

1/t1/2 1

tt t

tt t

1

limt 2t3/2

= limt 2t3/2

= limt 2+3/t

1/2 5/t3/2 = 2

+3t5

+3t5 1/t3/2

Problem 22

Find the limit or show that it does not exist.

2

limx xx4 +1

Solution

2

2

1/x2

1 4 =1

limx xx4 +1 = limx xx4 +1 1/x

2 = limx

1+1/x

Problem 24

Find the limit

or show that it does not exist.

1+4x6

limx 2x

3

Solution

6

3

1/x +4

1+4x6

1+4x6 1/x

limx 2x

= limx 2x

=

lim

3

3

3

x

1/x

2/x3 1 = 2. This is not -2 becuase the denominator is positive for

3

1/x

all x < 0 before we multipled by 1/x

3.

Problem 26

Find the limit or show that it does not exist.

2

limx x+3x

4x1

Solution

2

2

1/x+3

x+3x2 1/x

limx x+3x

4x1 = limx 4x1 1/x2 = limx 4/x1/x2

Problem 48

Find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes.

2

+1

y = 3x2x

2 +2x1

Solution

2

+1

2

2x2 +1

2x2 +1

limx 3x2x

2 +2x1 = 3 , i.e., the horizontal asymptote. Next, 3x2 +2x1 = (3x1)(x+1) which implies vertical asymptotes at

x = 13 , 1

Problem 50

Find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes.

4

y = x1+x

2 x4

Solution

4

4

1+x4

limx x1+x

Next, x1+x

2 x4 = 1, i.e., the horizontal asymptote.

2 x4 = x2 (1+x)(1x) which implies vertical asymptotes at

x = 1, 0, 1

Problem 52

Find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes.

x

y = e2e

x 5

Solution

x

2ex

2ex

x

limx e2e

= 5 x = ln 5.

x 5 = 2 while limx ex 5 = 0. Next, y = ex 5 has a vertical asymptote at e

Problem 58

Find a formula for a function that has vertical asymptotes x = 1 and x = 3 and horizontal asymptote y = 1.

Solution

x2

y = (x1)(x3)

Problem 68

(a) A tank contains 5000 L of pure water. Brine that contains 30 g of salt per liter is pumped into the tank at a rate of 25

30t

.

L/min. Show that the concentration of salt after t minutes (in grams per liter) is C(t) = 200+t

(b) What happens to the concentration as t ?

Solution

(a) At t minutes. the amount of liquid in the tank is 5000 + 25t liters. Likewise, the amount of salt is 25t(30 = 750t grams.

30t

750t

= 200+t

grams/L.

So, the concentration of salt is 5000+25t

30t

(b) limt 5000+t = 30grams/L

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