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Homework 3 Solutions for Quiz 3

Section 2.4
Problem 20
Prove the statement
using the , definition of a limit

limx10 3 54 x = 5
Soluition
Proof: Let > 0. Then, we need to find a > 0 such that when |x a| < then |f (x) L| < . Hence,





3 4 x (5) <


5



4
x + 8 <
5





4

x 8 <
(1)
5


4


| 1| x 8 <
5



4
x 8 <
5


4


(x 10) <
5

4
|x 10| <
5
|x 10| <

5
=
4

Problem 24
Prove the statement using the , definition of a limit
limxa c = c
Proof: Let > 0. Then, we need to find a > 0 such that when |x a| < then |f (x) L| < . Hence,
|c c| <
0<
>0
Here, can be any value > 0.
Section 11.1
Problem 24
Determine whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges,
2
an = 3+5n
1+n
Solution
2
Diverges, an acts like 5nn = 5n when n is really large.
Problem 26
Determine whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges,
an = 2 + (0.86)n
Solution
Converges to 2.
Problem 28
Determine
whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges,

n
an = 3n+2
Solution

Converges to 3 because an behaves like 3nn = 3 when n is large.


Problem 30
Determine whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges,
4n
an = 1+9
n

find the limit.

find the limit.

find the limit.

find the limit.

Solution
n
Converges to 0 because an acts like 94 when n is large.
Problem 42
Determine whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges, find the limit.
an = ln(n + 1) ln n
Solution


whihc acts like ln nn = ln(1) = 0 when n is large.
an = ln(n + 1) ln n = ln n+1
n
Diverges
Problem 74
Determine whether the sequence is increasing, decreasing, or not monotonic. Is the sequence bounded?
1n
an = 2+n
Solution
2
(n)(2+n)(1n)(3+n)
1(n+1)
n
1n
3+2n+n2
3
1n
= 2nn
= (3+n)(2+n)
< 0. Hence, the sequence
an+1 an = 2+(n+1)
2+n = 3+n 2+n =
(3+n)(2+n)
(3+n)(2+n)
is decreasing. The sequence is also bounded between 0 and -1.
Problem 76
Determine whether the sequence is increasing, decreasing, or not monotonic. Is the sequence bounded?
n
an = 2 + (1)
n
Solution
Note that when n is even, an > 2 and when n is odd, an < 2. Therefore, this sequence is not monotonic but is bounded
between 1 and 2.5. It does converge to the value 2.
Problem 78
Determine whether the sequence is increasing, decreasing, or not monotonic. Is the sequence bounded?
an = n3 3n + 3
Solution
an+1 an = (n + 1)3 3(n + 1) + 3 (n3 3n + 3) = n3 + 3n2 + 3n + 1 3n 3 + 3 n3 + 3n 3 = 3n2 + 3n 2 > 0 for
all n 1. This sequence is increasing but not bounded.
Problem 82
Show that the sequence defined by a1 = 1, an+1 = 3 a1n satisfies 0 < an 2 and is decreasing. Deduce that the sequence
is convergent and find its limit.
Solution
We shall prove this using induction. Let Pn be the proposition that an+1 > an and 0 < an < 3.
1. P1 is true because a2 = 3 11 = 2 > a1 . Also, 0 < a1 < a2 < 3.
2. Assume Pn is true.
1
1
1
< a1n an+1
> a1n 3 an+1
> 3 a1n an+2 > an+1 . So, an+1 is an increasing sequence.
3. Then an+1 > an an+1
Also note an < 3 for all n. Since an is bounded and increasing, it is a convergent sequence.

4. Note that limn an = limn an+1 = L. Hence, L = 3 L1 L 3 + L1 = 0 L2 3L + 1 = 0 L = 32 5 . Since

an is increasing from 1, then L = 3+2 5


Section 2.5
Problem 12
Use the definition of continuity and the properties of limits to show that the function is continuous on the given interval.
2
+5t
g(t) = t2t+1
,a=2
Solution
2
+5t
limta g(t) = limt2 t2t+1
=
=

limt2 t2 +5t
limt2 2t+1
(limt2 t)2 +5 limt2 t
2 limt2 t+1
(2)2 +5(2)
2(2)+1
14
5

=
=
= g(2)
Problem 20
Explain(why the function is discontinuous at the given number a. Sketch the graph of the function.
x2 x
if x 6= 1
2
f (x) = x 1
1
if x = 1
Solution
2
x(x1)
x
1
Note that limx1 xx2 x
1 = limx1 (x+1)(x1) = limx1 x+1 = 2 6= 1 = f (1).

Problem 42
Find the numbers at which f is discontinuous. At which of these numbers is f continuous from the right, from the left, or
neither? Sketch
the graph of f .
x

if x 1
2
f (x) = 3 x if 1 < x 4

x
if x > 4
Solution
limx1 f (x) = limx1 2x = 2 = f (1)
limx1+ f (x) = limx1+ 3 x = 2
So, limx1 f (x) = f (1) = 2 which implies f is continuous at 1.
limx4 f (x) = limx4
3 x = 1 = f (4)
limx4+ f (x) = limx4+ x = 2
So, f is left continuous but not right continuous at x = 4.

Problem 46
Find thevalues of a and b that make f continuous everywhere.
x2 4

if x < 2
x2
2
f (x) = ax bx + 3 if 2 x < 3

2x a + b
if x 3
Solution
2
4
= limx2 (x2)(x+2)
= limx2 x + 2 = 4
limx2 f (x) = limx2 xx2
x2
Likewise, limx2+ f (x) = limx2+ ax2 bx + 3 = a(2)2 b(2) + 2 = 4a 2b + 3
limx2 f (x) = limx2+ f (x) 4 = 4a 2b + 3 4a 2b = 1
Next, limx3 f (x) = limx3 ax2 bx + 3 = a(3)2 b(3) + 3 = 9a 3b + 3
And, limx3+ f (x) = limx3+ 2x a + b = 6 a + b
So,
9a 3b + 3 = 6 a + b 10a 3b = 3

4a 2b = 1 8a + 4b = 2 2a = 1 a = 1 b = 1
2
2
10a 4b = 3
10a 4b = 3
2
x 4

if x < 2
x2
1
1
2
f (x) = 2 x 2 x + 3 if 2 x < 3

2x
if x 3
Problem 54
Use the Intermediate
Value Theorem to show that there is a root of the given equation in the specified interval.

ln x = x x, (2, 3)
Solution

Let f (x) = ln x x + x. Note that f (2) = ln(2) 2 + 2 0.1073607 > 0 and f (3) = ln(3) 3 + 3 0.1693369 < 0.
Since f (2) > 0 > f (3), then there is a value c (2, 3) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c = 1 is the root.

Problem 56
Use the Intermediate Value Theorem to show that there is a root of the given equation in the specified interval.
sin x = x2 x, (1, 2)
Solution
Let f (x) = sin x x2 + x. Note that f (1) = sin(1) 12 + 1 0.8415 > 0 and f (2) = sin(2) 22 + 2 1.0907 < 0. Since
f (1) > 0 > f (2), then there is a value c (1, 2) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c 1.617545 is the root.
Problem 58(a)
Prove that the equation has at least one real root.
ln x = 3 2x
Solution
Let f (x) = ln x 3 + 2x. Note that f (1) = ln(1) 3 + 2(1) = 1 < 0 and f (e) = ln(e) 3 + 2(e) = 2(e 1) > 0. Since
f (1) < 0 < f (e), then there is a value c (1, e) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c 1.349962 is the root.
Problem 60(a)
Prove that the equation has at least one real root.
tan1 x = 1 x
Solution
Let f (x) = tan1 x 1 + x. Note that f (0) = tan1 (0) 1 + 0 = 1 < 0 and f (/4) = tan1 (/4) 1 + /4 = /4 > 0.
Since f (0) < 0 < f (/4), then there is a value c (0, /4) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c 0.520269 is the root.
Problem 62
Prove, without graphing, that the graph of the function has at least two x-intercepts in the specified interval.
y = x2 3 + 1/x, (0, 2)
Solution
Let f (x) = x2 3 + 1/x. Note that f (0.1) = (0.1)2 3 + 1/0.1 = 7.01 > 0, f (1) = (1)2 3 + 1/1 = 1 < 0 and
f (2) = (2)2 3 + 1/2 = 1.5 > 0. Since f (0.1) > 0 > f (1), then there is a value c (0, 1) such that f (c) = 0. In fact,
c 0.3472964 is the root. Also, Since f (1) < 0 < f (2), then there is a value c (1, 2) such that f (c) = 0. In fact, c 1.532089
is the root.
Section 2.6
Problem 6

Problem 8

Problem 10

Problem 16
Find the limit or show that it does not exist.
2
limx x31x
x+1
Solution
3
2
1/x3 1/x
1x2 1/x
limx x31x
x+1 = limx x3 x+1 1/x3 = limx 11/x2 +1/x3 = 0
Problem 18
Find the limit or show that it does not exist.
3
+6x2 2
limx 4x
2x3 4x+5
Solution
3
3
4+6/x2/x3
+6x2 2
4x3 +6x2 2 1/x
limx 4x
2x3 4x+5 = limx 2x3 4x+5 1/x3 = limx 24/x2 +5/x3 = 2
Problem 20
Find the limitor show that it does not exist.
tt t
limt 2t3/2
+3t5
Solution

1/t3/2
1/t1/2 1
tt t
tt t
1
limt 2t3/2
= limt 2t3/2
= limt 2+3/t
1/2 5/t3/2 = 2
+3t5
+3t5 1/t3/2
Problem 22
Find the limit or show that it does not exist.
2
limx xx4 +1
Solution
2
2
1/x2
1 4 =1
limx xx4 +1 = limx xx4 +1 1/x
2 = limx
1+1/x

Problem 24
Find the limit
or show that it does not exist.

1+4x6
limx 2x
3
Solution
6

3
1/x +4
1+4x6
1+4x6 1/x
limx 2x
= limx 2x
=
lim
3
3
3
x
1/x
2/x3 1 = 2. This is not -2 becuase the denominator is positive for
3

1/x
all x < 0 before we multipled by 1/x
3.
Problem 26
Find the limit or show that it does not exist.
2
limx x+3x
4x1
Solution
2
2
1/x+3
x+3x2 1/x
limx x+3x
4x1 = limx 4x1 1/x2 = limx 4/x1/x2
Problem 48
Find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes.
2
+1
y = 3x2x
2 +2x1
Solution
2
+1
2
2x2 +1
2x2 +1
limx 3x2x
2 +2x1 = 3 , i.e., the horizontal asymptote. Next, 3x2 +2x1 = (3x1)(x+1) which implies vertical asymptotes at
x = 13 , 1
Problem 50
Find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes.
4
y = x1+x
2 x4
Solution
4
4
1+x4
limx x1+x
Next, x1+x
2 x4 = 1, i.e., the horizontal asymptote.
2 x4 = x2 (1+x)(1x) which implies vertical asymptotes at
x = 1, 0, 1
Problem 52
Find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes.
x
y = e2e
x 5
Solution
x
2ex
2ex
x
limx e2e
= 5 x = ln 5.
x 5 = 2 while limx ex 5 = 0. Next, y = ex 5 has a vertical asymptote at e

Problem 58
Find a formula for a function that has vertical asymptotes x = 1 and x = 3 and horizontal asymptote y = 1.
Solution
x2
y = (x1)(x3)
Problem 68
(a) A tank contains 5000 L of pure water. Brine that contains 30 g of salt per liter is pumped into the tank at a rate of 25
30t
.
L/min. Show that the concentration of salt after t minutes (in grams per liter) is C(t) = 200+t
(b) What happens to the concentration as t ?
Solution
(a) At t minutes. the amount of liquid in the tank is 5000 + 25t liters. Likewise, the amount of salt is 25t(30 = 750t grams.
30t
750t
= 200+t
grams/L.
So, the concentration of salt is 5000+25t
30t
(b) limt 5000+t = 30grams/L