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Physics 72 lecture slides

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39: Buoyancy

Lecture Objective

Apply the concept of buoyancy and Archimedes

principle to various systems involving fluids and objects

in fluids.

First century BC, the Hiero II, the king of

Syracuse suspected that the goldsmith

might have replaced some of the gold

given to him by silver.

Hiero asked Archimedes to find out

whether the wreath was pure gold.

The solution, which occurred when he stepped into his bath and

caused it to overflow, was to put a weight of gold equal to the

crown, and known to be pure, into a bowl which was filled with

water to the brim. Then the gold would be removed and the

kings crown put in, in its place. An alloy of lighter silver would

increase the bulk of the crown and cause the bowl to overflow.

http://www.math.nyu.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Crown/CrownIntro.html

Archimedes
principle

A
body
wholly
or
partially
submerged
in
a
fluid
is

buoyed
up
by
a
force
equal
to
the
weight
of
the

displaced
fluid.

Buoyancy

Buoyancy is the apparent loss of weight of objects when

submerged in a liquid.

It is easier to lift a boulder submerged on the bottom

of a riverbed than to lift it above the waters surface.

When the boulder is submerged, the water exerts an

upward force that is opposite in direction to gravity.

This upward force is called the buoyant force.

The buoyant force is the net upward force exerted

by a fluid on a submerged or immersed object.

Buoyancy

Force
exerted
by
fluid
on
a
body
submerged
in
it

Buoyancy

When an object is submerged, it displaces a volume of water

equal to the volume of the object itself.

Archimedes
principle

A brick weighs less in water than in air. The buoyant force

on the submerged brick is equal to the weight of the water

displaced.

simple rules.

1. An object more dense than the fluid in which

it is immersed sinks.

2. An object less dense than the fluid in which

it is immersed floats.

3. An object with density equal to the density

of the fluid in which it is immersed neither

sinks nor floats.

because it is less

dense than water.

The fish neither rises

nor sinks because it

has the same density

as water.

The rock sinks

because it is denser

than water.

A 15.0-kg solid gold statue is being raised from a sunken

ship. What is the tension in the hoisting cable when it is

completely immersed?

To
get
tension,
we

have
so
solve
for

Buoyant
force
B.

Use
FB=
gV

of seawater:

in water!

Note:

If
the
statue
is
out
of
water,

the
Tension
in
the
wire
is
equal

to
the
statues
weight

zero. Using the free-body diagram:

A raft of area A, thickness h, and mass 600 kg floats in still

water with 7 cm submerged. When Bubba stands on the

raft, 8.4 cm are submerged as shown below. What is

Bubba's mass?

Given:

A, h

m = 600 kg

d1 = 7 cm

d2 = 8.4 cm

Find:

M = mass of Bubba

14

Seatwork

15

Seatwork 1:

The buoyant force that acts on an object submerged in

water is due to

A.

equal water pressures on all sides.

B.

greater water pressure on the bottom than on

the top.

C.

the greater volume of the submerged object

compared with the volume of an equal weight

of water.

D.

whether or not the object is denser than

water.

Seatwork
2
to
5

Identical-sized
lead
and
aluminum
cubes
are

suspended
at
different
depths
by
two
wires
in
a
large

body
of
water.
(note:
Pb
>
Al)

17

Seatwork answers

18

Seatwork 1:

The buoyant force that acts on an object submerged in

water is due to

A.

equal water pressures on all sides.

B.

greater water pressure on the bottom than

on the top.

C.

the greater volume of the submerged object

compared with the volume of an equal weight

of water.

D.

whether or not the object is denser than

water.

Seatwork
2
to
5

Identical-sized
lead
and
aluminum
cubes
are

suspended
at
different
depths
by
two
wires
in
a
large

body
of
water.

20

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