Sie sind auf Seite 1von 33

Second level

Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level

Topic Overview---HPB Webinar VIIIDecember 2012


Process Gas Compressor Failure Avoidance
In this Webinar, the presenter explains some compressor issues and maps out
practical remedies that worked in his 50-year professional experience. Remedial or
preventive actions must be taken by operators, technicians, engineers, and
managers. They are our collective audience and the Webinar will reflect an acute
sense of audience awareness.
In essence, Heinz Bloch will highlight things learned to prevent process
compressor failures. His presentation touches on centrifugal, rotary positive
displacement and reciprocating compressors. It discusses missed opportunities to
get to the bottom of compressor failures and highlights steps taken by leading
performers to operate some machines without shutdown for five, eight, and more
years.

First of Two
Compressor
Categories:
Positive
Displacement

Typical Double-Acting Cylinder: Use Syn Lubes

Positive Displacement Compressors Rotary


Screw Types---Dry or Wet Compression Space
Reliability near centrifugal
and better than recip. comp.
Cost is competitive with
centrifugal to 2000+HP
Wet screw design can lower
compression temperatures
Pressure limited to 700+psi
High noise, needs acoustical
treatment
Max power 7000+HP
Close clearances, failures
means high damage

2nd Compressor Category: Dynamic


Guide-vane actuator
linkage

Labyrinth seals

Compressor rotor

Rotor blades

Adjustable guide vanes


Compressor
inlet nozzle

Thrust bearing

Compressor outlet
nozzle

What Is A Centrifugal Compressor ?


Important components:
Rotor ( shaft )
Impellers and diffusers
Thrust & journal
bearings
Seals
Balance piston
Thrust balance line
Coupling
Casing (case)

Centrifugal Compressor Design Principles


A high-speed machine that
compresses gas by
centrifugal force
Gas in 1st stage suction
given high velocity; gas is
led into eye of next stage
The same sequence is
continued to last stage, or to
the discharge nozzle
Interstage exits and reentries may be required.
(Discuss why)

Mechanical Design of Centrifugal Compressors

Q: Horizontal or vertical
split design?
Q: How many stages?
Direction of thrust
Thrust balance drum
location
Thrust bearing location

Horizontal Split Type Centrifugal Compressor


Casing is split parallel
to compressor shaft
Lower pressure type
centrifugal compressor
Primarily used to
compress air, inert
gases, hydrocarbons,
etc.
Typically used below
800 psig/~55 atm.

Design Nuances Must be Observed:


Horizontal Split Type With Down-Nozzle
Nozzles under machine
Machine needs to be elevated
to accommodate piping
Note hydraulically
balanced impeller
orientations
Easy access for maintenance
of rotor, bearings and seals
Lifting top half does not
disturb piping

Horizontal Split Type With Up-Nozzle


Nozzles are at top of
machine
Machine can also be at
ground level
Here, need to remove
piping for maintenance
of rotor, bearings and
seals

Operation of
Rotors and Impellers

Top: High tip speed high


performance rotor
Open inducer type impellers
30,000 cfm (51,000 m3/hr) of
natural gas at about
atmospheric pressure
Best suited for continuous
operation at limited range
Bottom: High flow / double flow
rotor
Closed inducer impellers
Two inducer impellers first
stage, double flow second
Large volume, low pressure
high speed service with
compact design

Rotors and Impellers


Top: Moderate tip speed- Blast furnace applications
Can be upwards of 190,000 cfm
(320,000 m3/hr ), 6 ft ( 2 m )
diameter rotor

Bottom: High head backto-back impellers


Typically high head at low
volumes
12-stages develop 170,000 ft
(510 kNm/kg) of head

Vertical Split Barrel Type Compressor


Higher pressure
Horizontal machines:
difficult to seal split line
Barrel is a cylindrical
section between two
end bells, less force on
joint
Internals differ only in
means of support

Vertical Split Barrel Type: Pros & Cons

Centrifugal
compressor for low-to
moderate pressures
Q 1: How do we know
that its an LP?
Q 2: Is it low flow or
high flow?
Q 3: Note small thrust
bearing size. Why?
Q 4: Why we recommend
staggered vanes in
3rd stage

Lubes for Positive Displacement


Compressors Merit Special Attention
Synthesized hydrocarbons (synthetics) with
appropriate additives used in rotarys compression
space and in reciprocating compressor cylinders
Working with highly qualified lube manufacturers/
formulators is very much recommended
Qualified manufactures/formulators have application
engineers that can explain benefit-to-cost ratios and
user experience background
Turbine oils (high grade mineral oils) in dynamic
compressors---our second category

PLAIN DIESTER CYLINDER LUBRICANT From a


Top Provider With Application Engineering Know-How

Compressor discharge valve


after 6 months service with a
diester

Compressor discharge valve


after 4 months service with
petroleum base lubricant

High Performance Plastics

Selection Factors
Minimizing Capital Costs

Axial

Cent

Recip

Rotary

1. Bare compressor , minimum controls

2. Controls for part load operation

3. Controls for parallel operation

4. Foundation and installation

5. Driver

6. Ability to accommodate side steam on


one frame

7. Ability to accommodate different


services on one frame

Selection Factors
Environmental Considerations

Axial

Cent

Recip

Rotary
Screw

1. Resistance to damage by entrained


solids

2. Resistance to damage by entrained


liquid droplets

3. Capability to deliver oil free gas

4. Ability to limit discharge temperature


by internal cooling

5. Freedom from vibration

6. Freedom from noise

7. Freedom from piping pulsations

8. Ability to compress dirty, wet gas

9. Gas tightness

Selection Factors
Operating Flexibility

Axial

Cent

Recip

Rotary

1. Ability to accommodate multiple


operating points at good efficiency

2. Ability to reduce volume flow at fixed


speed *

3. Ability to reduce volume flow by speed


control *

4. Ability to accommodate reduction in


molecular weight*

5. Ability to accommodate increase in


pressure ratio*

* With changes in speed or using control devices. All other operating


parameters fixed

Selection Factors
Minimize Maintenance Cost

Axial

Cent

Recip

Rotary
Screw

1. Number of items to be routinely


inspected or replaced

2. Ability to operate reliably without


outage

3. Length of time between scheduled


overhauls

Selection Factors
Efficiency, Power Required

Axial

Cent

Recip

Rotary
Screw

1. Efficiency level at design point

2. Flatness of efficiency characteristic at


constant speed, changing volume flow

3. Simplicity of indirect intercooling

Subsets and overlaps exist throughout. These


issues are important enough to be considered
on a case-by-case basis. REMEMBER OUR
TOPIC IS HOW TO AVOID FAILURES

Packing Box Oversights


Note lube entry and vent ports; end cup gasket

Seals are the parts that fail most often


Experience-Based Recommendations for Selecting Compressor Seal
_________________________________________________________________
Application
Service
Inlet Pressure
Seal Type
kPa (psia)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Air Compressor
Atmospheric Air
Any
Labyrinth
Gas Compressor
Non-corrosive
Any
Labyrinth
Non-hazardous
Non-fouling
Low value
Gas Compressor

Non-corrosive or
corrosive
Non-hazardous or
hazardous
Non-fouling or fouling

Gas Compressor

Non-corrosive
Non-hazardous or
Hazardous
Non-fouling
Corrosive
Non-hazardous or
hazardous
Fouling

Gas Compressor

69 to 172
(10 to 20)

to 25,000
(to 3,600)

Any

Labyrinth with
injection and/or
ejection using
gas being
compressed as
motive gas
Gas Seal
Tandem Style
preferred
Oil Seal,
Double Gas Seal

Dry gas seals for centrifugal compressors


Many different unidirectional
(top image) and bi-directional
(lower image) styles are
available, but patterns must
always be optimized
Single, double and tandem seals
in use on thousands of machines
Gas quality (purity, noncondensing) critically important

Why assigning total responsibility to one


commercial entity is critically important

Compressor manufacturer
Original DGS (dry gas seal) manufacturer
Support system designer
Support system manufacturer (fabricator)
On existing compressors, dry gas seal options
include a UK manufacturer capable of fully
rebuilding/testing (or supplying its own) DGS

Specifications of Failure-Prone Mechanical


Components:
Dry Gas Seals
Tandem style typical process
industry
Primary and secondary seal
within single cartridge
In normal operation primary
absorbs total pressure drop to
vent system, secondary acts as
back-up
Primary is on process or high
pressure side, and secondary is on
bearing or low pressure side
O rings are not shown, but will
be at stationary-to-stationary part
interfaces
Courtesy: Dresser Rand Insights V5 #1

Tandem-style dry gas seal (AESSEAL)

So, consult good texts!


Start with reflecting cost
of reliable machines in
cost estimating manual
or budgetary records
MQAMachinery
Quality Assessment
Refers to up-front $$$
investment in defining
qualified bidders, use of
solid specifications,
staying with project
through S/U and beyond