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DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2012-20908-6

THE EUROPEAN

PHYSICAL JOURNAL B

Regular Article

for solid FCC C60 over a wide range of pressures

and temperatures

W. Yang1,a , H. Cheng1 , J.X. Sun2 , H. Liu1 , K. Yang3 , and Y.L. Zheng1

1

2

3

School of Electronic information Engineering, University of Chengdu, Chengdu, Sichuan 610106, P.R. China

Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054, P.R. China

Department of Physics, A ba Teachers College, Chengdu, Sichuan 611741, P.R. China

Received 7 November 2011 / Received in nal form 13 April 2012

c EDP Sciences, Societ`

Published online 12 June 2012

a Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2012

Abstract. As an analytic approximation to the free volume theory (FVT), the analytic mean eld potential

(AMFP) approach is applied to the multi-exponential model solid. The analytic expressions for the equation

of state (EOS) and thermodynamic quantities are derived. The formalism for the case of the doubleexponential (DE) model is applied to the solid fcc C60 . The four potential parameters are determined by

tting the experimental data of cohesive energy, lattice constant and compression curve of solid C60 . The

numerical results calculated show that the Girifalco potential is too hard and gives compression curve

prominently deviated from experiments at high pressure, whereas the DE potential can well describe the

thermo-physical properties of C60 system within wide pressure range. The calculated variation of lattice

constant versus temperature relationship and compression curve for solid C60 by using the DE potential

agree well with experimental data available. Especially the AMFP with DE potential predicted that the

fcc C60 solid is stable up to 2440 K, the spinodal temperature, in good agreement with the result from

molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. The AMFP is a useful approach to consider the anharmonic eects

at high temperature for solid C60 .

1 Introduction

In the past two decades, the structure and properties of

fullerenes have been intensively studied in experimental

and theoretical aspects. As far as the research of thermodynamic properties of fullerites is concerned, the Girifalco

potential [1] has been extensively applied. The properties of fullerenes uid phase have been extensively researched by using computer simulations and model equations of state, respectively. However, for the solid state,

the vast majority of experimental and theoretical work

on pure and doped solid fullerenes (fullerites and fullerides) deals with their magnetic properties and superconductivity [26]. Up to now, just a few works have been

reported for thermodynamic properties [712]. For example, Cheng et al. [7] predicted the phase diagram by using an integral equation approach combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the Girifalco

potential. Abramo group published MD simulation results [8,9]. As for model equations of state, we just found

two works. Girifalco rstly researched thermodynamic

properties of fcc C60 under harmonic Debye-Gr

uneisen

(DG) theory [10]. Zubov et al. [11,12] pointed out that

a

e-mail: yangweiuestc@yahoo.cn

the anharmonicity of the lattice vibrations of the C60 fullerite is strong at T > 700 K. As this temperature is

reached, the main anharmonic terms are no longer small

corrections and must be included. Zubov et al. [11,12]

considered anharmonic modication up to fourth order

by using their unsymmetrized self-consistent eld (CUSF)

approach. Whereas, Shukla et al. [13,14] have shown that

the anharmonic expansion is divergent at high temperature. Although Zubov et al. [11,12] improved the convergence of the CUSF approach by using a self-consistent

procedure and including anharmonic modication up to

fourth order, this may not is enough at higher temperature. For example, the MD simulations [7] by using the

Girifalco potential show that solid fcc C60 is stable up

to about 2300 K. However, the CUSF predicted the stable temperature just is 1916 K. Thus, it is necessary to

use other approaches that can include anharmonic eect

soundly to study the system.

It is well known that Wang et al. [1518] proposed

the analytic mean eld potential (AMFP) method, and

they applied it to many materials. Bhatt et al. [19,20]

further applied the AMFP method to lead and alkali metals, and concluded that in comparison with other theoretical models the AMFP method is computationally simple, physically transparent and reliable in the study of the

Page 2 of 6

thermodynamic properties at high pressures and high temperatures. Recently, Sun et al. [21] proved that the AMFP

method is an analytic approximation of the free volume

theory (FVT). The FVT is a mean eld approximation

to the thermal contribution of atoms to the Helmholtz

energy of crystalline phases. Many authors [2124] have

shown that the FVT can soundly include anharmonic

terms which are important at high temperatures. It is

more valuable to directly use the strict FVT than the

approximate AMFP, in the cases that the analytic equation of state (EOS) can be derived based on the strict

FVT. Nevertheless, in some cases the mean eld integral

and the EOS for the strict FVT are fairly complicated or

cannot be analytically derived. Then it is convenient to

develop simple analytic EOS through the AMFP, whereas

the complete FVT fails. We applied the AMFP method

to solid C60 by the aid of the Girifalco potential. The numerical results agree well with the MD simulations and

are superior to the CUSF of Zubov et al. [11,12]. This

veries that the AMFP method is a convenient approach

to consider the anharmonic eect at high temperatures.

However, the computer simulations have shown that

the Girifalco potential is too hard [9] for describing the

solid-state behavior even at moderate high pressures and

thus leads to serious discrepancies when compared to the

atomistic simulation results, resulting in a poor reproduction of the EOS of real life C60 . Ben-Amotz et al. [25] once

pointed out that in order to describe the thermodynamic

properties of a material in a wide density range by using a

model potential, it is necessary to determine the potential

parameters from experimental data, in particular in the

high-density state. For example, since the parameters in

original Girifalco potential [1,10] were determined mainly

from the experimental data of graphite at low pressure, it

is not surprising that it fails in describing the properties

of fcc C60 at high pressure. For this reason, we think it is

worth seeking other potential which being softer than the

Girifalco potential to study the C60 system. Considering

that the exponential potential [26] can describe properties

of most materials at high pressure, we utilize the following

double-exponential (DE) potential (or generalized Morse

potential) to replace the Girifalco potential.

(s) = 0

m

Aj ej (1s) ,

s = r/r0

(1)

j=1

where r is the radial coordinate, r0 is the equilibrium distance and 0 the well depth. For the DE potential we have

m = 2, and

A1 = 2 /(1 2 )

(2)

A2 = 1 /(1 2 ) .

The two parameters 1 and 2 describe the decay of the

potential versus the radial coordinate r. Then the expression of potential energy (s) involves both a repulsive term

(j = 1) and an attractive term (j = 2). Our calculations

show that the DE potential with m = 2 can describe the

thermodynamic properties of solid fcc C60 well enough,

not necessary to take more terms.

As was pointed out by Girifalco [10] and Zubov

et al. [11,12], in C60 molecule, the atoms are held together by strong chemical bonds while the interactions

among these molecules in the fcc solid arise from van der

Waals-type forces and are much weaker. To a good approximation therefore, the thermal properties of fcc C60

can be treated as the sum of those resulting from intermolecular vibrations and those arising from intramolecular vibrations. The intramolecular vibrations have no effect on the EOS and related properties but are crucial

in specic heats [11,12]. Hence, there is no necessity to

take it into account in the EOS and the related properties. The spatial motions of C60 molecule provide the

dominant contributions to the EOS. In this work, we just

concern the intermolecular contributions, as having been

done by Girifalco [10] and Zubov et al. [11,12]. In Section 2

we derive analytic EOS based on the AMFP approach. In

Section 3 the parameters of the DE potential are determined by tting experimental data of solid C60 . And the

numerical results are presented and analyzed. Section 4

contains our nal remarks.

In terms of the FVT, the free energy can be expressed

as [2124]

u(0)

F

3

= ln 2kT h2 +

ln vf ,

N kT

2

2kT

(3)

constant. u(0) is the potential energy of a molecule, as the

lattice is static, vf is the free volume. The quantity u(0)

can be expressed as follows:

a

Ri

=

=

zi

z i i

zi (i y),

u(0) =

r0

r0

i=0

i=0

i=0

(4)

where Ri = i a is the distance of molecules in the ith shell

with the centre molecule at i = 0. a is the nearest-neighbor

distance. zi and i are structural constants (the values

for the fcc structure have been given in reference [27],

The quantity y is the reduced volume, it is dened in

equation (9). The quantity vf can be expressed as follows:

rm

vf = 4

exp [g (r, V )/kT ] r2 dr.

(5)

0

According to the AMFP method [1518] and the cell theory, the largest displacement rm of the centre molecule

can be approximately taken as the Wigner-Seitz radius

(3a3 /4)1/3 . Then we have rm = (3a3 /4)1/3 in equation (5). Where

is a structure constant; for the fcc struc

ture it is 2. g(r, V ) is the potential energy of a molecule

as it roams from the centre to a distance r. In terms of

the AMFP approach [1518], g(r, V ) can be expressed by

Page 3 of 6

be derived as

r

1

1+

Ec (a + r)

2

a

r

Ec (a r) 2Ec (a) ,

+ 1

a

1

1

Ec (a) = u (0) =

zi (i y).

2

2

g(r, V ) =

(6)

(7)

i=0

vf = 4a3 vf = 4 (V /N ) vf ,

x = r/a,

xm =

(8)

V0 = N (r0 )3 /,

rm

1/3

= (3/4) .

a

(9)

(10)

The reduced free volume vf and its derivatives with respect to temperature and reduced volume can be expressed as

vf =

xm

(11)

vf

T

xm

1

=

exp [g (x, y)/kT ] g (x, y) x2 dx,

kT 0

vf a = T

(12)

vf

y

xm

1

=

exp [g (x, y)/kT ]

kT 0

y

vf b =

have

g (x, y) g (r, V )

1

zi [(1 + x) (i y + i yx)

4

i=0

+ (1 x) (i y i yx) 2 (i y)] ,

(17)

(18)

(19)

i=0

of cell for a solid fcc C60 ). For simplicity, we introduce the

dimensionless reduced free volume vf , the reduced volume

y, and the reduced radial coordinate x as follows:

y F

Pc V

Pf V

PV

=

=

+

,

N kT

3 y N kT

N kT

N kT

Pc V

y

=

u (0) ,

N kT

6kT y

u (0) =

zi i (i y),

y

Z=

(14)

1

2

g (x, y)

zi i (1 + x) (i y + i yx)

y

4

y

Pf V

=1+

vf ,

N kT

3

vf y

vf

U

F

3 u (0)

T

= T

= +

+

N kT

T N kT

2

2kT

vf T

3 u (0) vf a

+

,

= +

2

2kT

vf

(20)

(21)

deduced from free volume.

By using the above equations, all other thermodynamic quantities can be analytically derived. The derivations are straightforward. However, the expressions for the

thermal expansion coecient , compressibility coecient

and isochoric heat capacity CV are redundant; we would

calculate these quantities by using numerical dierentiation instead of the analytic expressions. The compressibility factor Z can be seen as a function of the variables y and

T , Z = Z(y, T ). In terms of the function, the formulas for

the thermal expansion coecient , compressibility coefcient and isochoric heat capacity CV can be reduced

to the following form:

3 y

1 V

=

=

V T P

y T P

y Z 1

Z

Z

+

Z

=

,

(22)

T

T y

3

y T

3 y

Vd y 3

1 V

=

=

=

V P T

y P T

N kT

y Z 1

,

(23)

Z

3

y T

CV

1

U

U

U

=

+T

=

. (24)

Nk

N k T V

N kT

T N kT y

In our calculations, it is found that following the steps of

the numerical dierentiations in equations (22)(24) can

reach stable numerical results, T = 0.00001 T and

y = 0.00001 y.

i=0

+ (1 x)2 (i y i yx) 2 (i y) , (15)

(s) = 0

m

j=1

j Aj ej (1s) .

(16)

In this section we apply above formalism to the solid fcc

C60 . We determined one set of parameters for the DE

potential in equation (1) by tting following experimental data, the cohesive energy 175 kJ/mol at 0 K [11,12],

Page 4 of 6

Table 1. Properties of the fcc phase of C60 : the nearest-neighbor distance a in nm, linear thermal expansion coecient in

105 K1 , the bulk modulus BT in kbar, the heat capacity CV in kJ mol1 K1 . The values in the rst and second lines have

been calculated with the AMFP combining the Girifalco potential (G) and Double-exponential (D) potential, respectively.

T

a

BT

CV

261.4

1.0068

0.9992

1.102

1.445

139.67

73.62

24.16

24.27

G

D

G

D

G

D

G

D

400

1.0084

1.0012

1.167

1.523

127.57

67.78

23.76

23.92

600

1.0108

1.0044

1.278

1.653

110.89

59.71

23.19

23.42

800

1.0136

1.0079

1.417

1.810

95.06

52.01

22.62

22.92

1000

1.0166

1.0117

1.595

2.004

80.01

44.69

22.04

22.42

1200

1.0201

1.0160

1.831

2.251

65.72

37.72

21.44

21.89

4000

3000

Line with circles: Girifalco potential

2000

Line with squares: DE potential

(r) (K)

1000

0

-1000

-2000

-3000

-4000

0.9

1.1

1.2

r (nm)

1.3

1.4

1.5

with circles) with the DE potential (line with squares) proposed in this work.

lattice constant 1.417 nm at 300 K, as well as the compression data at 300 K [2830]. The determined values of

parameters are as follows

1 = 6,

2 = 30,

r0 = 1.0 nm,

0 = 3219 K. (25)

We compare the DE potential with the Girifalco potential [1] for C60 molecules in Figure 1. The gure shows

that the dierence of well depth and equilibrium distance

between the two potentials is fairly small; the curve of

DE potential is more atter, and the repulsion is softer

than that of the Girifalco potential. Considering that the

Girifalco potential has been shown too hard at high pressure [9], at the same time, we hold that the DE potential

is available for describing the solid state behavior even at

moderate high pressures and can give the reproduction of

the EOS of real-life C60 .

The thermodynamic properties calculated at zero pressure and dierent temperatures by using the DE potential

are listed in Table 1. The results of the corresponding thermodynamic quantities from Girifalco potential are also

presented in the table for comparison. The spinodal point

Ts is the temperature satisfying the condition, BT (Ts ) =

0 [11,12]. The system is unstable for temperature above

Ts . For the Girifalco potential, the results correspond to

three case, MD simulations performed by Cheng group [7]

and Abramo group [8] give Ts = 2320 K, the CUSF approach used by Zubov et al. [11] gives Ts = 1916 K, our

1400

1.0241

1.0209

2.161

2.576

52.13

31.09

20.81

21.35

1600

1.0290

1.0266

2.665

3.024

39.20

24.81

20.12

20.77

1800

1.0354

1.0335

3.547

3.691

26.86

18.85

19.35

20.14

2000

1.0445

1.0422

5.638

4.811

14.89

13.19

18.39

19.43

2200

1.0692

1.0544

61.84

7.228

9.97

7.769

16.54

18.57

2440

1.0957

175.46

0.221

16.52

AMFP calculation gives Ts = 2202 K; For the DE potential, our AMFP calculation gives Ts = 2440 K. The value

of Ts given by CUSF approach is lower than MD result

by about 20%. The reason is maybe that the CUSF approach does not consider the aharmonic eect perfectly.

Although it has been claimed that the anharmonic terms

are taken up to fourth order, it is not really valid at

high temperature. In this circumstance, Zubov et al. [11]

merely computed the thermodynamic properties up to

1900 K. However, the values of Ts calculated with the

AMFP combining the Girifalco potential and DE potential, respectively, are in good agreement with MD simulations results. The error is only 5% between ours and

MD simulations results. It implies that our calculations

could be performed up to 2200 K. The results presented

above proved that AMFP approach is reliable method for

fullerene systems and can well represent the anharmonic

eect well at high temperatures. At the same time, we noticed that the Ts of C70 and C84 is 2635 K and 2807 K,

respectively [31,32]. Thus we can obtain the following sequence, Ts (C84 ) > Ts (C70 ) > Ts (C60 ). This means that

the fullerene solids can keep stable at higher temperature

for fullerene with heavier molecules. To check if this rule

is also suitable to extend to larger fullerene molecules, further investigations are necessary to be carried out. Additionally, Table 1 shows that the thermal expansion coecient and the nearest-neighbor distance are the increasing

functions of temperature, whereas the bulk modulus and

the isochoric heat capacity are decreasing function of temperature. And the thermal expansion coecient becomes

divergent and the bulk modulus tends zero near the spinodal temperature.

Figures 26 present the AMFP results of thermodynamic properties of solid fcc C60 calculated by using the

DE potential. For Figures 2 and 3, the available experimental data and the results from the Girifalco potential

have been presented for comparison. Figure 2 shows that

the agreement of the calculated variation of lattice constant versus temperature with experiments [2] is fairly

bad for the case of the Girifalco potential, and satisfactory for the case of the DE potential. Figure 3 shows

that the compression curve for the Girifalco potential is

too hard as compared with experiments [28,29], as having been shown by reference [9], and the DE potential

gives much soft and improved compression curve, when

Page 5 of 6

280

1.48

1.47

1.46

210

Fex /NkT

L (nm)

1.49

1.45

1.44

140

= 2.0 nm-3

70

1.8 nm-3

1.43

1.6 nm

-3

1.4 nm-3

1.42

1.41

200

600

1000

1400

1800

-70

300

2200

1000

versus temperature relationship at zero pressure: upper line,

AMFP results for Girifalco potential; lower line, AMFP results

for the DE potential; Circles, experimental data [2].

1700

2400

T (K)

T (K)

Fig. 5. (Color online) Excess free energy as function of temperature calculated for several densities calculated by using

the AMFP and the DE potential. The symbols represent results for = 2.0 nm3 (squares), 1.8 nm3 (down triangles),

1.6 nm3 (circles), and 1.4 nm3 (up triangles), respectively.

The lines are guidance to the eyes.

250

280

1

200

140

= 2.0 nm-3

U/NkT

P (kbar)

210

150

100

70

50

1.8 nm-3

0

0

1.4

1.4 nm-3

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.1

(nm-3)

calculated by using Girifalco potential (upper line labeled 1),

and the DE potential (lower line labeled 2) with experiments

at 300 K. The symbols refer to experimental data, by Horikawa

et al. in reference [28] (squares), and by Duclos et al. in reference [29] at 200 kbar (circles), 100 kbar (up triangles), and

40 kbar (down triangles), respectively.

3500

3000

AMFP with DE potential

2500

Experimental data [28]

B (kbar)

2000

1500

1000

500

0

1.6 nm

-3

50

100

P (kbar)

150

200

Fig. 4. (Color online) Variation of the isothermal bulk modulus BT versus pressure P calculated in this work at 300 K, and

by using the Girifalco potential (dashed line) and the DE potential (solid line), respectively. The experimental results taken

from Horikawa et al. [28] (cross marks), Duclos et al. [29] (up

triangles), Lundin et al. [30] (open circles).

-70

300

1000

1700

2400

T (K)

Fig. 6. (Color online) The same as for Figure 5, but for internal

energy.

compared with experiments [28,29]. Therefore, the DE potential can give better results than the Girifalco potential

for C60 system even at moderate high pressures and can

give the reproduction of the real behavior of C60 . While

in Figure 3 the density-pressure curve shows discrepancy

with the experimental results, especially above 57 GPa.

This can be understood by the fact that in experiment

part of C60 s may start to polymerize, i.e., form random

covalent bonding with its neighbors above 57 GPa, and

thus lose their molecular character. This is dierent from

the theoretic model in this work, as in the theoretic model

the C60 is always supposed to keep molecular character in

a fcc structure, and no phase transition or polymerization

was considered. So the discrepancy between the theory

and the experiment is reasonably expected. Especially, at

higher pressure, the discrepancy is larger, because the covalent bonding is more serious and the deformation or even

amorphization of C60 s possibly appear. Such eect is more

obvious in the case of the comparison for bulk modulus

between the theoretic calculations and the experimental

data. While for C84 reported in reference [32], the pressure

VS density curve agrees well with the experimental results

even up to 10 GPa, because C84 doesnt polymerize below

Page 6 of 6

the whole studied pressure range. Figure 4 gives the variation of isothermal bulk modulus BT versus pressure p of

solid fcc C60 at 300 K. In this gure, it is notable that the

experimental data for the pressure dependence of BT are

variant for dierent experiments [2830]. The gure shows

that BT almost is a linearly increasing function of pressure, but the slope is too large in the case of the Girifalco

potential as compared with the experimental results. The

dierence of BT is small at low pressure and increases at

high pressure. The value of BT from the DE potential at

high pressure is far smaller than that from the Girifalco

potential, and is qualitatively in agreement with the experimental results. This implies the DE potential for fcc

C60 is far softer than the Girifalco potential. Considering

the phase properties and physics-chemical properties are

sensitive to the potential form, evident dierence would

exist between the soft and hard potentials. And we think

that in order to describe physical properties of materials

with heavy molecular weight at high-pressure conditions,

the selection for potential of molecules is very important.

In Figures 5 and 6, the reduced excess free energy

Fex /N kT and reduced internal energy U/N kT versus

temperature relationships are plotted at four densities.

The reduced excess free energy is dened as follows

Fex

F

3

=

+ ln 2 2 kT /h2 .

(26)

N kT

N kT

2

The two gures show that both Fex /N kT and U/N kT

are increasing functions of temperature at low densities,

and are decreasing functions of temperature at high densities. Both quantities have the convergence tendency at

high temperatures. U/N kT tends to a constant 3/2, yet

Fex /N kT does not tend to a constant but to a weakly

density dependent value.

4 Conclusions

In summary, the Helmholtz energy, internal energy and

EOS for the multiple-exponential model solid have been

analytically derived by using the AMFP approach. The

analytic method is applied to the solid fcc C60 . The parameters of DE potential for C60 molecules are determined

by tting the experimental data of cohesive energy, lattice

constant and compression curve of solid C60 at ambient

temperature. The dierence of equilibrium distance and

well depth for C60 molecules between the DE potential

and the Girifalco potential is small; but the repulsion of

the DE potential is softer than that of the Girifalco potential. The calculated compression curve and the variation

of lattice constant versus temperature for solid C60 agree

well with experimental data available. Moreover, the results presented in this paper verify that the AMFP is a

useful approach to consider the anharmonic eects at high

temperature.

This work was supported by the Fund of Key Project of

Chengdu University under Grant No. 2011XJZ07, by the Scientic Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Department

of Education under Grant Nos. 11ZA298 and 10ZC059, by the

Fund of the Horizontal Subject No. 201102101.

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