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# 20140895

Date: 2014/9/26
Co-worker: Jaeho Han

A Volumetric Analysis
Introduction:
Experimental Detail:
This experiment is mainly about volumetric analysis which can be used to determine
unknown concentration of a certain solution. For volumetric analysis, titration process
is crucial. Titration refers to the process that a basic solution titrate an acidic solution
so that it can determine equilibrium point where the acid becomes basic. This point
can be known by using an indicator, Phenolphthalein. It changes its color to pink
when the solution becomes basic. The goal of this experiment is to find out actual
concentration of an alkaline solution, NaOH, through titration process with acidic
solutions, KHP, with known concentration. After knowing the concentration of NaOH,
it can be used to figure out unknown concentration of an acidic solution, HCl. These
unknown concentration values can be calculated through simple steps of mathematics.

Results:
Experiment A
Data:
Table 1: Raw data for the experiment A, which is determining unknown
concentration of NaOH
Initial Buret Reading of NaOH (mL) Final Buret Reading of NaOH (mL)
Trial 1
0
14.5
Trial 2
13.4
28
Trial 3
28
42.4
2.062 g of KHP is used to make approximately 0.01 mol of KHP solution.

## Example calculation for calculating concentration of a solution is shown below.

M = CV
C=

M m 1 2.062
1
=
=

= 0.101 mol / L
V Mr V 204.44 0.100

Through the same step, concentration of NaOH can also be calculated later.

## Table 2: The Amount of NaOH Solution Used

The Amount of NaOH Used (mL)
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3

14.5
14.6
14.4

## * Example calculation will be carried out with the data of trial 1

For the titration, KHP acid sample of 15 mL is taken. Therefore, the number of moles
of 15 mL KHP acid is M = CV = 0.101 0.0145 = 0.00146 mol
Since ratio of the reaction is one to one, one mole of KHP solution reacts with one
mole of NaOH solution.
Therefore, NaOH solution of 0.00146 mol is used for the titration.
Molar concentration of NaOH:
The amount of NaOH solution used for the titration is calculated above.

C=

M 0.00146
=
= 0.101 mol / L
V
0.0145

## Table 3: Molar concentration of NaOH solution

Molar Concentration (mol/L)
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3

0.101
0.100
0.101

Average =

## 0.101+ 0.100 + 0.101

= 0.10066667 0.101 mol / L
3

## Standard deviation can be calculated as shown below:

d12 + d22 +... + dn2
(0.101 0.101)2 + (0.100 0.101)2 + (0.101 0.101)2
=
= 5.0 10 7
(n 1)
2

## Relative standard deviation can be calculated as shown below:

s
100 = 4.95 10 4%
x

Experiment B
In this experiment, final goal is to find out unknown concentration of HCl solution.
The process is same compared to the previous experiment, but calculation for
concentration of HCl solution is required, instead of NaOH solution.
For this calculation, also values of trial 1 will be used.
Table 4: Raw data for the experiment A, which is determining unknown
concentration of NaOH
NaOH (mL)
Trial 1
Trial 2

NaOH (mL)
0
49.1
0
48.2

Since ratio of the reaction is one to one, one mole of HCl solution reacts with one
mole of NaOH solution.
Number of moles of the used NaOH solution is
M = CV = 0.101 0.0491 = 0.00496 mol

## Table 5: Number of moles of HCl Solution

Number of moles of HCl Solution (mol)
Trial 1
Trial 2

0.00496
0.00487

For the titration, HCl acid sample of 25 mL is taken. Therefore, the number of moles
of 25 mL HCl acid is 0.00496 mol
Molar concentration of HCl is C =

M 0.00496
=
= 0.198 mol / L
V
0.025

## Table 6: Molar Concentration of HCl Solution

Molar Concentration of HCl Solution (mol/L)
Trial 1
Trial 2

0.198
0.195

Average =

0.198 + 0.195
= 0.197 mol / L
2

## Standard Deviation can be calculated as shown below:

d12 + d22 +... + dn2
(0.198 0.197)2 + (0.195 0.197)2
=
= 2.5 10 6
(n 1)
2

## Relative standard deviation can be calculated as shown below:

s
100 = 1.310 3%
x

Discussion:
As mentioned above, purpose of this experiment is to find out concentration of
unknown solutions through titration process. Through titration of NaOH solution with
KHP solution, it has been found out that molar concentration of NaOH solution is

0.101 mol. Now, the same NaOH solution is used through the same steps to find out
unknown concentration of HCl. It is calculated as 0.197 mol.
To comment on my results, my experiment went through accurately. This means that
there was no significant systematic error or mistakes during the experiment procedure.
To express this fact numerically, percentage error between my result and the
theoretical value, which is 0.1 mol, is (0.101-0.100) 0.100 100 = 1%. Since
laboratory environment is not perfect, there are always uncertainties and inevitable
error due to apparatus. Therefore, 1% of percentage error is acceptable. Even though
percentage error is small, there were some uncertainties during the experiment. These
errors could be the reason for 1% percentage deviation from the theoretical value. My
experimental value for the concentration of NaOH solution is higher than the
theoretical value. This could be because of excessive amount of NaOH solution added
to KHP solution. In other words, after observing color change to pink, additional
NaOH solution could have been introduced to the acid. This would make the
concentration value higher than it should be.
Reference:
J.A.Beran, Laboratory manual for principles of general chemistry, Wiley, 2011

1. Too high. This would raise the molar concentration of KHP acid since it would
raise both volume and mass of KHP. Therefore, the number of moles of KHP acid
would also increase. Because of one to one ratio, the number of moles of NaOH
solution is higher than it should be. Therefore, reported as too high.
2. Unaffected. Because the volume of water does not change and will not affect mole
of the solution or volume of the solution. This means that concentration would stay
the same.
3. Too low. The reported amount of NaOH is actually higher than the amount of
solution actually introduced to the acid. Some are blocked by the error. Since volume
increases, concentration would be lower than expected.